Peter and the Wolf

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1947 coloring book cover

Peter and the Wolf (Russian: «Петя и волк»; Russian pronunciation: [ˈpʲetʲə i volk]), Op. 67, a 'symphonic fairy tale for children', is a musical composition written by Sergei Prokofiev in 1936. The narrator tells a children's story, while the orchestra illustrates it. It is Prokofiev's most frequently performed work, and one of the most frequently performed works in the entire classical repertoire. It has been recorded many times.

Background[edit]

In 1936, Sergei Prokofiev was commissioned by Natalya Sats, the director of the Central Children's Theatre in Moscow to write a musical symphony for children. Sats and Prokofiev had become acquainted after he visited her theatre with his sons several times.[1] The intent was to introduce children to the individual instruments of the orchestra. The first draft of the libretto was about a Young Pioneer (the Soviet version of a Boy Scout) called Peter who rights a wrong by challenging an adult. (This was a common theme in propaganda aimed at children in the USSR at the time.) However, Prokofiev was dissatisfied with the rhyming text produced by Antonina Sakonskaya, a then popular children's author. Prokofiev wrote a new version where Peter captures a wolf. As well as promoting desired Pioneer virtues such as vigilance, bravery and resourcefulness, the plot illustrates Soviet themes such as the stubbornness of the un-Bolshevik older generation (the grandfather) and the triumph of Man (Peter) taming Nature (the wolf).[2] Prokofiev produced a version for the piano in under a week, finishing it on April 15. The orchestration was finished on April 24. The debut at a children's concert in the main hall of the Moscow Conservatory with the Moscow Philharmonic on 2 May 1936. However, Sats was ill and the substitute narrator inexperienced and the performance failed to attract much attention[3][1][4][5] Later that month a much more successful performance with Sats narrating was given at the Moscow Pioneers Palace. The American premiere took place in March 1938, with Prokofiev himself conducting the Boston Symphony Orchestra at Symphony Hall, Boston with Richard Hale narrating. By that time Sats was serving a sentence in the gulag, where she was sent after her lover Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevsky was shot in June 1937.[6]

Plot[edit]

Peter, a Young Pioneer,[7][8] lives at his grandfather's home in a forest clearing. One day, Peter goes out into the clearing, leaving the garden gate open, and the duck that lives in the yard takes the opportunity to go swimming in a pond nearby. The duck starts arguing with a little bird ("What kind of bird are you if you can't fly?" – "What kind of bird are you if you can't swim?"). Peter's pet cat stalks them quietly, and the bird—warned by Peter—flies to safety in a tall tree while the duck swims to safety in the middle of the pond.

Peter's grandfather scolds Peter for being outside in the meadow alone ("Suppose a wolf came out of the forest?"), and, when Peter defies him, saying: "Boys like me are not afraid of wolves", his grandfather takes him back into the house and locks the gate. Soon afterwards "a big, grey wolf" does indeed come out of the forest. The cat quickly climbs into a tree, but the duck, who has jumped out of the pond, is chased, overtaken, and swallowed by the wolf.

Peter fetches a rope and climbs over the garden wall into the tree. He asks the bird to fly around the wolf's head to distract it, while he lowers a noose and catches the wolf by its tail. The wolf struggles to get free, but Peter ties the rope to the tree and the noose only gets tighter.

Some hunters, who have been tracking the wolf, come out of the forest ready to shoot, but Peter gets them to help him take the wolf to a zoo in a victory parade (the piece was first performed for an audience of Young Pioneers during May Day celebrations) that includes himself, the bird, the hunters leading the wolf, the cat, and grumpy grumbling Grandfather ("What if Peter hadn't caught the wolf? What then?")

In the story's ending, the listener is told: "If you listen very carefully, you'll hear the duck quacking inside the wolf's belly, because the wolf in his hurry had swallowed her alive."

Performance directions[edit]

Prokofiev produced detailed performance notes in both English and Russian for Peter and the Wolf. According to the English version:

Each character of this tale is represented by a corresponding instrument in the orchestra: the bird by a flute, the duck by an oboe, the cat by a clarinet playing staccato in a low register, the grandfather by a bassoon, the wolf by three horns, Peter by the string quartet, the shooting of the hunters by the kettle drums and bass drum. Before an orchestral performance it is desirable to show these instruments to the children and to play on them the corresponding leitmotivs. Thereby, the children learn to distinguish the sonorities of the instruments during the performance of this tale.[9]

Instrumentation[edit]

Peter and the Wolf is scored for the following orchestra:[10]

Each character in the story has a particular instrument and a musical theme:[11]

 \relative c''''  { \clef treble \time 4/4 \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"flute"  \tempo "Allegro" 4=176 \slashedGrace a8\mf( g8-.)[ e-.] \slashedGrace a( gis-.)[ gis-.] gis-.[ gis-.] \slashedGrace a( gis-.)[ e-.] | d16->( ees des c b8) \times 2/3 {a16( b a } g8->) g-. c-. e-. | \slashedGrace a8( g8-.)[ e-.] \slashedGrace a( gis-.)[ gis-.] gis-.[ gis-.] \slashedGrace a( gis-.)[ e-.] | d16->( ees des c g'!8-.) \slashedGrace b,( a-.) g2-> }
 \relative c' { \clef treble \time 3/4 \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"oboe"  \tempo "L'istesso tempo"4=92 \key aes \major \slashedGrace fes8( ees2.\mf->) | \slashedGrace ees8( d[ des c des] \slashedGrace d g[ f)] | \slashedGrace fes( ees2.->) }
 \relative c { \clef treble \time 4/4 \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"clarinet"  \tempo "Moderato" \partial 4*1 d8-.\p g-. \bar "||" b4-. g8-. d-. cis4-. d8-. g-. | b-. d-. c4->~ c8 b g a | b( a) fis-. g-. a( g) e-. fis-. | g2-> }
 \relative c { \clef bass \time 4/4 \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"bassoon"  \tempo "Poco più andante" 4=92 \key b \minor \partial 16*1 b,16\f( \bar "||" fis'8)[ r16 fis] b,4->~ b8._"pesante" cis16 d8. e16 | fis8. d16 a'8 a a-> a-> \times 2/3 { a-> b-> bis-> } | cis4->~( \times 2/3 { cis8 d dis } ais) r }
 \relative c { \clef bass \time 4/4 \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"french horn" \tempo "Andante molto" 4=66 \key bes \major <d bes g>2->\mp <bes' g d>16( <a fis ees> <bes g d> <a fis ees> <bes g d>8) <bes g d> | <d bes g>-- <cis a ees>-- <d bes g>-- <bes g d>-- <c f, c>2-> |}
 \relative c' { \clef treble \time 4/4 \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"trumpet"\tempo "Allegro moderato" 4=116 \partial 4*1 c4\mf( | des8)->[ r ees-. r e->] r c4( | des8->)[ r ees-. r e->] r c4 | des8-> e f aes c4-> b8 c | des-.[ r f-.] r e2-> }
 \relative c'' { \clef treble \time 4/4 \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"violin" \tempo "Andantino" 4=92 g4\p-- c8.( e16-.) g8-.[ a-.] g8.->( e16) | g8-.( a-.) b8.-> c16 g8( e) c-.( d-.) | ees4->\< ees8--( b'--) ees,4-- ees8--( b'--)\! | ees,4->\mf( bes) }

A performance lasts about 25 minutes.[12]

Recordings[edit]

According to an article by Jeremy Nicholas of the classical music magazine Gramophone in 2015, the best overall recording of Peter and the Wolf is by the New Philharmonia Orchestra, narrated by Richard Baker and conducted by Raymond Leppard in 1954. Gramophone's best DVD version is the 2006 film by Suzie Templeton; its music is performed, without narrator, by the Philharmonia Orchestra conducted by Mark Stephenson.[13]

Date Narrator Orchestra Conductor Label Notes
2015 David Tennant The Amazing Keystone Band Le Chant du Monde
2015 Alice Cooper Bundesjugendorchester Alexander Shelley Deutsche Grammophon
2012 Bramwell Tovey Vancouver Symphony Orchestra Bramwell Tovey Video on YouTube
2011 Phillip Schofield Orchestre national du Capitole de Toulouse Michel Plasson EMI
2008 Jacqueline du Pré[14] English Chamber Orchestra Daniel Barenboim Deutsche Grammophon
2006 Colm Feore Windsor Symphony Orchestra John Morris Russell Windsor Symphony Society This recording has never been released commercially, but is only available via the WSO's website at http://www.windsorsymphony.com/concerts/wsogifts.html or at the WSO's gift shop.
2005 Willie Rushton London Philharmonic Orchestra Siân Edwards Classics for Pleasure
2003 Mikhail Gorbachev, Bill Clinton, Sophia Loren Russian National Orchestra Kent Nagano PENTATONE PTC 5186011
2003 Antonio Banderas, Sophia Loren Russian National Orchestra Kent Nagano PENTATONE PTC 5186014 In Spanish
2001 Sharon Stone Orchestra of St. Luke's James Levine Deutsche Grammophon as part of A Classic Tale: Music for Our Children (289 471 171–72, 2001)
2000 Lenny Henry Nouvel Ensemble Instrumental Du Conservatoire National Supérieur De Paris Jacques Pési EMI
2000 David Attenborough BBC Philharmonic Yan Pascal Tortelier BBC Music for BBC Music Magazine; a free CD came with the June 2000 issue
1997 Anthony Dowell Ross MacGibbon, director (video) Film of a ballet performance, starring David Johnson, Layla Harrison, Karan Lingham[15]
1997 Dame Edna Everage Melbourne Symphony Orchestra John Lanchbery Naxos Records
1996 Sir John Gielgud Royal Philharmonic Orchestra Andrea Licata Intersound Recordings
1996 Ben Kingsley London Symphony Orchestra Sir Charles Mackerras Cala Records
1994 Melissa Joan Hart Boston Symphony Orchestra Seiji Ozawa Sony Classical Hart was in her "Clarissa" persona from the Nickelodeon television series Clarissa Explains It All
1994 Patrick Stewart Orchestra of the Opéra National de Lyon Kent Nagano Erato
1994 Sting Chamber Orchestra of Europe Claudio Abbado Deutsche Grammophon This was used as the soundtrack to the television special Peter and the Wolf: A Prokofiev Fantasy
1993 Peter Schickele Atlanta Symphony Orchestra Yoel Levi Telarc With a new text by Peter Schickele
1991 Oleg and Gabriel Prokofiev New London Orchestra Ronald Corp Hyperion Records The narrators were the son and grandson of the composer
1989 Sir John Gielgud Orchestra of the Academy of London Richard Stamp Virgin Classics Sir John's royalties for this recording were donated to The League of Friends of Charity Heritage, a facility for children handicapped physically
1989 Christopher Lee English String Orchestra Sir Yehudi Menuhin Nimbus Records
1989 Peter Ustinov Philharmonia Orchestra Philip Ellis Cirrus Classics CBS CD 105
1989 Jonathan Winters Philharmonia Orchestra Efrem Kurtz Angel Records Winters also narrated the Saint-Saëns/Ogden Nash The Carnival of the Animals
1987 Paul Hogan Orchestre de Paris Igor Markevitch EMI It retained the traditional plot but transferred the locale to the Australian Outback. This recording was withdrawn soon after its release because of unflattering portrayals of Australia's aboriginal people and is now considered "out of print".
1987 Lina Prokofiev (Sergei Prokofiev's widow) Royal Scottish National Orchestra Neeme Järvi Chandos Records
1986 Itzhak Perlman Israel Philharmonic Orchestra Zubin Mehta EMI
1984 William F. Buckley, Jr. Orchestra of Radio/TV Luxembourg Leopold Hager Proarte Digital Records
1984 Dudley Moore / Terry Wogan Boston Pops Orchestra John Williams Philips The American release (412 559–2) was narrated by Dudley Moore, while the UK release (412 556–2) featured Terry Wogan as narrator
1980 Tom Seaver Cincinnati Pops Orchestra Erich Kunzel MMG
1979 Carol Channing Cincinnati Pops Orchestra Erich Kunzel Caedmon Records TC-1623
1977 Cyril Ritchard Philadelphia Orchestra Eugene Ormandy Columbia Records ML 5183
1978 David Bowie Philadelphia Orchestra Eugene Ormandy RCA Red Seal Bowie's recording reached number 136 on the US Pop Albums chart.
1975 Karlheinz Böhm Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra Karl Böhm Deutsche Grammophon
1974 Will Geer English Chamber Orchestra Johannes Somary Vanguard Records VSO-30033
1973 Mia Farrow London Symphony Orchestra André Previn EMI ASD 2935
1972 Rob Reiner studio orchestra Jerry Yester United Artists Records UAS-5646 Contemporary version by Carl Gottlieb and Rob Reiner; never released on CD
1972 George Raft London Festival Orchestra Stanley Black Phase 4 Stereo SPC-21084 In this version, the story is reformulated as a gangster tale in the style of the Hollywood films that Raft had once acted in.
1971 Richard Baker New Philharmonia Orchestra Raymond Leppard EMI
1970 Sir Ralph Richardson London Symphony Orchestra Sir Malcolm Sargent Decca Records Volume 5 of The World of the Great Classics series. This version is praised in various editions of The Stereo Record Guide as the finest recording and narration of the work ever made.
1968 Kyu Sakamoto The Philharmonia orchestra Herbert von Karajan Angel Records Narration in Japanese.
1966 Richard Attenborough Philharmonia of Hamburg Hans-Jurgen Walter Columbia Records
1965 Sean Connery Royal Philharmonic Orchestra Antal Doráti Phase 4 Stereo
1965 Lorne Greene London Symphony Orchestra Sir Malcolm Sargent RCA Victor
1960s Garry Moore Philharmonic Symphony Orchestra of London Artur Rodziński Whitehall WHS20040.[16] The reverse side of this 12-inch LP record also features The Carnival of the Animals by Saint-Saëns with Garry Moore (narrator), Josef and Grete Dichler (duopianists), and the Vienna State Opera Orchestra conducted by Hermann Scherchen.
1960 Leonard Bernstein New York Philharmonic Leonard Bernstein Columbia Records The popularity of the group's televised Young People's Concerts made this an auspicious release
1960 Captain Kangaroo Stadium Symphony Orchestra of New York Leopold Stokowski Everest Records SDBR-3043
1960 Beatrice Lillie London Symphony Orchestra Skitch Henderson Decca Records
1959 José Ferrer Vienna State Opera Orchestra Sir Eugene Goossens Kapp Records Narrated in Spanish and English
1959 Michael Flanders Philharmonia Orchestra Efrem Kurtz EMI Records
1957 Boris Karloff Vienna State Opera Orchestra Mario Rossi Vanguard Records
1956 Peter Ustinov Philharmonia Orchestra Herbert von Karajan Angel Records
1955 Arthur Godfrey Andre Kostelanetz's Orchestra Andre Kostelanetz Columbia Records mono recording; has never been issued on CD
1953 Victor Jory unknown Vicky Kosen Peter Pan Records mono recording; has never been issued on CD
1953 Alec Guinness Boston Pops Orchestra Arthur Fiedler RCA Victor
1950 Eleanor Roosevelt Boston Symphony Orchestra Serge Koussevitzky RCA Victor mono recording
1949 Frank Phillips London Philharmonic Orchestra Nikolai Malko Decca LX 3003[17] Frank Phillips was a well-known BBC Radio newsreader
1946 Sterling Holloway Disney originally made for the an episode in the 1946 film Make Mine Music
1941 Basil Rathbone All-American Orchestra Leopold Stokowski Columbia Masterworks Restored from original Masterworks set M-477 by Bob Varney[18]
1939 Richard Hale Boston Symphony Orchestra Serge Koussevitzky RCA Victor

Adaptations of the work[edit]

Walt Disney, 1946[edit]

Peter and the Wolf (1946 film)

Disney's 1946 animated short

Prokofiev, while touring the West in 1938, visited Los Angeles and met Walt Disney. Prokofiev performed the piano version of Peter and the Wolf for "le papa de Mickey Mouse", as Prokofiev described him in a letter to his sons. Disney was impressed, and considered adding an animated version of Peter and the Wolf to Fantasia, which was to be released in 1940. Due to World War II, these plans fell through, and it was not until 1946 that Disney released his adaptation of Peter and the Wolf narrated by Sterling Holloway. It is not known if Prokofiev, by that point behind the Iron Curtain, was aware of this.[19] It was released theatrically as a segment of Make Mine Music, then reissued the next year, accompanying a reissue of Fantasia (as a short subject before the film), then separately on home video in the 1990s.[20] This version makes several changes to the original story. For example:

  • During the character introduction, the pets are given names: "Sasha" the bird, "Sonia" the duck, and "Ivan" the cat.
  • As the cartoon begins, Peter and his friends already know there is a wolf nearby and are preparing to catch him.
  • The hunters get names in a later part of the story: "Misha", "Yasha", and "Vladimir".
  • Peter daydreams of hunting and catching the wolf, and for that purpose exits the garden carrying a wooden pop gun.
  • At the end, in a reversal of the original (and to make the story more child-friendly), the narrator reveals that the duck Sonia has not been eaten by the wolf. Earlier in the film, the wolf is shown chasing Sonia, who hides in an old tree's hollow trunk. The wolf attacks out of view and returns in view with some of her feathers in his mouth, licking his jaws. Peter, Ivan, and Sasha assume Sonia has been eaten. After the wolf has been caught, Sasha is shown mourning Sonia. She comes out of the tree trunk at that point, and they are happily reunited.

In 1957, for one of his television programs, Disney recalled how Prokofiev himself visited the Disney studio, eventually inspiring the making of this animated version. Disney used pianist Ingolf Dahl, who resembled Prokofiev, to re-create how the composer sat at a piano and played the themes from the score.[21][22]

An audio recording of this version, with expanded narration by Sterling Holloway, was released on Disneyland Records (DQ-1242).[citation needed]

Russia, 1958[edit]

The Russian animation studio Soyuzmultfilm produced a version of the work in 1958. It is puppet stop motion animation, directed by Anatoly Karanovich and narrated by I. Medvedyeva. This version makes the following changes to the story:

  • In the beginning the bird sees the wolf in the forest and warns Peter's grandfather, who goes to get the hunters and tells Peter not to leave the fenced-in yard.
  • The cat, after failing to catch the bird and duck, goes to the forest to solicit the help of the wolf.
  • Peter picks up the duck and runs to safety, leaving the cat outside with the wolf.
  • The wolf, not being very particular, eats the cat.

This version has not been published much outside of the ex-USSR, but can be seen on YouTube.[23]

Walt Disney, 1999[edit]

Another Disney adaptation, a live-action/animated film released direct-to-video titled Belle's Tales of Friendship (August 1999), is featured and narrated by Belle instead of Sterling Holloway. This version of Peter and the Wolf was featured in Disney's House of Mouse.

British–Polish co-production, 2006[edit]

In 2006, Suzie Templeton and Hugh Welchman directed and produced respectively, a stop-motion animated adaptation, Peter and the Wolf. It is unusual in its lack of any dialogue or narration, the story being told only in images and sound and interrupted by sustained periods of silence. The soundtrack is performed by the Philharmonia Orchestra, and the film received its premiere with a live accompaniment in the Royal Albert Hall.[24] The film won the Annecy Cristal and the Audience Award at the 2007 Annecy International Animated Film Festival,[25] and won the 2008 Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film.[26] This version makes some changes to the original Prokofiev story; for example:

  • Peter bumps into one of the "hunters" (teenage bullies in this telling) who throws him in a rubbish bin and aims at him with his rifle to scare him; the second hunter watches without interfering (thus, a dislike towards the hunter/bullies is immediately created).
  • Because of a broken wing, the bird has trouble flying and takes Peter's balloon to help it get aloft.
  • After Peter has captured the wolf in a net, the hunter gets him in his rifle's telescopic sight coincidentally, but just before shooting, the second hunter stumbles, falls on him and makes him miss the shot.
  • The caged wolf is brought into the village on a cart where Peter's grandfather tries to sell it. The hunter comes to the container and sticks his rifle in to intimidate the animal (as he did with Peter earlier on). At that time Peter throws the net on the hunter, who becomes tangled in it.
  • Before the grandfather has made a deal, Peter unlocks the cart after looking into the eyes of the wolf. They walk side by side through the awestruck crowd and then the freed wolf runs off in the direction of the silver moon shining over the forest.

Others[edit]

2007 Toronto, Canada production

Up to 1959[edit]

  • The Russian pianist Tatiana Nikolayeva transcribed seven excerpts as a virtuoso concert suite,[27] and made a well-known recording of it.[when?]
  • In 1958, a videotaped television special entitled Art Carney Meets Peter and the Wolf, with Art Carney as main entertainer, along with the Bil Baird Marionettes, was presented by the American Broadcasting Company, and was successful enough to have been repeated twice. The show had an original storyline in which Carney interacted with some talking marionette animals, notably the wolf, who was the troublemaker of the group. This first half was presented as a musical, with adapted music from Lieutenant Kijé and other Prokofiev works which had special English lyrics fitted into them. The program then segued into a complete performance of Peter and the Wolf, played exactly as written by the composer, and "mimed" by both "human" and "animal" marionettes. The conclusion of the program again featured Carney interacting with the animal marionettes. The show was nominated for three Emmy Awards.[28]

1960s[edit]

1970s[edit]

1980s[edit]

  • The 1983 film A Christmas Story features music from Peter and the Wolf prominently during scenes of the character Scut Farkus bullying other characters. The surname Farkus is a variation of farkas, which is Hungarian for "wolf".
  • Justin Locke wrote a 1985 sequel to the story, using the original score. Peter VS. the Wolf is the Wolf's trial, where he defends himself against the charge of "Duckicide in the first degree, with one gulp." The original music is presented as evidence, but then the Wolf calls individual musicians to the stand and cross-examines them. It requires five actors for a stage presentation.[33]
  • In 1985, Arnie Zane choreographed a punk music ballet version of Peter and the Wolf.[34]
  • In 1988, "Weird Al" Yankovic and Wendy Carlos produced a comedic version, using a synthesized orchestra and many additions to the story and music (e.g., Peter captures the wolf using his grandfather's dental floss, leading to the moral of the story: "Oral hygiene is very important").[35]
  • In 1989, in an episode of the Muppet Babies entitled, "Skeeter and the Wolf", Skeeter fills in for Peter, Gonzo is the bird, Scooter is the cat, Fozzie is the duck, Nanny is the grandparent, and Kermit and Piggy are the hunters.

1990s[edit]

2000s[edit]

2010s[edit]

In copyright law[edit]

In 2012, the US Supreme Court's decision in Golan v. Holder restored copyright protection in the United States to numerous foreign works that had entered the public domain. Peter and the Wolf was frequently cited by the parties and amici, as well as by the Court's opinion and by the press, as an example of a well-known work that would be removed from the public domain by the decision.[55]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Robinson, Harlow (10 November 1985). "PROKOFIEV'S 'PETER AND THE WOLF' is 50 YEARS OLD". The New York Times. 
  2. ^ Morrison, Simon. The People's Artist: Prokofiev's Soviet Years. Oxford University Press. p. 51. ISBN 9780199830985. 
  3. ^ McSmith, Andy. Fear and the Muse Kept Watch: The Russian Masters from Akhmatova and Pasternak to Shostakovich and Eisenstein Under Stalin. New Press, The. p. 229. ISBN 9781620970799. 
  4. ^ "Boston Symphony Orchestra concert program, Subscription Series, Season 57 (1937-1938), Week 20 :: BSO Program Books". cdm15982.contentdm.oclc.org. 
  5. ^ Prokofiev, Sergei (2000); Prokofieva, Rose (translator) (1960). Shlifstein, S, ed. Autobiography, Articles, Reminiscences. The Minerva Group, Inc. p. 89. ISBN 0-89875-149-7. 
  6. ^ "Performance History Search". archives.bso.org. 
  7. ^ "Snaring a fresh audience using a cautionary tale" by Elissa Blake, The Sydney Morning Herald, 23 August 2013
  8. ^ Morrison, Simon (2008). The People's Artist : Prokofiev's Soviet Years. Oxford University Press. p. 46. ISBN 9780199720514. 
  9. ^ Morrison, Simon. The People's Artist: Prokofiev's Soviet Years. Oxford University Press. p. 52. ISBN 9780199830985. 
  10. ^ "Scores - Prokofiev, Sergei - Prokofiev, Sergei / Peter and the Wolf, Op. 67 – Score and Parts - ID: 2444". New York Philharmonic Orchestra Archives. Retrieved June 2, 2014. 
  11. ^ Estrella, Espie. "'Peter and the Wolf': Characters and Instruments". About.com. Retrieved June 2, 2014. 
  12. ^ "New York Philharmonic Orchestra, Leonard Bernstein, Prokofiev, Tchaikovsky – Peter And The Wolf / Nutcracker Suite". Discogs. Retrieved June 2, 2014. 
  13. ^ gramophone.co.uk Prokofiev's Peter and the Wolf – which recording is best? 14th January 2015
  14. ^ http://www.musicweb-international.com/classrev/2009/Mar09/du_Pre_Peter_4800475.htm
  15. ^ a b Peter and the Wolf (TV 1997) at the Internet Movie Database
  16. ^ Review by T.H., Gramophone, June 1961, p. 31
  17. ^ Peter and the Wolf at Discogs (list of releases)
  18. ^ "Peter and the Wolf, Op. 67. audio recording". Columbia Masterworks Records, Internet Archive. July 1941. 
  19. ^ Bartig, Kevin. Composing for the Red Screen: Prokofiev and Soviet Film. Oxford University Press. p. 61. ISBN 9780199967605. 
  20. ^ "The Big Cartoon Database: Make Mine Music". Bcdb.com. 20 April 1946. Retrieved 1 July 2011. 
  21. ^ "1957 Disney TV introduction". Peter and the Wolf. 1957. 
  22. ^ Linick, Anthony (2008). The Lives of Ingolf Dahl. Author House. p. 294. 
  23. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EQTUyKLSvJQ&list=PLq6GUEB5Cs6EZcJZbt9JtMxf0r7nrLWEs&index=36
  24. ^ Breakthru Films
  25. ^ Annecy 2008 Festival, 2007 Award Winning Films. Annecy.org. Retrieved on 1 July 2011.
  26. ^ "Oscars 2008: Winners". 25 February 2008. Retrieved 25 February 2008. 
  27. ^ scribd
  28. ^ Art Carney Meets Peter and the Wolf (TV 1958) at the Internet Movie Database
  29. ^ "Obiturary: Kenny Davern, 71, Leading Jazz Clarinet Player". The New York Sun. Retrieved 1 July 2011. 
  30. ^ "The Geoff Boxell Home Page". Geoffboxell.tripod.com. Retrieved 1 July 2011. 
  31. ^ "Peter and the Commissar". Artist Direct. Archived from the original on 12 June 2008. 
  32. ^ Allmusic.com
  33. ^ "Peter VS. the Wolf". Justin Locke Productions. Retrieved 1 July 2011. 
  34. ^ Banes, Sally (1987). Terpsichore in Sneakers: Post-Modern Dance. Wesleyan University Press. ISBN 978-0-8195-6160-2. 
  35. ^ "Wendy Carlos' official website". Wendycarlos.com. Retrieved 1 July 2011. 
  36. ^ "Tiny Toon Adventures episode guide". Mindspring.com. Retrieved 1 July 2011. 
  37. ^ Peter Schickele official website. Schickele.com (1 May 2011). Retrieved on 1 July 2011.
  38. '^ Peter and the Wolf' (1995) (TV) at the Internet Movie Database
  39. ^ The Boston Phoenix Archived 28 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  40. ^ Public Radio Musicsource. Prms.org. Retrieved on 1 July 2011.
  41. ^ Elmo's Musical Adventure at Muppet Wiki
  42. ^ "Russian National Orchestra". Russianarts.org. 21 October 2003. Retrieved 1 July 2011. 
  43. ^ "RNO Russian National Orchestra". Russianarts.org. February 2004. Retrieved 24 March 2011. 
  44. ^ Westergaard, Sean. Review: Pincus and the Pig, a Klezmer Tale (after Prokofiev's Peter & the Wolf) at AllMusic. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
  45. ^ Adaptation for Theatre organ by Jelani Eddington
  46. ^ Track list for Full Circle
  47. ^ Neil Tobin, Necromancer. Necromancerevents.com. Retrieved on 1 July 2011.
  48. ^ http://www.cdbaby.com/cd/projectmusic2
  49. ^ Petr & The Wulf, Alternative Tentacles
  50. ^ ITV Euro 2012 on YouTube
  51. ^ http://www.outfest.org/tixSYS/2013/xslguide/eventnote.php?EventNumber=3811&notepg=
  52. ^ Peter and the Wolf (2012) at the Internet Movie Database
  53. ^ JoshPerschbacher.com
  54. ^ http://connecticut.jazznearyou.com/event_detail.php?id=572142
  55. ^ Ginsburg, Ruth. "Associate Justice" (PDF). Majority Opinion. Supreme Court of United States. Retrieved 22 January 2012. 

External links[edit]