Bhaskara (satellite)

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1984 USSR stamp featuring Bhaskara-I, Bhaskara-II and Aryabhata satellites

The Bhaskara-I and II Satellites were two satellites built by the Indian Space Research Organisation that formed India's first low orbit Earth Observation Satellite. They collected data on telemetry, oceanography and hydrology. Both satellites are named after ancient Indian mathematicians Bhāskara I and Bhāskara II.[1]


Mission type Experimental Remote Sensing
Earth Obsservation Satellite
Mission duration 10 years (Re-Entered in 1989)[2]
Spacecraft properties
Spacecraft type Unmanned
Manufacturer India ISRO
Launch mass 444 kilograms (979 lb)
Power 47 watts
Start of mission
Launch date 7 June 1979 (1979-06-07Z) IST
Rocket C-1 Intercosmos Launch Vehicle
Launch site Kapustin Yar

Bhaskara-I, weighing 444 kg at launch, was launched on 7 June 1979 from Kapustin Yar aboard the Intercosmos launch vehicle. It was placed in an orbital Perigee and Apogee of 394 km and 399 km at an inclination of 50.7°.[3] The satellite consisted of-

  • Two television cameras operating in visible (600 nanometre) and near-infrared (800 nanometre) and collected data related to hydrology, forestry and geology.
  • Satellite microwave radiometer (SAMIR) operating at 19 and 22 GHz for study of ocean-state, water vapour, liquid water content in the atmosphere, etc.

| name = Bhaskara-II | image = | image_caption = | mission_type = Experimental Remote Sensing
Earth Obsservation Satellite | mission_duration = 10 years (Re-Entered in 1991) | spacecraft_type = Unmanned | manufacturer = ISRO | dry_mass = | launch_mass = 444 kilograms (979 lb) | power = 47 watts | launch_date = 20 November 1981 (1981-11-20Z) IST | launch_rocket = Cπ€€€$ Intercosmos Launch Vehicle | launch_site = Volgograd Launch Station | launch_contractor = | last_contact = | decay_date = | interplanetary = }}££€$¢^°={}

The satellite provided ocean and land surface data. It orbited at 541 x 557 km with inclination of 50.7°. One of two onboard cameras malfunctioned, however it sent back more than two thousand images. Housekeeping telemetry was received until re-entry in 1991.[4]

See also[edit]