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A Yamaha YFG-812 II bassoon
(Double-reeded aerophone with keys)
|Developed||Early 18th century|
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The bassoon is a woodwind instrument in the double reed family that typically plays music written in the bass and tenor clefs, and occasionally the treble. Appearing in its modern form in the 19th century, the bassoon figures prominently in orchestral, concert band, and chamber music literature. The bassoon is a non-transposing instrument known for its distinctive tone colour, wide range, variety of character and agility. Someone who plays the bassoon is called a bassoonist.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Range
- 3 Construction
- 4 Development
- 5 Use in ensembles
- 6 Technique
- 7 Reeds and reed construction
- 8 Notable bassoon repertoire
- 9 Notable bassoon makers
- 10 Notable bassoonists
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 Sources
- 14 Further reading
- 15 External links
The word bassoon comes from French basson and from Italian bassone (basso with the augmentative suffix -one). However, the Italian name for the same instrument is fagotto, in Spanish and Romanian it is fagot, and in German fagott. Fagot is an Old French word meaning a bundle of sticks.
- (A1) B♭1–C5 (D5–G5)
The range of the bassoon begins at B♭1 (the first one below the bass staff) and extends upward over three octaves, roughly to the G above the treble staff (G5). Higher notes are possible but difficult to produce, and rarely called for: orchestral and concert band parts rarely go higher than C5 or D5. Even Stravinsky's famously difficult opening solo in The Rite of Spring only ascends to D5.
A1 is possible with a special extension to the instrument—see "Extended techniques" below.
The bassoon disassembles into six main pieces, including the reed. The bell (6), extending upward; the bass joint (or long joint) (5), connecting the bell and the boot; the boot (or butt) (4), at the bottom of the instrument and folding over on itself; the wing joint (or tenor joint) (3), which extends from boot to bocal; and the bocal (or crook) (2), a crooked metal tube that attaches the wing joint to a reed (1) (listen (help·info)). Bassoons are double reed instruments like the oboe.
A modern beginner's bassoon is generally made of maple, with medium-hardness types such as sycamore maple and sugar maple preferred. Less-expensive models are also made of materials such as polypropylene and ebonite, primarily for student and outdoor use; metal bassoons were made in the past but have not been produced by any major manufacturer since 1889. The bore of the bassoon is conical, like that of the oboe and the saxophone, and the two adjoining bores of the boot joint are connected at the bottom of the instrument with a U-shaped metal connector. Both bore and tone holes are precision-machined, and each instrument is finished by hand for proper tuning. The walls of the bassoon are thicker at various points along the bore; here, the tone holes are drilled at an angle to the axis of the bore, which reduces the distance between the holes on the exterior. This ensures coverage by the fingers of the average adult hand. Wooden instruments are lined with hard rubber along the interior of the wing and boot joints to prevent damage from moisture; wooden instruments are also stained and varnished. The end of the bell is usually fitted with a ring, either of metal, plastic or ivory. The joints between sections consist of a tenon fitting into a socket; the tenons are wrapped in either cork or string as a seal against air leaks. The bocal connects the reed to the rest of the instrument and is inserted into a socket at the top of the wing joint. Bocals come in many different lengths and styles, depending on the desired tuning and playing characteristics.
Folded upon itself, the bassoon stands 1.34 m (4 ft 5 in) tall, but the total sounding length is 2.54 m (8 ft 4 in). Playing is facilitated by doubling the tube back on itself and by closing the distance between the widely spaced holes with a complex system of key work, which extends throughout nearly the entire length of the instrument. There are also short-reach bassoons made for the benefit of young or petite players.
Music historians generally consider the dulcian to be the forerunner of the modern bassoon, as the two instruments share many characteristics: a double reed fitted to a metal crook, obliquely drilled tone holes and a conical bore that doubles back on itself. The origins of the dulcian are obscure, but by the mid-16th century it was available in as many as eight different sizes, from soprano to great bass. A full consort of dulcians was a rarity; its primary function seems to have been to provide the bass in the typical wind band of the time, either loud (shawms) or soft (recorders), indicating a remarkable ability to vary dynamics to suit the need. Otherwise, dulcian technique was rather primitive, with eight finger holes and two keys, indicating that it could play in only a limited number of key signatures.
The dulcian came to be known as fagotto in Italy. However, the usual etymology that equates fagotto with "bundle of sticks" is somewhat misleading, as the latter term did not come into general use until later. Some think it may resemble the Roman Fasces, a standard of bound sticks with an ax. A further discrepancy lies in the fact that the dulcian was carved out of a single block of wood—in other words, a single "stick" and not a bundle.
Circumstantial evidence indicates that the baroque bassoon was a newly invented instrument, rather than a simple modification of the old dulcian. The dulcian was not immediately supplanted, but continued to be used well into the 18th century by Bach and others. The man most likely responsible for developing the true bassoon was Martin Hotteterre (d.1712), who may also have invented the three-piece flûte traversière (transverse flute) and the hautbois (baroque oboe). Some historians believe that sometime in the 1650s, Hotteterre conceived the bassoon in four sections (bell, bass joint, boot and wing joint), an arrangement that allowed greater accuracy in machining the bore compared to the one-piece dulcian. He also extended the compass down to B♭ by adding two keys. An alternate view maintains Hotteterre was one of several craftsmen responsible for the development of the early bassoon. These may have included additional members of the Hotteterre family, as well as other French makers active around the same time. No original French bassoon from this period survives, but if it did, it would most likely resemble the earliest extant bassoons of Johann Christoph Denner and Richard Haka from the 1680s. Sometime around 1700, a fourth key (G♯) was added, and it was for this type of instrument that composers such as Antonio Vivaldi, Bach, and Georg Philipp Telemann wrote their demanding music. A fifth key, for the low E♭, was added during the first half of the 18th century. Notable makers of the 4-key and 5-key baroque bassoon include J.H. Eichentopf (c. 1678–1769), J. Poerschmann (1680–1757), Thomas Stanesby, Jr. (1668–1734), G.H. Scherer (1703–1778), and Prudent Thieriot (1732–1786).
Increasing demands on capabilities of instruments and players in the 19th century—particularly larger concert halls requiring greater volume and the rise of virtuoso composer-performers—spurred further refinement. Increased sophistication, both in manufacturing techniques and acoustical knowledge, made possible great improvements in the instrument's playability.
The modern bassoon exists in two distinct primary forms, the Buffet system and the Heckel system. Most of the world plays the Heckel system, while the Buffet system is primarily played in France, Belgium, and parts of Latin America. A number of other types of bassoons have been constructed by various instrument makers, such as the rare Galandronome.
Heckel (German) system
The design of the modern bassoon owes a great deal to the performer, teacher, and composer Carl Almenräder. Assisted by the German acoustic researcher Gottfried Weber, he developed the 17-key bassoon with a range spanning four octaves. Almenräder's improvements to the bassoon began with an 1823 treatise describing ways of improving intonation, response, and technical ease of playing by augmenting and rearranging the keywork. Subsequent articles further developed his ideas. His employment at Schott gave him the freedom to construct and test instruments according to these new designs, and he published the results in Caecilia, Schott's house journal. Almenräder continued publishing and building instruments until his death in 1846, and Ludwig van Beethoven himself requested one of the newly made instruments after hearing of the papers. In 1831, Almenräder left Schott to start his own factory with a partner, Johann Adam Heckel.
Heckel and two generations of descendants continued to refine the bassoon, and their instruments became the standard, with other makers following. Because of their superior singing tone quality (an improvement upon one of the main drawbacks of the Almenräder instruments), the Heckel instruments competed for prominence with the reformed Wiener system, a Boehm-style bassoon, and a completely keyed instrument devised by Charles-Joseph Sax, father of Adolphe Sax. F.W. Kruspe implemented a latecomer attempt in 1893 to reform the fingering system, but it failed to catch on. Other attempts to improve the instrument included a 24-keyed model and a single-reed mouthpiece, but both these had adverse effects on tone and were abandoned.
Coming into the 20th century, the Heckel-style German model of bassoon dominated the field. Heckel himself had made over 1,100 instruments by the turn of the 20th century (serial numbers begin at 3,000), and the British makers' instruments were no longer desirable for the changing pitch requirements of the symphony orchestra, remaining primarily in military band use.
Except for a brief 1940s wartime conversion to ball bearing manufacture, the Heckel concern has produced instruments continuously to the present day. Heckel bassoons are considered by many to be the best, although a range of Heckel-style instruments is available from several other manufacturers, all with slightly different playing characteristics.
Because its mechanism is primitive compared to most modern woodwinds, makers have occasionally attempted to "reinvent" the bassoon. In the 1960s, Giles Brindley began to develop what he called the "logical bassoon," which aimed to improve intonation and evenness of tone through use of an electrically activated mechanism, making possible key combinations too complex for the human hand to manage. Brindley's logical bassoon was never marketed.
Buffet (French) system
The Buffet system bassoon achieved its basic acoustical properties somewhat earlier than the Heckel. Thereafter, it continued to develop in a more conservative manner. While the early history of the Heckel bassoon included a complete overhaul of the instrument in both acoustics and key work, the development of the Buffet system consisted primarily of incremental improvements to the key work. This minimalist approach of the Buffet deprived it of improved consistency of intonation, ease of operation, and increased power, which is found in Heckel bassoons, but the Buffet is considered by some to have a more vocal and expressive quality. The conductor John Foulds lamented in 1934 the dominance of the Heckel-style bassoon, considering them too homogeneous in sound with the horn. The modern Buffet system has 22 keys with its range being about the same as the Heckel.
Compared to the Heckel bassoon, Buffet system bassoons have a narrower bore and simpler mechanism, requiring different fingerings for many notes. Switching between Heckel and Buffet requires extensive retraining. Buffet instruments are known for a reedier sound and greater facility in the upper registers, reaching e'' and f'' with far greater ease and less air resistance. French woodwind instruments' tone in general exhibits a certain amount of "edge," with more of a vocal quality than is usual elsewhere, and the Buffet bassoon is no exception. This type of sound can be beneficial in music by French composers, but has drawn criticism for being too intrusive. As with all bassoons, the tone varies considerably, depending on individual instrument and performer. In the hands of a lesser player, the Heckel bassoon can sound flat and woody, but good players succeed in producing a vibrant, singing tone. Conversely, a poorly played Buffet can sound buzzy and nasal, but good players succeed in producing a warm, expressive sound, different from—but not inferior to—the Heckel.
Though the United Kingdom once favored the French system, Buffet-system instruments are no longer made there and the last prominent British player of the French system retired in the 1980s. However, with continued use in some regions and its distinctive tone, the Buffet continues to have a place in modern bassoon playing, particularly in France, where it originated. Buffet-model bassoons are currently made in Paris by Buffet Crampon and the atelier Ducasse (Romainville, France). The Selmer Company stopped fabrication of French system bassoons around the year 2012. Some players, for example the late Gerald Corey in Canada, have learned to play both types and will alternate between them depending on the repertoire.
Use in ensembles
Orchestras first used the bassoon to reinforce the bass line, and as the bass of the double reed choir (oboes and taille). Baroque composer Jean-Baptiste Lully and his Les Petits Violons included oboes and bassoons along with the strings in the 16-piece (later 21-piece) ensemble, as one of the first orchestras to include the newly invented double reeds. Antonio Cesti included a bassoon in his 1668 opera Il pomo d'oro (The Golden Apple). However, use of bassoons in concert orchestras was sporadic until the late 17th century when double reeds began to make their way into standard instrumentation. This was largely due to the spread of the hautbois to countries outside France. Increasing use of the bassoon as a basso continuo instrument meant that it began to be included in opera orchestras, first in France and later in Italy, Germany and England. Meanwhile, composers such as Joseph Bodin de Boismortier, Michel Corrette, Johann Ernst Galliard, Jan Dismas Zelenka, Johann Friedrich Fasch and Telemann wrote demanding solo and ensemble music for the instrument. Antonio Vivaldi brought the bassoon to prominence by featuring it in 37 concerti for the instrument.
By the mid-18th century, the bassoon's function in the orchestra was still mostly limited to that of a continuo instrument—since scores often made no specific mention of the bassoon, its use was implied, particularly if there were parts for oboes or other winds. Beginning in the early Rococo era, composers such as Joseph Haydn, Michael Haydn, Johann Christian Bach, Giovanni Battista Sammartini and Johann Stamitz included parts that exploited the bassoon for its unique color, rather than for its perfunctory ability to double the bass line. Orchestral works with fully independent parts for the bassoon would not become commonplace until the Classical era. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's Jupiter symphony is a prime example, with its famous bassoon solos in the first movement. The bassoons were generally paired, as in current practice, though the famed Mannheim orchestra boasted four.
Another important use of the bassoon during the Classical era was in the Harmonie, a chamber ensemble consisting of pairs of oboes, horns and bassoons; later, two clarinets would be added to form an octet. The Harmonie was an ensemble maintained by German and Austrian noblemen for private music-making, and was a cost-effective alternative to a full orchestra. Haydn, Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven and Franz Krommer all wrote considerable amounts of music for the Harmonie.
The modern symphony orchestra typically calls for two bassoons, often with a third playing the contrabassoon. Some works call for four or more players. The first player is frequently called upon to perform solo passages. The bassoon's distinctive tone suits it for both plaintive, lyrical solos such as Maurice Ravel's Boléro and more comical ones, such as the grandfather's theme in Peter and the Wolf. Its agility suits it for passages such as the famous running line (doubled in the violas and cellos) in the overture to The Marriage of Figaro. In addition to its solo role, the bassoon is an effective bass to a woodwind choir, a bass line along with the cellos and double basses, and harmonic support along with the French horns.
A wind ensemble will usually also include two bassoons and sometimes contrabassoon, each with independent parts; other types of concert wind ensembles will often have larger sections, with many players on each of first or second parts; in simpler arrangements there will be only one bassoon part and no contrabassoon. The bassoon's role in the concert band is similar to its role in the orchestra, though when scoring is thick it often cannot be heard above the brass instruments also in its range. La Fiesta Mexicana, by H. Owen Reed, features the instrument prominently, as does the transcription of Malcolm Arnold's Four Scottish Dances, which has become a staple of the concert band repertoire.
The bassoon is part of the standard wind quintet instrumentation, along with the flute, oboe, clarinet, and horn; it is also frequently combined in various ways with other woodwinds. Richard Strauss's "Duet-Concertino" pairs it with the clarinet as concertante instruments, with string orchestra in support. An ensemble known as the "reed quintet" also makes use of the bassoon. A reed quintet is made up of an oboe, clarinet, saxophone, bass clarinet, and bassoon.
The bassoon quartet has also gained favor in recent times. The bassoon's wide range and variety of tone colors make it well suited to grouping in a like-instrument ensemble. Peter Schickele's "Last Tango in Bayreuth" (after themes from Tristan und Isolde) is a popular work; Schickele's fictional alter ego P. D. Q. Bach exploits the more humorous aspects with his quartet "Lip My Reeds," which at one point calls for players to perform on the reed alone. It also calls for a low A at the very end of the prelude section in the fourth bassoon part. It is written so that the first bassoon does not play; instead, the player's role is to place an extension in the bell of the fourth bassoon so that the note can be played.
The bassoon is infrequently used as a jazz instrument and rarely seen in a jazz ensemble. It first began appearing in the 1920s, including specific calls for its use in Paul Whiteman's group, the unusual octets of Alec Wilder, and a few other session appearances. The next few decades saw the instrument used only sporadically, as symphonic jazz fell out of favor, but the 1960s saw artists such as Yusef Lateef and Chick Corea incorporate bassoon into their recordings. Lateef's diverse and eclectic instrumentation saw the bassoon as a natural addition (see, e.g., The Centaur and the Phoenix (1960) which features bassoon as part of a 6-man horn section, including a few solos) while Corea employed the bassoon in combination with flautist Hubert Laws.
More recently, Illinois Jacquet, Ray Pizzi, Frank Tiberi, and Marshall Allen have both doubled on bassoon in addition to their saxophone performances. Bassoonist Karen Borca, a performer of free jazz, is one of the few jazz musicians to play only bassoon; Michael Rabinowitz, the Spanish bassoonist Javier Abad, and James Lassen, an American resident in Bergen, Norway, are others. Katherine Young plays the bassoon in the ensembles of Anthony Braxton. Lindsay Cooper, Paul Hanson, the Brazilian bassoonist Alexandre Silvério, Trent Jacobs and Daniel Smith are also currently using the bassoon in jazz. French bassoonists Jean-Jacques Decreux and Alexandre Ouzounoff have both recorded jazz, exploiting the flexibility of the Buffet system instrument to good effect.
The bassoon is even rarer as a regular member of rock bands. However, several 1960s pop music hits feature the bassoon, including "The Tears of a Clown" by Smokey Robinson and the Miracles (the bassoonist was Charles R. Sirard), "Jennifer Juniper" by Donovan, "The Turtles" "Happy Together"(third verse,overdub), "59th Street Bridge Song" by Harpers Bizarre, and the oompah bassoon underlying The New Vaudeville Band's "Winchester Cathedral". From 1974 to 1978, the bassoon was played by Lindsay Cooper in the British avant-garde band Henry Cow. In the 1970s it was played, in the British medieval/progressive rock band Gryphon, by Brian Gulland, as well as by the American band Ambrosia, where it was played by drummer Burleigh Drummond. The Belgian Rock in Opposition-band Univers Zero is also known for its use of the bassoon.
In the 1990s, Madonna Wayne Gacy provided bassoon for the alternative metal band Marilyn Manson as did Aimee DeFoe, in what is self-described as "grouchily lilting garage bassoon" in the indie-rock band Blogurt from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. More recently, These New Puritans's 2010 album Hidden makes heavy use of the instrument throughout; their principal songwriter, Jack Barnett, claimed repeatedly to be "writing a lot of music for bassoon" in the run-up to its recording. In early 2011, American hip-hop artist Kanye West updated his Twitter account to inform followers that he recently added the bassoon to a yet unnamed song.
The rock band Better Than Ezra took their name from a passage in Ernest Hemingway's A Moveable Feast in which the author comments that listening to an annoyingly talkative person is still "better than Ezra learning how to play the bassoon," referring to Ezra Pound.
In 2016, the bassoon was featured on the album Gang Signs and Prayers by UK ”grime” artist Stormzy. Played by UK bassoonist Louise Watson, the bassoon is heard in the tracks "Cold" and "Mr Skeng" as a compliment to the electronic synthesizer bass lines typically found in this genre.
A collection of samples demonstrating the bassoon's range, abilities, and tone.
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The bassoon is held diagonally in front of the player, but unlike the flute, oboe and clarinet, it cannot be easily supported by the player's hands alone. Some means of additional support is usually required; the most common ones are a seat strap attached to the base of the boot joint, which is laid across the chair seat prior to sitting down, or a neck strap or shoulder harness attached to the top of the boot joint. Occasionally a spike similar to those used for the cello or the bass clarinet is attached to the bottom of the boot joint and rests on the floor. It is possible to play while standing up if the player uses a neck strap or similar harness, or if the seat strap is tied to the belt. Sometimes a device called a balance hanger is used when playing in a standing position. This is installed between the instrument and the neck strap, and shifts the point of support closer to the center of gravity, adjusting the distribution of weight between the two hands.
The bassoon is played with both hands in a stationary position, the left above the right, with five main finger holes on the front of the instrument (nearest the audience) plus a sixth that is activated by an open-standing key. Five additional keys on the front are controlled by the little fingers of each hand. The back of the instrument (nearest the player) has twelve or more keys to be controlled by the thumbs, the exact number varying depending on model.
To stabilize the right hand, many bassoonists use an adjustable comma-shaped apparatus called a "crutch," or a hand rest, which mounts to the boot joint. The crutch is secured with a thumb screw, which also allows the distance that it protrudes from the bassoon to be adjusted. Players rest the curve of the right hand where the thumb joins the palm against the crutch. The crutch also keeps the right hand from tiring and enables the player to keep the finger pads flat on the finger holes and keys.
An aspect of bassoon technique not found on any other woodwind is called flicking. It involves the left hand thumb momentarily pressing, or 'flicking' the high A, C and D keys at the beginning of certain notes in the middle octave to achieve a clean slur from a lower note. This eliminates cracking, or brief multiphonics that happens without the use of this technique. Flicking is not done by 100% of bassoonists, some omit it or vent instead (see below).
The alternative method is "venting", which requires that the register key be used as part of the full fingering as opposed to being open momentarily at the start of the note. This is sometimes called the "European Style."
While flicking is used to slur up to higher notes, the whisper key is used for lower notes. From the A♭ right below middle C and lower, the whisper key is pressed with the left thumb and held for the duration of the note. This prevents cracking, as low notes can sometimes crack into a higher octave. Both flicking and using the whisper key is especially important to ensure notes speak properly during slurring between high and low registers.
While bassoons are usually critically tuned at the factory, the player nonetheless has a great degree of flexibility of pitch control through the use of breath support, embouchure, and reed profile. Players can also use alternate fingerings to adjust the pitch of many notes. Similar to other woodwind instruments, the length of the bassoon can be increased to lower pitch or decreased to raise pitch. On the bassoon, this is done preferably by changing the bocal to one of a different length, (lengths are denoted by a number on the bocal, usually starting at 0 for the shortest length, and 3 for the longest, but there are some manufacturers who will use other numbers) but it is possible to push the bocal in or out to adjust the pitch.
The bassoon embouchure is a very important aspect of producing a full, round, and dark bassoon tone. The bassoon embouchure is made by opening one's mouth, rolling lips inward to cover the teeth, and then dropping the jaw down as in a yawning motion (without actually yawning or opening the mouth). Both upper and lower teeth should be covered by the lips in order to protect the reed and control applied pressure. The reed is then placed in the mouth, with the lips and facial muscles maintaining an airtight seal around the reed. The upper lip will be farther forward on the reed than the lower lip, as in an "overbite" of the upper jaw. As with other orchestral double reeds, embouchure must be adjusted constantly for good intonation; this is achieved mainly by adjustment of lower jaw pressure.
The left thumb alone operates nine keys: B♭1, B1, C1, D1, D4, C4 (also B4), two keys when combined create A4, and the whisper key. The whisper key should be held down for notes between and including F1 and G♯2 and certain other notes. Additional notes can be created with the left thumb keys. The D1 and bottom key above the whisper key on the tenor joint (C♯ key) together create both C♯2 and C♯3. The same bottom tenor-joint key is also used, with additional fingering, to create E4 and F4. D4 and C4 together create C♯4. When the two keys on the tenor joint to create A4 are used with slightly altered fingering on the boot joint, B♭4 is created. The whisper key may also be used throughout the instrument's register, along with other fingerings, to produce either a more muted or more piercing sound.
The right thumb operates four keys. The uppermost key is used to produce B♭2 and B♭3, and is used in B4, C4, D4, F4, and E♭4. The large circular key, otherwise known as the "pancake key", is held down for all the lowest notes from E1 down to B♭1. It is also used, like the whisper key, in additional fingerings for muting the sound. For example, in Ravel's "Boléro", the bassoon is asked to play the ostinato on G4. This is easy to perform with the normal fingering for G4, but Ravel directs that the player should also depress the E1 key (pancake key) to mute the sound. The next key operated by the right thumb is known as the "spatula key": its primary use is to produce F♯1 and F♯2. The lowermost key is used less often: it is used to produce A♭1 (G♯1) and A♭2 (G♯2), when the tone may be improved by combining this with the backmost key E♭1 of the right hand little finger: this is most advantageous in pieces like Dukas's "The Sorcerer's Apprentice".
The four fingers of the left hand can each be used in at least two different positions, three in the case of the index finger. The key normally operated by this finger is primarily used for E4. (Rarely it can be used as a trill key.) This key has a small hole drilled into it. The player can lift the finger completely off the key, or press the key down, closing the hole. A third possibility is to slide the finger down, so the key remains closed, but the hole is open. The middle finger typically stays on the centre hole on the tenor joint. It can also move to a lever used for E♭4 and a rarely-used trill key. The ring finger operates, on most models, one key. Some models, like a Polisi Artist bassoon, have two assignments. The upper assignment is used for alternate fingerings in the alto register. The smallest finger operates two side keys on the bass joint. The lower key is typically used for C♯1. The upper key is used for E♭1, E3, F3, F♯3, A4, B♭4, B4, C4, C♯4, and D4.
The four fingers of the right hand have at least one assignment each. The index finger stays over one hole, except that when E♭4 is played a side key at the top of the boot is used. The middle finger remains stationary over the hole with a ring around it, and this ring and other pads are lifted when the smallest finger on the right hand pushes a lever. The ring finger typically remains stationary on the lower ring-finger key. However, the upper ring-finger key can be used, typically for B♭2 and B♭3, in place of the top thumb key on the front of the boot joint. The smallest finger operates three keys. The backmost one, closest to the bassoonist, is held down throughout most of the bass register. The key is not used after F1 is played. F♯2 is created with this key, as well as G4, B♭4, B4, and C4. The lowest key for the smallest finger on the right hand is primarily used for A♭1 (G♯1) and A♭2 (G♯2) but can be used E♭4, and F4. The frontmost key is used with the bottom thumb key on the boot joint to create A♭2 and A♭3.
Many extended techniques can be performed on the bassoon, such as multiphonics, flutter-tonguing, circular breathing, double tonguing, and harmonics. In the case of the bassoon, flutter-tonguing may be accomplished by "gargling" in the back of the throat as well as by the conventional method of rolling Rs. Multiphonics on the bassoon can be achieved by using particular alternative fingerings.
Also, using certain fingerings, notes may be produced on the instrument that sound lower pitches than the actual range of the instrument. These "impossible notes" tend to sound very gravelly and out of tune, but technically sound below the low B♭. Alternatively, lower notes can be produced by inserting a small paper or rubber tube into the end of the bell, which converts the lower B♭ into a lower note such as an A natural; this lowers the pitch of the instrument, but has the positive effect of bringing the lowest register (which is typically quite sharp) into tune. A notable piece that calls for the use of a low A bell is Carl Nielsen's Wind Quintet, op. 43, which includes an optional low A for the final cadence of the work. Bassoonists sometimes use the end bell segment of an English horn or clarinet if one is available instead of a specially made extension. This often yields unsatisfactory results, though, as the resultant A can be quite sharp. The idea of using low A was begun by Richard Wagner, who wanted to extend the range of the bassoon. Many passages in his later operas require the low A as well as the B-flat above. (This is impossible on a normal bassoon using an A extension as the fingering for the B-flat yields the low A.) These passages are typically realized on the contrabassoon, as recommended by the composer. Some bassoons have been made to allow bassoonists to realize similar passages. These bassoons are made with a "Wagner bell" which is an extended bell with a key for both the low A and the low B-flat. Bassoons with Wagner bells suffer similar intonational deficiencies as a bassoon with an A extension. Another composer who has required the bassoon to be chromatic down to low A is Gustav Mahler. Richard Strauss also calls for the low A in his opera Intermezzo.
Learning the bassoon
The complicated fingering and the problem of reeds make the bassoon more of a challenge to learn than some of the other woodwind instruments. Cost is another big factor in a person's decision to pursue the bassoon. Prices range from $3,000 to over $20,000 for a good-quality instrument. In North America, schoolchildren typically take up bassoon only after starting on another reed instrument, such as clarinet or saxophone.
Students in America often begin to pursue the study of bassoon performance and technique in the middle years of their music education. Students are often provided with a school instrument and encouraged to pursue lessons with private instructors. Students typically receive instruction in proper posture, hand position, embouchure, tone production, and reed making.
Reeds and reed construction
Bassoon reeds, made of Arundo donax cane, are often made by the players themselves, although beginner bassoonists tend to buy their reeds from professional reed makers or use reeds made by their teachers. Reeds begin with a length of tube cane that is split into three or four pieces using a tool called a cane splitter. The cane is then trimmed and gouged to the desired thickness, leaving the bark attached. After soaking, the gouged cane is cut to the proper shape and milled to the desired thickness, or profiled, by removing material from the bark side. This can be done by hand with a file; more frequently it is done with a machine or tool designed for the purpose. After the profiled cane has soaked once again it is folded over in the middle. Prior to soaking, the reed maker will have lightly scored the bark with parallel lines with a knife; this ensures that the cane will assume a cylindrical shape during the forming stage. On the bark portion, the reed maker binds on one, two, or three coils or loops of brass wire to aid in the final forming process. The exact placement of these loops can vary somewhat depending on the reed maker. The bound reed blank is then wrapped with thick cotton or linen thread to protect it, and a conical steel mandrel (which sometimes has been heated in a flame) is quickly inserted in between the blades. Using a special pair of pliers, the reed maker presses down the cane, making it conform to the shape of the mandrel. (The steam generated by the heated mandrel causes the cane to permanently assume the shape of the mandrel.) The upper portion of the cavity thus created is called the "throat," and its shape has an influence on the final playing characteristics of the reed. The lower, mostly cylindrical portion will be reamed out with a special tool called a reamer, allowing the reed to fit on the bocal.
After the reed has dried, the wires are tightened around the reed, which has shrunk after drying, or replaced completely. The lower part is sealed (a nitrocellulose-based cement such as Duco may be used) and then wrapped with thread to ensure both that no air leaks out through the bottom of the reed and that the reed maintains its shape. The wrapping itself is often sealed with Duco or clear nail varnish (polish). Electrical tape can also be used as a wrapping for amateur reed makers. The bulge in the wrapping is sometimes referred to as the "Turk's head"—it serves as a convenient handle when inserting the reed on the bocal. Recently, more players are choosing the more modern heat-shrink tubing instead of the time-consuming and fiddly thread.
To finish the reed, the end of the reed blank, originally at the center of the unfolded piece of cane, is cut off, creating an opening. The blades above the first wire are now roughly 27–30 mm (1.1–1.2 in) long. For the reed to play, a slight bevel must be created at the tip with a knife, although there is also a machine that can perform this function. Other adjustments with the reed knife may be necessary, depending on the hardness, the profile of the cane, and the requirements of the player. The reed opening may also need to be adjusted by squeezing either the first or second wire with the pliers. Additional material may be removed from the sides (the "channels") or tip to balance the reed. Additionally, if the "e" in the bass clef staff is sagging in pitch, it may be necessary to "clip" the reed by removing 1–2 mm (0.039–0.079 in) from its length using a pair of very sharp scissors or the equivalent.
Playing styles of individual bassoonists vary greatly; because of this, most advanced players will make their own reeds, in the process customizing them to their individual playing requirements. Many companies and individuals do offer reeds for sale, but even with store-bought reeds, players must know how to make adjustments to suit their particular playing style.
The tools used for adjusting reeds are very similar to those used to make the reeds themselves.
Little is known about the early construction of the bassoon reed, as few examples survive, and much of what is known is only what can be gathered from artistic representations. The earliest known written instructions date from the middle of the 17th century, describing the reed as being held together by wire or resined thread; the earliest actual reeds that survive are more than a century younger, a collection of 21 reeds from the late 18th-century Spanish bajon.
Notable bassoon repertoire
Bassoon performance from Beethoven's 4th Symphony
The fourth of Julius Weissenborn's 6 Trios for 3 Bassoons Op. 4
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- Johann Friedrich Fasch: Several bassoon concerti; the best known is in C major
- Christoph Graupner: Four bassoon concerti
- Johann Wilhelm Hertel: Bassoon Concerto in A minor
- Georg Philipp Telemann: Sonata in F minor
- Antonio Vivaldi: 39 concerti for bassoon, 37 of which exist in their entirety today
- Jan Dismas Zelenka: Six trio sonatas for two oboes (or oboe/violin), bassoon and basso continuo
- Johann Christian Bach:
- Bassoon Concerto in B♭
- Bassoon Concerto in E♭ major
- Franz Danzi:
- Bassoon Concerto in G minor,
- Bassoon Concerto in C
- 2 Bassoon Concerto in F major
- 3 Quartets for Bassoon and Strings, Op. 40
- François Devienne:
- 12 Sonatas (six with opus numbers)
- 3 Quartets
- Bassoon Concerto
- 6 Duos Concertants
- Johann Nepomuk Hummel: Grand Concerto for Bassoon (in F)
- Leopold Kozeluch:
- Bassoon Concerto in B♭ major (P V:B1)
- Bassoon Concerto in C major (P V:C1)
- Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Bassoon Concerto in B♭, K. 191, the only surviving of the original three bassoon concertos he wrote
- Antonio Rosetti:
- Bassoon Concertos in F major (Murray C75)
- Bassoon Concertos in B♭ major (Murray C69, C73, C74)
- Bassoon Concerto in E♭ major (Murray C68)
- Carl Stamitz: Bassoon Concerto in F major
- Johann Baptist Wanhal:
- Bassoon Concerto in C major
- Concerto in F major for two bassoons and orchestra
- Franz Berwald: Konzertstück
- Ferdinand David: Concertino for bassoon and orchestra, op. 12
- Edward Elgar: Romance for bassoon and orchestra, op. 62
- Johann Nepomuk Fuchs: Bassoon Concerto in B♭ major
- Julius Fučík: Der alte Brummbär ("The Old Grumbler") for bassoon and orchestra, op. 210
- Reinhold Glière: Humoresque and Impromptu for Bassoon and Piano, op. 35, nos. 8 and 9
- Camille Saint-Saëns: Sonata for bassoon and piano in G major, op. 168
- Carl Maria von Weber:
- Andante e rondo ungarese in C minor, op. 35b
- Bassoon Concerto in F, op. 75
- Miguel del Aguila:
- Hexen for bassoon and string orchestra
- Hexen for bassoon and piano
- Luciano Berio: Sequenza XII for solo bassoon (1995)
- Pierre Boulez: Dialogue de l'ombre double for bassoon and electronics (originally for clarinet, transcribed for bassoon by the composer – 1995)
- Howard J. Buss: A Day in the City for solo bassoon (1986)
- Time Capsule for oboe and bassoon (1996)
- Desert Odyssey for clarinet, bassoon and piano (1997)
- Peter Maxwell Davies: Strathclyde Concerto no.8 for bassoon and orchestra
- Edison Denisov
- Cinq Etudes for bassoon (1983)
- Sonata for solo bassoon (1982)
- Franco Donatoni: Concerto for bassoon (1952)
- Henri Dutilleux:
- Sarabande et Cortège for bassoon and piano (1942)
- Regards sur l'Infini and Deux sonnets de Jean Cassou for bassoon and piano (originally for voice and piano, transcribed by Pascal Gallois with the composer's approval) (1942/2011 and 1954/2011)
- Alvin Etler: Sonata for bassoon and piano (1951)
- Jean Françaix:
- Quadruple Concerto for flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon and orchestra (1935)
- Divertissement for bassoon and string quintet (or orchestra) (1942)
- Le coq et le renard (The Rooster and the Fox) for 4 bassoons (1963)
- Sept impromptus for flute and bassoon (1977)
- Trio for oboe, bassoon and piano (1994)
- Two pieces for bassoon and piano (1996)
- Glenn Gould: Sonata for Bassoon and Piano (1950)
- Sofia Gubaidulina:
- Concerto for bassoon and low strings (1975)
- Duo sonata for two bassoons (1977)
- Paul Hindemith:
- Sonata for bassoon and piano (1938)
- Four pieces for cello and bassoon (1941)
- Concerto for trumpet, bassoon and orchestra (1949)
- Concerto for flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, harp and orchestra (1949)
- Bertold Hummel:
- Concertino for bassoon and strings, Op. 27b (1964/1992)
- 5 Epigrams for bassoon solo Op. 51 (1973)
- Divertimento for bassoon and violoncello, Op. 62 (1978)
- Gordon Jacob:
- Concerto for bassoon, strings and percussion
- Four Sketches for bassoon
- Partita for bassoon
- Paul Jeanjean: Prelude and Scherzo for bassoon and piano (1911)
- André Jolivet:
- Lev Knipper: Concerto for bassoon and strings (1969)
- Charles Koechlin: Sonata for Bassoon and Piano (1918)
- György Kurtág: Játékok és üzenetek for solo bassoon (1986–2001)
- Mary Jane Leach: Feu de Joie for solo bassoon and six taped bassoons (1992)
- Anne LeBaron: After a Dammit to Hell for bassoon solo (1982)
- Jef Maes: Burlesque for bassoon and piano (1957)
- Francisco Mignone:
- Double Bassoon Sonata
- 16 valses for Bassoon
- Willson Osborne: Rhapsody for bassoon
- Andrzej Panufnik: Concerto for bassoon and small orchestra (1985)
- Sergei Prokofiev: Humoristic Scherzo for four bassoons, op. 12b (1915)
- Einojuhani Rautavaara: Bassoon Sonata (1970)
- Alan Ridout: Concertino for bassoon and strings (1975)
- Wolfgang Rihm: Psalmus for bassoon and orchestra (2007)
- Robert Ruthenfranz: Divertimento for bassoon and piano (1960)
- Timothy Salter:
- Monopolies for solo bassoon (1995)
- Imprints for bassoon and piano (1997)
- Richard Strauss: Duet Concertino for clarinet and bassoon with strings and harp (1948)
- Stjepan Šulek: Concerto for bassoon and orchestra
- Alexandre Tansman:
- Sonatine for bassoon and piano
- Suite for bassoon and piano
- Theo Van Doren: Andante and Allegro, Op. 23 for bassoon and piano (1967)
- Heitor Villa-Lobos: Ciranda das sete notas for bassoon and string orchestra (1933)
- John Williams: The Five Sacred Trees: Concerto for bassoon and orchestra (1995)
- Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari: Suite-concertino for bassoon and chamber orchestra (1933)
- Ellen Taaffe Zwilich: Concerto for bassoon and orchestra (1992)
- Howard J. Buss: Ballad for bassoon and piano (2004) ; Behind the Invisible Mask for bassoon and one percussion (2004); Concerto for Bassoon for bassoon and piano, 2017; Fables from Aesop for bassoon and violin (2002); Four Miniatures for two bassoons (2010); Aquarius for 3 bassoons (2013); Levi's Dream for bassoon quartet (2011); Prelude and Intrada for bassoon quartet or ensemble (2007); Contrasts in Blue for oboe, bassoon and piano (2000); Cosmic Portraits for flute, oboe, clarinet and bassoon (2009); Emanations for two bassoons and drum set, 2016; The Enchanted Garden for bassoon and string trio, 2016; The Heavens Awaken for bassoon and string quartet (2008); Luminous Horizons for bassoon and harp, 2016; Trio Lyrique for horn, bassoon and piano (2013); Turbulent Times for flute, bassoon and piano; Village Scenes for oboe, clarinet and bassoon (2004).
- Miguel del Aguila:Sunset Song for bassoon and piano; Nostalgica for bassoon and string quartet; Malambo for bassoon and string quartet (also with quintet and string orchestra); Malambo for bassoon and piano; Tango Trio for bassoon clarinet and piano; or bassoon, oboe and piano
- Eric Ewazen: Concerto for Bassoon and Wind Ensemble (2002)
- Robert Paterson: Sonata for Bassoon and Piano (2001); Elegy for Two Bassoons and Piano (2006–07)
- Ananda Sukarlan: "Communication Breakdown" for flute, bassoon and piano (2017)
- Graham Waterhouse: Basson Quintet (2003); Bright Angel for three bassoons and contrabassoon (2008)
- Robert Rønnes: 5 Sonatas for Bassoon and Piano (1994–2009)
- Patrick Nunn: Gonk for Bassoon and Sound File (2004)
Works featuring prominent bassoon passages
- Johann Sebastian Bach: many bassoon passages, including: BWV 155 (Du mußt glauben, du mußt hoffen) and BWV 149 (Seid wachsam, Ihr heiligen Wächter).
- Béla Bartók: Concerto for Orchestra; the second movement features woodwind instruments in pairs, beginning with the bassoons, and the recapitulation of their duet adds a third instrument playing a staccato counter-melody.
- Ludwig van Beethoven: Symphony No. 4 in B-flat major, fourth movement; Symphony 9 in D minor: fourth movement: --after the 24-measure exposition of the Ode to Joy (Allegro assai), the first bassoon enters with a prominent counter-melody for the next 24 measures; and continues a solo to add emphasis to the theme.
- Hector Berlioz: Symphonie fantastique. In the fourth movement, there are several solo and tutti bassoon passages. This piece calls for four bassoons.
- Georges Bizet: Carmen, Entr'acte to Act II features two bassoons initially in unison to the tune of "Dragons d'Alcala" from the opera.
- Benjamin Britten: The Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra, Variation D features the bassoons.
- Emmanuel Chabrier : España, four bassoons in unison play a Spanish tune.
- Frédéric Chopin: "Piano Concerto No. 2 (Chopin)", measures 82, etc. of the Larghetto feature a sublime moment for the bassoon.
- Michael Daugherty: Alligator Alley features bassoon solos at the beginning and lively melody through the whole piece.
- Gaetano Donizetti: Una furtiva lagrima, from the Italian opera, L'elisir d'amore, opens with a solo bassoon passage.
- Paul Dukas: The Sorcerer's Apprentice, widely recognized as used in the film Fantasia; the main melody is first heard in a famous bassoon solo passage.
- Manuel de Falla: The Three-cornered Hat, where the bassoon represents El corregidor (the magistrate).
- Edvard Grieg: In the Hall of the Mountain King.
- Georg Friedrich Handel: many bassoon passages: including: "Ariodante": "Scherza infida" (with mournful bassoon obligato); and "Amadigi": "Pena tiranna."
- Franz Josef Haydn: The Creation: "Holde Gattin"; and Symphony No. 68.
- W A Mozart: many, for example, "Symphony No. 41 (Mozart)", as mentioned above; "Great Mass in C minor, K. 427", in the Et incarnatus est, the bassoon is one of three obligato soloists to accompany the soprano.
- Modest Mussorgsky: Pictures at an Exhibition as orchestrated by Maurice Ravel; particularly "Promenade II", "Il Vecchio Castello", and "Ballet of the Chicks in Their Shells". A brief solo appears in the second part of "The Hut on the Fowl's Legs: Baba Yaga"
- Carl Nielsen: Symphony No. 5, the main theme of the first movement is introduced by a pair of bassoons.
- Carl Orff: Carmina Burana, the 12th movement, "Olim lacus colueram", opens with a high bassoon solo.
- Krzysztof Penderecki: Symphony no. 4 "Adagio", a long solo passage followed by strings in the background appears in the middle of the symphony.
- Sergei Prokofiev: Peter and the Wolf, the theme of the grandfather; Piano Concerto No.3 in C major Op.26, third movement, bassoon and cellos play the theme in staccato and pizzicato.
- Jean-Philippe Rameau: "Entrée de Polymnie", from the Act IV of his posthumous opera Les Boréades
- Maurice Ravel: Rapsodie espagnole, features a fast, lengthy dual cadenza at the end of the first movement; Boléro, the bassoon has a high descending solo passage near the beginning; Piano Concerto in G Major; Piano Concerto in D Major (for the left hand), prominent use of contrabassoon in the opening; Ma mère l'oye a contrabassoon solo in the fourth part; Alborada del gracioso, solo after the theme, a long solo.
- Ottorino Respighi: "Trittico Botticelliano", the second movement, L'Adorazione dei Magi, opens with a bassoon solo which transitions into an oboe/bassoon duet - the bassoon appears solo later in the movement also in a different figure.
- Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov: Scheherazade, second movement: "Tale of the Kalendar Prince"
- Dmitri Shostakovich: Several symphonies including No. 1, No. 4, No. 5, No. 7 "Leningrad" first movement, No. 8, and No. 9 (4th to 5th movement, one of the biggest bassoon solos in the symphonic repertoire), No. 10, No. 15.
- Jean Sibelius: Symphony 2 in D minor, second movement opening—bassoons play in octaves; Symphony 5 in E-flat major.
- Igor Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring, opens with a famously unorthodox bassoon solo; The Firebird, "Berceuse"; "Infernal Dance" with contrabassoon, horns, trombone, tuba; Pulcinella Suite.
- Silvestre Revueltas: Sensemayá, prominently features a solo bassoon playing an ostinato that represents the syllabic rhythm of the poem on which the piece is based, also named Sensemayá by Nicolás Guillén.
- Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky: Symphony 4 in F minor, Symphony 5 in E minor, Symphony 6 in B minor.
- Giuseppe Verdi : La donna è mobile, from the opera Rigoletto, bassoon plays the theme on the end of the aria; Messa da Requiem, 1st bassoon has an extended passage which begins solo but then accompanies the soprano, mezzo and tenor in the Quid sum miser section of the Dies Irae.
Notable bassoon makers
Companies that manufacture German (Heckel system) bassoons include:
In addition, several factories in the People's Republic of China are producing inexpensive instruments under such labels as Laval, Haydn, and Lark, and these have been available in the West for some time now. However, they are generally of marginal quality and are usually avoided by serious players.
Companies that manufacture Buffet (French) system bassoons include:
- Buffet Crampon (French system)
- Archie Camden (1888–1979)
- Willard Elliott (1926–2000), Chicago Symphony Orchestra 1964–1997
- Hugo Fox (1897–1969), Chicago Symphony Orchestra 1922–1949
- Bernard Garfield (1924–), Philadelphia Orchestra 1957–2000
- Simon Kovar (1890–1970)
- Ludwig Milde (1849–1913)
- Étienne Ozi (1754–1813)
- Victor Guillermo Ramos Rangel (1911–1986)
- Sol Schoenbach (1915–1999)
- Leonard Sharrow (1915–2004), Chicago Symphony Orchestra 1951–1964
- Klaus Thunemann (1937–)
- Sherman Walt (1923–1989), Boston Symphony Orchestra 1953–1989
- William Waterhouse (1931–2007), Royal Northern College of Music; London Symphony; BBC Symphony; Melos Ensemble
- Arthur Weisberg (1931–2009)
- Julius Weissenborn (1837–1888)
- Meyrick Alexander
- Sergio Azzolini
- Alexandre Silvério
- Volodymyr Apatsky
- Roger Birnstingl
- Karen Borca
- Bill Douglas
- Marvin P. Feinsmith
- Karen Geoghegan
- Per Hannevold
- Paul Hanson
- Benjamin Kamins
- Peter Kolkay
- Martin Kuuskmann
- Judith LeClair
- Tariq Masri
- Gustavo Núñez
- John Orford
- Doug Ostgard
- Julie Price
- Robert Rønnes
- Peter Schickele
- Graham Sheen
- Asger Svendsen
- Klaus Thunemann
- Milan Turkovic
- Kim Walker
- Lyndon Watts
- Robert S. Williams
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- Third Octave – Alternate Fingering Chart for Heckel-System Bassoon – The Woodwind Fingering Guide. Wfg.woodwind.org. Retrieved on 2012-05-25.
- Morin, Alexander J.; Harold C. Schonberg (2002). Classical Music: The Listener's Companion. San Francisco: Hal Leonard Corporation. p. 1154.. "Its direct ancestor is the dulcian, a hairpin-shaped instrument with a long, folded bore and a single key; developed in the first half of the 16th century, it remained in use until the 17th."
- Facis Image. None. Retrieved on 2012-05-25.
- Jansen, 1978
- Lange and Thomson, 1979
- Kopp, 1999
- Langwill, 1965
- "Instruments / Clarinets". Selmer. Archived from the original on 27 February 2012. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
- Review of the CD "FAAA." International Double Reed Society
- Review of the LP "Palisander's Night." International Double Reed Society. The Double Reed, Vol. 12, No. 2 Fall 1989.
- "Charles Sirad" at International Double Reed Society
- Blogurt, official website. Blogurt.com. Retrieved on 2012-05-25.
- Music – Review of These New Puritans – Hidden. BBC. Retrieved on 2012-05-25.
- Twitter / kanyewest: I just threw some bassoon. Twitter.com. Retrieved on 2012-05-25.
- "Bassoon Intonation Issues" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 July 2014. Retrieved 5 November 2012.
- Benjamin Kohon (Solo Bassoon of New York Philharmonic Symphony Orchestra) A FEW NOTES ON THE BASSOON. Reprinted from "The Metronome," Vol. XLVIII, No. 7, July, 1932, p. 12.
- "Buying a Bassoon for a Student". Band Director Media Group. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
- Elsa Z. Powell (1950) This is an Orchestra Houghton Mifflin, page 70
- Popkin and Glickman, 2007
- McKay, 2001
- "Rosetti Bassoon Concertos — Catalog and Track Listing". Naxos Records. 2003. Retrieved 7 September 2008. The E♭ concerto is mentioned in the notes to the recording, see the link on the left.
- Sonata for Bassoon and Piano Archived 15 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Elegy for Two Bassoons and Piano". Archived from the original on 15 July 2011. Retrieved 6 May 2011.
- Fox Products. Fox Products. Retrieved on 2012-05-25.
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- Linton. Lintonwoodwinds.com. Retrieved on 2012-05-25.
- Moosmann. B-moosmann.de. Retrieved on 2012-05-25.
- Moennig/Adler. Moennig-adler.de. Retrieved on 2012-05-25.
- B.H. Bell. Bellbassoons.com. Retrieved on 2012-05-25.
- Klaus Thunemann Archived 28 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Instituto Internacional de Música de Cámara de Madrid
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Bassoon .|
- "The Double Reed" (published quarterly), I.D.R.S. Publications (see www.idrs.org)
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- Baines, Anthony (ed.), Musical Instruments Through the Ages, Penguin Books, 1961
- Jansen, Will, The Bassoon: Its History, Construction, Makers, Players, and Music, Uitgeverij F. Knuf, 1978. 5 Volumes
- Kopp, James B., "The Emergence of the Late Baroque Bassoon," in The Double Reed, Vol. 22 No. 4 (1999).
- Kopp, James B., The Bassoon (Yale University Press; 2012) 297 pages; a scholarly history
- Lange, H.J. and Thomson, J.M., "The Baroque Bassoon," Early Music, July 1979.
- Langwill, Lyndesay G., The Bassoon and Contrabassoon, W. W. Norton & Co., 1965
- McKay, James R. et al. (ed.), The Bassoon Reed Manual: Lou Skinner's Techniques, Indiana University Press, 2001.
- Popkin, Mark and Glickman, Loren, Bassoon Reed Making, Charles Double Reed Co. Publication, 3rd ed., 2007
- Sadie, Stanley (ed.), The New Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments, s.v. "Bassoon," 2001
- Spencer, William (rev. Mueller, Frederick), The Art of Bassoon Playing, Summy-Birchard Inc., 1958
- Stauffer, George B. (1986). "The Modern Orchestra: A Creation of the Late Eighteenth Century." In Joan Peyser (Ed.) The Orchestra: Origins and Transformations pp. 41–72. Charles Scribner's Sons.
- Weaver, Robert L. (1986). "The Consolidation of the Main Elements of the Orchestra: 1470–1768." In Joan Peyser (Ed.) The Orchestra: Origins and Transformations pp. 7–40. Charles Scribner's Sons.
- Domínguez Moreno, Áurea: Bassoon Playing in Perspective: Character and Performance Practice from 1800 to 1850. (Dissertation.) Studia musicologica Universitatis Helsingiensis, 26. University of Helsinki, 2013. ISSN 0787-4294. ISBN 978-952-10-9443-9.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bassoon.|
- Resources and Information for Bassoonists
- Documentary: The Production of a Bassoon by Francois de Rudder
- Internet Contrabassoon Resource
- International Double Reed Society
- British Double Reed Society
- Bassoon Fingering Charts
- A guide to bassoon keywork
- The Art of the Bassoon Wisconsin Public Radio's "University of the Air" hosts an hour-long program on the bassoon (RealAudio format).
- Curtal, Dulcian, Bajón — A History of the Precursor to the Bassoon Maggie Kilbey's comprehensive book
- Marvin Feinsmith's Hands on Bassoon
- The Glickman-Popkin Bassoon Camp