Black rice

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Black Rice
Black rice as sold in China

Black rice (also known as purple rice) is a range of rice types of the species Oryza sativa L., some of which are glutinous rice. Varieties include Indonesian black rice, Philippine balatinaw rice,[1] and Thai jasmine black rice. Black rice is known as chak-hao in Manipur, an Indian state on the eastern border with Myanmar, where desserts made from black rice are served at major feasts. Black rice is a source of iron, vitamin E, and antioxidants. The bran hull (outermost layer) of black rice contains one of the highest levels of anthocyanins found in food.[2] The grain has a similar amount of fiber to brown rice and, like brown rice, has a mild, nutty taste.[3]

Black rice has a deep black color and usually turns deep purple when cooked. Its dark purple color is primarily due to its anthocyanin content,[4] which is higher by weight than that of other colored grains.[5][6] It is suitable for creating porridge, dessert, traditional Chinese black rice cake, bread, and noodles.

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References[edit]

  1. ^ "Heirloom rice preserved, made productive". Philippine Rice Research Institute. Department of Agriculture, Philippines. Retrieved 29 June 2018.
  2. ^ Yao, S. L.; Xu, Y; Zhang, Y. Y.; Lu, Y. H. (2013). "Black rice and anthocyanins induce inhibition of cholesterol absorption in vitro". Food & Function. 4 (11): 1602–8. doi:10.1039/c3fo60196j. PMID 24056583.
  3. ^ "Food Grains of India". 232-234. 1892: 234. JSTOR 4102547.
  4. ^ Oikawa, T.; Maeda, H.; Oguchi, T.; Yamaguchi, T.; Tanabe, N.; Ebana, K. Yano; M., Ebitani; T., Izawa, T. (2015). "The birth of a black rice gene and its local spread by introgression". Plant Cell. doi:10.1105/tpc.115.00310 (inactive 2018-03-23).
  5. ^ Ichikawa, Haruyo; Ichiyanagi, Takashi; Xu, Bing; Yoshii, Yoichi; Nakajima, Masaharu; Konishi, Tetsuya (2001). "Antioxidant Activity of Anthocyanin Extract from Purple Black Rice". Journal of Medicinal Food. 4 (4): 211. doi:10.1089/10966200152744481. PMID 12639403.
  6. ^ Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M; Young, J. Christopher; Rabalski, Iwona (2006). "Anthocyanin Composition in Black, Blue, Pink, Purple, and Red Cereal Grains". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 54 (13): 4696. doi:10.1021/jf0606609. PMID 16787017.