British Israelism

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Not to be confused with Israelis in the United Kingdom or British Jews.
An 1890 book advocating British Israelism. According to the doctrine, the Lost Ten tribes of Israel found their way to Western Europe and Britain, becoming ancestors of the British and related peoples.


British Israelism (also called Anglo-Israelism) is a doctrine holding that the people of "England (Great Britain)" are "genetically, racially, and linguistically the direct descendants" of the Ten Lost Tribes of ancient Israel. The movement includes the claim that the British Royal Family is directly descended from the line of King David.[1] With roots in the 16th century, British Israelism was inspired by several 19th-century English writings, notably John Wilson's 1840 "Lectures on our Israelitish Origin".[2] The movement never had a head organisation or a centralized structure. Various British Israelite organisations were set up throughout the British Empire and in America from the 1870s; a number of such organisations are still active today. In America, its ideas gave rise to the Christian Identity movements.

The central tenets of British Israelism have been refuted by evidence from modern archaeological,[3] ethnological,[4] genetic, and linguistic research.[5]

History of the movement[edit]

Earliest recorded expressions[edit]

According to Brackney (2012) and Fine (2015), the French Hugenot magistrate M. le Loyer's The Ten Lost Tribes, published in 1590, provided the first expression that "Anglo-Saxon, Celtic, Scandinavian, Germanic, and associated cultures"[6] were direct descendants of the ancient Israelites.[1] Anglo-Israelism has also been attributed to Sir Francis Drake and King James I,[6] who believed he was the King of Israel.[1] Adriaan van Schrieck (1560-1621), who influenced Henry Spelman (1562-1641) and John Sadler (1615-1674), wrote in the early 17th century about his ideas on the origins of the Celtic and Saxon peoples. In 1649, Sadler published The Rights of the Kingdom, "which argues for an 'Israelite genealogy for the British people'".[6]

Aspects of British Israelism and influences have also been traced to Richard Brothers in 1794, John Wilson's Our Israelitish Origins (1840s), and John Pym Yeatman's The Shemetic Origin of the Nations of Western Europe (1879).

Foundation[edit]

British Israelism arose in England, then spread to the United States.[7] British-Israelists cite various medieval manuscripts to claim an older origin, but British Israelism as a distinct movement appeared in the early 1880s:

Although scattered British Israel societies are known to have existed as early as 1872, there was at first no real move to develop an organization beyond the small groups of believers which had arisen spontaneously. The beginnings of the movement as an identifiable religious force can, therefore, be more accurately placed in the 1880's when the circumstances of the time were particularly propitious for the appearance of a movement so imperialistically-orientated.[8]

Heyday, end of the 19th and early 20th centuries[edit]

At the end of the 19th century, Edward Hine, Edward Wheeler Bird, and Herbert Aldersmith developed the British Israelite movement. The extent to which the clergy in Britain became aware of the movement may be gauged from the comment made by Cardinal John Henry Newman (1801–1890) when asked why he had left the Church of England in 1845 to join the Roman Catholic Church. He said that there was a very real danger that the movement "would take over the Church of England."[9]

By the 1890s, the "Anglo-Israel Association" had 300 members; it was based in Britain and founded in 1879 by physician George Moore.[10] Hine later departed for the United States where he promoted the idea overseas.[11]

At the time of its publishing in 1906, the Jewish Encyclopedia states adherents "are said to number 2,000,000 in England and the United States"[12]

Between 1899 and 1902, adherents of British Israelism dug up parts of the Hill of Tara in the belief that the Ark of the Covenant was buried there, doing much damage to one of Ireland's most ancient royal and archaeological sites.[13] At the same time, British Israelism became associated with various pseudo-archaeological pyramidology theories, such as the notion that the Pyramid of Khufu contained a prophetic numerology of the British peoples.[14]

In 1914, the thirty-fourth year of its publication, the Anglo-Israel Almanac listed details of a large number of Kingdom Identity Groups operating independently throughout the British Isles and in Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Canada, and the United States of America.[citation needed]

In 1919, the British-Israel-World Federation (BIWF) was founded in London, and Covenant Publishing was founded in 1922. William Pascoe Goard was the first director of the publishing house. During this time, several prominent figures patronized the BIWF organization and its publisher; Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone was Patron-in-chief in pre-World War II days. One of the most notable members was William Massey, then Prime Minister of New Zealand. Due to the expansive nature of the British Empire, believers in British Israelism spread worldwide and the BIWF expanded its organization to the commonwealth. Howard Rand promoted the teaching and became National Commissioner of the Anglo-Saxon Federation of America in 1928. He published The Bulletin, later renamed The Messenger of the Covenant. More recently, it has been renamed Destiny.[15]

During its heyday in the early 20th century, British Israelism was also supported by John Fisher, 1st Baron Fisher. A prolific author on British Israelism during the later 1930s and 40s was Alexander James Ferris.

Contemporary movement[edit]

Orange Street Congregational Church, London

The BIWF continues to exist, with its main headquarters located in Bishop Auckland in County Durham.[16] It also has chapters in Australia, Canada, The Netherlands, New Zealand and South Africa.[17]

In 1968, one source estimated that there were between 3,000 and 5,000 British Israelites in Britain.[18]

In Britain, the theology of British Israelism has been taught by a few small Pentecostal churches. The espousal of British Israelism by George Jeffreys, founder of the Elim Pentecostal Church, led to a schism, precipitating his 1939 resignation and formation of the Bible-Pattern Church Fellowship,[19] which continues to teach the doctrine.[20]

In London, the Orange Street Congregational Church teaches a form of British Israelism,[21] and the Ensign Trust publishes The Ensign Message in its furtherance.

In Australia, the Christian Revival Crusade founded by Leo Harris once taught this theology but abandoned it. The Revival Centres International continues to teach the doctrine, a prominent group that separated from the Crusade, along with other splinter groups. The "Churches of God" in Ireland are also known for their teaching on this subject.

Herbert Armstrong[edit]

The teaching of British Israelism was vigorously promoted beginning in the 1960s by Herbert W. Armstrong,[15] founder and former Pastor General of the Worldwide Church of God. Armstrong believed that the teaching was a key to understanding biblical prophecy: "One might ask, were not biblical prophecies closed and sealed? Indeed they were—until now! And even now they can be understood only by those who possess the master key to unlock them."[22] Armstrong believed that he was called by God to proclaim the prophecies to the Lost Tribes of Israel before the "end-times".[23][unreliable source?] Armstrong's belief caused his separation from the Church of God Seventh Day because of its refusal to adopt the teaching.

Armstrong created his own church, first called the "Radio Church of God" and later renamed the "Worldwide Church of God".[23] He described British Israelism as a "central plank" of his theology.[24]

After Armstrong's death, his former church abandoned its belief in British Israelism and changed its name to Grace Communion International (GCI) in 2009. It offers an explanation for the doctrine's origin and its abandonment by the church at its official website.[23] Church members who disagreed with such doctrinal changes left the Worldwide Church of God/GCI to form offshoot churches. Many of these organizations still teach British Israelism, including the Philadelphia Church of God, the Living Church of God, and the United Church of God. Armstrong promoted other genealogical history theories, such as teaching that modern-day Germany now represents ancient Assyria. He wrote in chapter 5 of his Mystery of the Ages (1985), "The Assyrians settled in central Europe, and the Germans, undoubtedly, are, in part, the descendants of the ancient Assyrians." (p. 183).

Tenets[edit]

All Israelites Are Not Jews[edit]

Adherents believe the Twelve Tribes of Israel are the twelve sons of the patriarch Jacob (who was later named Israel). Jacob elevated the descendants of Ephraim and Manasseh (the two sons of Joseph) to the status of full tribes in their own right, replacing the tribe of Joseph. A division occurred among the twelve tribes in the days of Jeroboam and Rehoboam, with the three tribes of Judah, Benjamin and partially Levi, forming the Kingdom of Judah, and the remaining ten tribes forming the Kingdom of Israel (Samaria).[25] Ergo "the great bulk of Israelites are not the Jews".[26][27][28] W. E. Filmer, writing in 1964, suggested that the fact that some Jews continue to search for the ten lost tribes implies that their representatives are not found among modern, historically multi-ethnic, Jews.[29] A number of British-Israelites quote Josephus to support their claim that the lost tribes of Israel are not the Jews: "the entire body of the people of Israel remained in that country; wherefore there are but two tribes in Asia and Europe subject to the Romans, while the ten tribes are beyond the Euphrates till now, and are an immense multitude."[30][31][32][33]

Connecting the deported Israelites with the Saka[edit]

Jehu kneeling at the feet of Shalmaneser III on the Black Obelisk.

The key component of British Israelism is its representation of the migrations of the Lost Tribes of Israel. Adherents believe that the Behistun Inscription connects the people known as Saka, Sacae, or Scythians (in Old Persian and Elamite) with the people known as Gimirri or Cimmerians (in Babylonian).

A further teaching is that the deported Israelites are synonymous with the Saka/Sacae by virtue of having the same root as "Isaac," as asserted (on the History Channel) by Biblical archaeologist E. Raymond Capt, for which he also relies on another superficial resemblance between King Jehu's pointed headdress and that of the captive Saka king seen to the far right on the Behistun Rock.[34]

Connecting the Saka-Scythians to the Celts[edit]

Adherents say that Saka-Scythians (whom they believe to be the Lost Tribes of Israel) migrated north and west after Cyrus the Great conquered the city of Babylon, and were forced yet further north and west by migrating/invading Sarmatians.[citation needed]

Great Britain & The U.S.A. Identified as Israel[edit]

A commonly found British-Israel doctrine is that the Tribe of Ephraim and the Tribe of Manasseh can be identified as modern day Britain and the United States of America.[35][36][37] British-Israel adherents cite numerous theological, semiotics, archaeological, and ethnological resources as proofs.

Jacob’s Birthright - Ephraim and Manasseh[edit]

Part of the foundation of the British-Israel doctrine is the theological claim that particular blessings were bestowed upon three of the tribes of Israel,[38][39][37][40] in that the tribe of Judah was to be the 'chief ruler' eg King David, and that Ephraim was to receive the birthright (See Jacob and Esau). Adherents believe that these blessings have continued down through the ages to modern times, with the British Monarchy identified as the continued blessing upon Judah, and both Britain (Ephraim) and the USA (Manasseh) as recipients of the national birthright blessing. They cite passages such as 1 Chron 5:1-2 and Gen 48:19-20 as supporting this.

Scots are of Scythian Ancestry[edit]

The 'Tyninghame' copy of the Declaration from 1320 AD

Anglo-Israelism claims that the Scythians were the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel.[41] The ancient Persians called all the Scyths Σάκαι (Sacae, Herodotus 7.64), however the Scythians called themselves Scoloti. (Herodotus 4.6)[citation needed] Bede (died 735) had linked the Picts to the Scythians, but the British Israelists suggested that he had confused the two tribes of Scotland, and that it was the Scotti (Scots) who were one with the Scoloti (Scyths).[42] They drew support from the 14th-century Declaration of Arbroath,[43] which begins:

"Most Holy Father and Lord, we know and from the chronicles and books of the ancients we find that among other famous nations our own, the Scots, has been graced with widespread renown. They journeyed from Greater Scythia by way of the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Pillars of Hercules, and dwelt for a long course of time in Spain among the most savage tribes, but nowhere could they be subdued by any race, however barbarous. Thence they came, twelve hundred years after the people of Israel crossed the Red Sea, to their home in the west where they still live today."[44]

British Israelists accept that these linguistic links tie the Scots to the Lost Tribes via the Scythians,[45] and British-Israel Associations cite the Declaration as evidence supporting this origin.[46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][unreliable source?]

Relation to Christian Identity[edit]

While both early British Israelites such as Edward Hine and John Wilson and current followers have been philo-semites, the seeds of anti-semitism have lurked beneath the surface, such as in Wilson's denial of the racial purity of modern Jews, the dismissal of them as 'un-Semitic impostors'.[55] British Israelism itself had several Jewish members and it received support from rabbis throughout the 19th century; within British politics it supported Benjamin Disraeli, who was descended from Sephardi Jews.[56][57] A variant of British Israelism formed the basis for a racialized, strongly anti-Semitic theology that became known as Christian Identity,[58] which has at its core the belief that non-Caucasian people have no souls and therefore cannot be saved.[59] Emerging in the 1920s, Christian Identity began teaching that the Jews are not descended from the tribe of Judah (as British Israelites maintain) at all, but are instead descended from Satan & Lilith or Edomite-Khazars.[60] The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) describes the emergence of Christian Identity from British Israelism as an 'ugly turn':

Once on American shores, British-Israelism began to evolve. Originally, believers viewed contemporary Jews as descendants of those ancient Israelites who had never been "lost." They might be seen critically but, given their significant role in the British-Israel genealogical scheme, not usually with animosity. By the 1930s, however, in the U.S., a strain of antisemitism started to permeate the movement (though some maintained traditional beliefs—and a small number of traditionalists still exist in the U.S.)[61]

Another source describes the emergence of Christian Identity from British Israelism as a "remarkable transition", paradoxically, from their philo-semitic origins to antisemitism and racism.[62] Their adoption of the British Israelist belief that the Israelite-derived Anglo-Saxons had been favored by God over the 'impure' modern Jews meant that a reluctantly anti-Semitic Klansman "could now maintain his anti-Semitism and at the same time revere a Bible cleansed of its Jewish taint."[63]

Claims and Criticism[edit]

British Israelism has been criticized for poor research and scholarship. The Encyclopedia Britannica summarises in 1910 that: "The theory [of British-Israelism] rests on premises which are deemed by scholars - both theological and anthropological - to be utterly unsound".[64] Current scholarship is not consistent with the claims of British Israelism, with scholars drawing attention to its "historical and linguistic inaccuracies" in addition to its links to antisemitism.[1] Hale (2015) refers to "the overwhelming cultural, historical and genetic evidence against it."[65]

Research standards[edit]

Critics of British Israelism note that the arguments presented by promoters of the teaching are based on unsubstantiated and highly speculative amateur research. Tudor Parfitt, author of The Lost Tribes: The History of a Myth, states that the proof cited by adherents of British Israelism is "of a feeble composition even by the low standards of the genre."[66]

Historical linguistics[edit]

Adherents have felt "that if, as the Prophet Hosea declared, Israel was to lose their religion and become lost in paganism, it would eventually speak the tongue of it's pagan masters.".[67] According to British-Israel doctrine, the ten lost tribes have been dwelling among Indo-European speaking nations for over 2,520 years.

Some proponents of British Israelism claim numerous links in historical linguistics between ancient Hebrew and various European place names and languages.[68] This can be traced to the works of John Wilson in the 19th century. Wilson, who was self-trained, looked for similarities in the sounds of words and argued that many Scottish, British and Irish words stemmed from ancient Hebrew. Wilson's publications inspired the development of British Israel language associations in Europe.[69]

Other links are claimed, but they cannot be substantiated and they contradict the findings of academic linguistic research.[citation needed] This shows conclusively that the languages of the British Isles (English, Welsh, and Gaelic) belong to the Indo-European language family, while Hebrew is a Semitic language of the Afroasiatic language family.[70] In 1906, T.R. Lounsbury stated that “no trace of the slightest real connection can be discovered” between English and ancient Hebrew,[71] while Michael Friedman in 1993 wrote of these claims that "the actual evidence could hardly be any weaker."[69]

Scriptural interpretation[edit]

Adherents of British Israelism cite various scriptures in support of the argument that the "lost" Northern Israelite Tribes migrated through Europe to end up in Britain.[citation needed] Dimont (1933) argues that British Israelists misunderstand and misinterpret the meaning of these scriptures.[72]

One such case is the distinction that British Israelists make between the “Jews” of the Southern Kingdom and the “Israelites” of the Northern Kingdom. They believe that the Bible consistently distinguishes between the two groups.[citation needed] Dimont says that many of these scriptures are misinterpreted because the distinction between “Jews” and “Israelites” was lost over time after the captivities.[citation needed]

British Israelists believe that the Northern Tribes of Israel lost their identity after the captivity in Assyria and that this is reflected in the Bible.[citation needed] Dimont disagrees with this assertion and argues that only higher ranking Israelites were deported from Israel and many Israelites remained.[73] He cites examples after the Assyrian captivity, such as Josiah, King of Judah, who received money from the tribes of “Manasseh, and Ephraim and all the remnant of Israel” (2 Chronicles 34:9), and Hezekiah, who sent invitations not only to Judah, but also to northern Israel for the attendance of a Passover in Jerusalem. (2 Chronicles 30);[74] British Israelites interpret 2 Chronicles 34:9 as referring to "Scythians".[citation needed]

British Israelism states that the Bible refers to the Lost Tribes of Israel as dwelling in “isles” (Isaiah 49:1, 3), which they interpret to mean the British Isles.[citation needed] The Jewish Encyclopedia asserts that the word “isles” used in English-language bibles should more accurately be interpreted to mean “coasts” or “distant lands” “without any implication of their being surrounded by the sea.”[12] The figurative interpretation of dwelling in their own isolated communities in a sea of Gentiles is in keeping with Assyrian resettlement policies.

Dimont is also critical of the interpretations of biblical prophecy embraced by the movement, saying, "Texts are torn from their context, and misapplied without the slightest regard to their original meaning."[75]

Historical speculation[edit]

British Israelism rests on linking different ancient populations. This includes linking the "lost" tribes of Israel with the Scythians, Cimmerians, Celts, and modern Western Europeans such as the British. To support these links, some adherents believe that similarities exist between various cultural aspects of these population groups, and they argue that these links demonstrate the migration of the "lost" Israelites in a westerly direction. Examples given include burial customs, metalwork, clothing, dietary customs, and more.[76] Dimont argues that the customs of the Scythians and the Cimmerians are in contrast with those of the Ancient Israelites,[77] and further dismisses the connection between these populations and the Saxons and Celts, particularly criticing then-current formulations of British Israelism that would interject Semites between the closely-related English and Germans.[78]

The Scythian origin of the Scots has been referred to as mythical.[79][80] Algernon Herbert, writing in 1848, characterized the linguistic derivation of Scots from Scoloti as "strictly impossible",[79] and Merrill (2005) referred to it as false etymology,[42] while Klieforth and Munro (2004) refer to the appearance of this origin myth in the Declaration of Arbroath as "propaganda put into this document to support the nobles' claim to a national identity." Modern scholars do derive the Scots from a migrating peoples, but Celts, not Scythians.[80]

Ideology[edit]

Parfitt suggests that the idea of British Israelism was inspired by numerous ideological factors, such as the desire for ordinary people to have a glorious ancestral past, pride in the British Empire, and the belief in the "racial superiority of white Anglo-Saxon Protestants".[68] Kidd called its theology a "quasi-heresy", serving to "blunt the universalist message apparent in the New Testament".[81]

Separately the mythology of British Israelism has been cited as fostering "nationalistic bellicosity".[82] To some adherents, British Israelism served as justification for British colonialism and imperialism, and perhaps even genocide, while also feeding American Manifest Destiny.[83] It has been characterized as "fundamentally about providing a rationale for Anglo-Saxon superiority."[84]

Notable adherents[edit]

Poole, WH, Anglo-Israel 

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Brackney, William H. Historical Dictionary of Radical Christianity. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810873650. Retrieved 9 April 2017. 
  2. ^ Eller, Jack David (2007). Introducing Anthropology of Religion: Culture to the Ultimate. p. 291. ISBN 1138024910. 
  3. ^ Melton, J. Gordon (2005). Encyclopedia of Protestantism. New York: Facts on File, Inc. p. 107. ISBN 0-8160-5456-8. 
  4. ^ Cross, Frank Leslie; Livingstone, Elizabeth A. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780192802903. 
  5. ^ Shapiro, Faydra L. (2015). Christian Zionism: Navigating the Jewish-Christian Border. Eugene, OR: Cascade Books. p. 151. 
  6. ^ a b c Fine, Jonathan (2015). Political Violence in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam: From Holy War to Modern Terror. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9781442247567. Retrieved 9 April 2017. 
  7. ^ Parfitt 2003, pp. 52–65.
  8. ^ Wilson, 1968a
  9. ^ Strong 1986, p. 86.
  10. ^ Simpson, 2002.
  11. ^ Parfitt 2003, p. 56.
  12. ^ a b Singer, Isidore, ed. (1906). Jewish Encyclopedia: Anglo-Israelism. Funk and Wagnalls. p. 600. ASIN B01K2CBAKE. ISBN 978-1117918952. 
  13. ^ Indy media, IE .
  14. ^ Moshenska, G. (2008). 'The Bible in Stone': Pyramids, Lost Tribes and Alternative Archaeologies". Public Archaeology. 7(1): 5–16.
  15. ^ a b Parfitt 2003, p. 57.
  16. ^ "Contact Us". The British-Israel-World Federation. The British-Israel-World Federation. Retrieved 24 August 2015. 
  17. ^ "Other British-Israel Organisations". The British-Israel-World Federation. The British-Israel-World Federation. Retrieved 24 August 2015. 
  18. ^ Wilson, 1968c.
  19. ^ a b Anderson, Allan Heaton (2014). An Introduction to Pentecostalism: Global Charismatic Christianity (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 101–102. 
  20. ^ Wilson, B. R. (1973). "American Religion: Its Impact on Britain". In den Hollander, A. N. J. Contagious Conflict: The Impact of American Dissent on European Life. Leiden: E. J. Brill. p. 244. 
  21. ^ Orange Street Congregational Church, retrieved 19 May 2007.
  22. ^ Armstrong, Herbert (1967). The United States and Britain in Prophecy. p. 5. 
  23. ^ a b c Orr, R (1999), How Anglo-Israelism Entered Seventh-day Churches of God: A history of the doctrine from John Wilson to Joseph W. Tkach, retrieved July 19, 2007 .
  24. ^ Joseph Tkach, "Transformed by Truth: The Worldwide Church of God Rejects the Teachings of Founder Herbert W Armstrong and Embraces Historic Christianity. This is the Inside Story"
  25. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica (11th ed.). p. vol. 15, p. 373. 
  26. ^ Allen 1917, p. 71.
  27. ^ Harmsworth’s History Volume 3. pp. 1781–1782, 1784–1785. 
  28. ^ "The DNA of Western European Nations". British Israel Basics. Canadian British-Israel Association. 
  29. ^ Filmer, W. E. (1964). A Synopsis of the Migrations of Israel. Covenant Books. p. 5. ISBN 0852050615. 
  30. ^ Josephus, Flavius. Antiquities. p. 11:133. 
  31. ^ Allen 1917, p. 247.
  32. ^ "British-Israel Answers its Critics". The British-Israel Church of God. 
  33. ^ Poole, William Henry (1879). Anglo-Israel; Or, The British Nation the Lost Tribes of Israel. Bengough Bros. p. 23. ISBN 1330950690. 
  34. ^ Capt, E. Raymond (1985), Missing Links Discovered in Assyrian Tablets, Artisan, ISBN 0-934666-15-6 .
  35. ^ Ferris, A. J. (1941). Great Britain & The U.S.A. Revealed as Israel The New Order. 
  36. ^ Glover, Frederick Robert Augustus (1881). England, the Remnant of Judah and the Israel of Ephraim. Rivingtons. 
  37. ^ a b Armstrong, Herbert W. (2007). The United States and Britain in Prophecy. Philadelphia Church of God. ASIN B002ILY91A. 
  38. ^ Wild, Joseph (1888). The Future of Israel and Judah: Being the Discourses on the Lost Tribes from How and when the World Will End. Nabu Press. p. 108. ISBN 9781287712565. 
  39. ^ The Standard of Israel and journal of the Anglo-Israel association. 1875. p. 8. 
  40. ^ Allen 1917, p. 317.
  41. ^ Benite, Zvi Ben-Dor (2009). The Ten Lost Tribes: A World History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0199324530. 
  42. ^ a b Merrill, A. H. (2005). History and Geography in Late Antiquity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 284–5. 
  43. ^ Allen 1917, pp. 262.
  44. ^ "Declaration of Arbroath - English Translation". Constitution Society. 
  45. ^ Allen 1917, pp. 285-296.
  46. ^ Ogwyn, John H. The United States and Britain in Prophecy. pp. 27–28. 
  47. ^ "Traditions of Israelite Descent in Scotland". Brit-Am. 
  48. ^ "The Union of Two Kingdoms". The British-Israel-World Federation. 
  49. ^ "Origins of Anglo-Israelism". The Association of the Covenant People. 
  50. ^ "THE SCOTTISH DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE". The Ensign Message. 
  51. ^ "Scotland's Christian Heritage". Christian Assemblies International. 
  52. ^ Capt, E Raymond. Scottish Declaration of Independence - Scotland's Most Precious Possession. 
  53. ^ "The Scottish Declaration of Independence.". JAH Publications. 
  54. ^ Foster, Thomas (1986). Britain's Royal Throne: How long will it last, what does the Bible say. Blackbourn, Victoria. Australia.: Acacia Press. pp. 60–62. ISBN 0 9597206 6 9. 
  55. ^ Kidd 2006, pp. 207,210.
  56. ^ Quarles 2004, pp. 13–19.
  57. ^ Life From The Dead, 1875, Vol. III, p. 154.
  58. ^ Barkun 2003, p. xii.
  59. ^ Quarles 2004, p. 68.
  60. ^ Barkun, pp. 62–97.
  61. ^ "Christian Identity". Anti-Defamation League. 
  62. ^ Quarles 2004, p. 13.
  63. ^ Phillips, Michael (2006). White Metropolis: Race, Ethnicity, and Religion in Dallas, 1841-2001. University of Texas Press. p. 95.  Unknown parameter |lcoation= ignored (help)
  64. ^ The Encyclopedia Britannica. 11th edn. 1910. Vol.II, page 31.
  65. ^ Hale, (2015), 181
  66. ^ Parfitt 2003, p. 61.
  67. ^ Poole, William Henry (1889). Anglo-Israel: Or, The Saxon Race, Proved to be the Lost Tribes of Israel. In Nine Lectures. W. Briggs. pp. 299–300. 
  68. ^ a b Parfitt 2003, p. 62
  69. ^ a b Quarles 2004, pp. 33.
  70. ^ Warf, Barney (2006). "Language, Geography of". Encyclopedia of Human Geography. Thousand Oaks CA: SAGE Publications. pp. 270–275. 
  71. ^ Lounsbury, T (1906). History of the English Language. pp. 1, 12–13. 
  72. ^ Dimont 1933, pp. 5-7.
  73. ^ Dimont 1933, p. 5.
  74. ^ Dimont 1933, p. 6.
  75. ^ Dimont 1933, p. 18.
  76. ^ "The United States and Britain in Bible Prophecy". UCG. Retrieved 2009-01-14. 
  77. ^ Dimont 1933, pp. 7-10.
  78. ^ Dimont 1933, pp. 10-11.
  79. ^ a b Todd, James Henthorn (1848). The Irish Version of the Historia Britonum of Nennius. Dublin: Irish Archæological Society. p. xcvii. 
  80. ^ a b Klieforth, Alexander Leslie; Munro, Robert John (2004). The Scottish invention of America, Democracy and Human Rights: A History of Liberty and Freedom from the Ancient Celts to the New Millennium. Dallas: University Press of America, Inc. p. 5. 
  81. ^ Kidd 2006, p. 204.
  82. ^ Pearse, Meic (2007). The Gods of War: Is Religion the Primary cause of Violent Conflict?. InterVarsity Press. pp. 104–105. 
  83. ^ Kidd 2006, pp. 212-213.
  84. ^ Aikau, Hokulani K. (2012). A Chosen People, a Promised Land: Mormonism and Race in Hawai'i. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. p. 38. 
  85. ^ Eddy, Mary Baker, The United States and Great Britain as Anglo Israel (poem), Read book online, archived from the original on 2011-05-13 .
  86. ^ Strong 1986.
  87. ^ "Northern Ireland: Ulster museum of Creationism", The Guardian, May 26, 2010 .

Sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Baron, David (1915), The History of the Ten "Lost" Tribes: Anglo-Israelism Examined .
  • Darms, Anton (1945). The Delusion of British Israelism: A comprehensive Treatise. Loiseaux Brothers, Bible Truth Depot. ASIN B01NBNXA8N. 
  • Jowett, George F (1980) [1961]. The Drama of the Lost Disciples. London: Covenant Publishing Company Ltd. ASIN B003VP662W. . A work of theoretical history which covers many relevant themes of Biblical and British connections.
  • Kellogg, Howard, British-Israel Identity, Los Angeles: American Prophetic League .
  • Kossy, Donna (2001) [1994], "The Anglo-Israelites", Kooks: A Guide to the Outer Limits of Human Belief (2nd exp. ed.), Los Angeles: Feral House, ISBN 978-0-922915-67-5 .
  • May, HG (16 September 1943), "The Ten Lost Tribes", Biblical Archeologist, 16: 55–60 .
  • McQuaid, Elwood (Dec./Jan. 1977–78), "Who Is a Jew? British-Israelism versus the Bible", Israel My Glory: 35 .
  • Clark, Michael A (2009). The Continuing Kingdom of God Upon Earth. Without doubt -- The Greatest Love Story of All Time. The British-Israel-World Federation, Co Durham,UK. ISBN 978-085205-075-0. 
  • Clark, Michael A (2016). The Many Nations of Israel. A Vision Extraordinary (based on works of Anderson, C L). The Kingdom Foundation, Co Durham, UK. 

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