Page semi-protected

Burhan Wani

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Burhan Muzaffar Wani)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Burhan Wani
Burhan Wani.jpg
Born1994[1]
Dadasara, Tral, Jammu and Kashmir
Died8 July 2016 (aged 21[2] or 22[3])
Bumdoora, Kokernag, Jammu and Kashmir
Buried
Tral, Jammu and Kashmir
AllegianceHizbul Mujahideen (2011–2016)[4][5][6]
Activity years2010–2016
RankCommander
Battles/warsKashmir conflict

Burhan Muzaffar Wani was a commander of the militant organisation Hizbul Mujahideen, active in Kashmir.[7] He wielded massive popularity among the local populace through social media presence, and helped in conveying a more youth-oriented image of militancy in Kashmir, recruiting numerous foot-soldiers to the cause.[8]

Burhan Wani was actively sought after by Indian security forces with a hefty bounty being imposed on his head, and was finally killed on 8 July 2016 in a shootout. The killing sparked massive protests across the Kashmir Valley[7][9][10] in what became the worst span of unrest in the region since 2010.[11][12] As a result, Kashmir was placed under 53 consecutive days of curfew, which was only fully lifted on 31 August 2016.[13][14][15] In entirety, the protests resulted in the deaths of more than 96 people[16][17][18][19][20] and injuries to over 15,000 civilians and 4,000 security personnel.[21][22]

Biography

Burhan Wani was born in Dadsara village of Tral area in Pulwama district, Jammu and Kashmir to Muzaffar Ahmad Wani, principal of a government higher secondary school and Maimoona Muzaffar, a postgraduate of science who taught Quran in her village.[23] He had four siblings, including his elder brother Khalid Muzaffar Wani, sister Iram Muzaffar and two younger brothers, one of whom is Naveed Alam.[24][25][23][26] TraI has been a perpetual hot-bed of hardliner separatist insurgency.[27]

Burhan Wani planned to be a doctor and had obtained more than 90% marks in his Class 8 exam[28] but left his home on 16 October 2010, ten days before his secondary exam and enrolled for the militant cause at about an age of 15, joining Hizbul Mujahideen.[29][7] His family claims that the root of his disillusion with Indian state apparatus laid in an incident in the last summer, whence state police allegedly beat him up, along with his brother Khalid and a friend for no fault of theirs, after asking them to purchase cigarettes for them.[30][27][23] Burhan's cousins were already involved with the militant movement since about 2008, and had joined Hizbul Mujahideen in 2010.[27]

Burhan Wani used social-media as a tool of potent information-warfare[a] leveraging "a clever mix of ideology, religion and a deep sense of persecution"[27] in chaste Kashmiri to romanticize the militant movement and wielded unforeseen influence in the local populace as a poster-boy, attracting numerous young adults into the cause.[27][31][32] He oft-elaborated about the idea of India being entirely incompatible with Islam thus mandating a destruction at any cost, and aimed of unfurling the flag of Islam on Delhi's Red Fort.[28] In 2013 Burhan's notability as a mujahid was further boosted, after he was erroneously described as being killed, across social media.[33]

There was a remarkable increase in the anti-India rhetoric of Burhan's speeches, after his brother Khalid was killed by the Indian Army on 13 April 2015 when he went to meet him (Burhan), along with three friends. The army claimed that Khalid was a militant sympathizer who had taken his friends to get them recruited and was subsequently killed in an encounter. The family of Khalid however alleged that he died in custody, claiming that his body showed no bullet wounds but clinical signs of physical torture.[34][27][35] The three friends of Khalid meanwhile escaped but ran into an army cordon, where they alleged being tortured before being rescued by the state police.[27]

In August 2015, the state government imposed a bounty of 1 million on Burhan's head.[31] A Facebook post about a month back showing Burhan along with 10 other militants in militant attire with heavy arms had gone viral in Kashmir.[23] The videos however continued, with him urging people to take up arms against the state and refusing to collaborate with Indian elements.[32] Police have often approached the judiciary, for enacting bans on social networking pages that disseminated Burhan's messages.[28] In a video released in June 2016, he assured the Amarnath pilgrims of a safe passage[36] but had threatened to attack proposed resettlement colonies for Kashmiri Pandits, in opposition to an Israel-like solution, and colonies for armed forces. He also urged the state-police to stay out of their way, threatening to attack all security forces.[36] Although no attack has ever been traced back to him, he is believed to have masterminded several of them.[26]

Death

Burhan Wani was killed in an anti insurgency operation on 8 July 2016 along with two other militants, later identified as Sartaj Ahmad Sheikh and Pervaiz Ahmad Lashkari. He and his companions were killed in Bumdoora village in Kokernag area by a joint team of the special operations group of the Jammu and Kashmir Police and 19 Rashtriya Rifles.[37][38][39] Security forces later stated that the operation had actually begun on 7 June when Burhan, along with his companions, had come to Kokernag in order to procure weapons.[40] Some army and police officials later said that the security forces had received intelligence regarding the presence of Sheikh but did not know Wani too was present along with him.[41] The state's Chief Minister Mehbooba Mufti and the Deputy Chief Minister Nirmal Kumar Singh also stated that the security forces were unaware of his presence and would have given him a chance had they known about his presence there.[42][43]

According to police officials, the security forces faced resistance from locals who resorted to stone-pelting. The encounter began at 4:30 p.m. and ended at 6:15 p.m. The militants were hiding in a house during the operation and started firing on the troops conducting search operations. All three were killed in the ensuing encounter. Jammu and Kashmir Police's Director General K. Rajendra confirmed that Wani was killed in an exchange of fire between security personnel and the militants.[37][38][39]

The local residents denied awareness of Wani's presence in the village. According to them, the police arrived around noon and said that they were combing the area in preparation for an inauguration by the Chief Minister Mehbooba Mufti. They cordoned off the area by 4 p.m. and took positions around the house where Burhan and his associates were present. When the militants tried to come out and escape, they were shot down. After their death, hundreds of villagers came out mourning the death and clashed with the police, CRPF and attacked army camps in the area.[44] He is believed to have been succeeded by Sabzar Bhat.[45][46]

Reaction

A large crowd attended his funeral on 9 July. The crowd was estimated to number 200,000 and was described by reporters as the largest ever gathering.[47][48][49] The last rite prayers were also performed in absentia in all major towns of Kashmir.[50] His body wrapped in the flag of Pakistan was buried next to that of his brother Khalid in Tral.[25] Militants were also present at his funeral and offered him a three-volley salute.[51]

After the news of his death spread, violent protests erupted in some areas of Kashmir Valley.[52] Separatist leaders called for shutdown in Kashmir which was repeatedly extended before being called off in February 2017.[38][53] Police stations and security forces were attacked by mobs. Stone pelting was reported from many parts in Kashmir,[54][55] including upon transit camps of Kashmiri Pandits. Internet services along with train services were suspended and the national highway was shut down. The Amarnath pilgrimage was repeatedly resumed and suspended due to the unrest.[56][57][58][59][60] More than 200 Kashmiri Pandit employees fled the transit camps during night time on 12 July due to the attacks by protesters on the camps.[61][62] The house where Burhan was killed was set ablaze by a mob on suspicion that its residents had tipped-off the security forces about Burhan.[2] Curfew was imposed in all districts of Kashmir on 15 July and mobile phone networks were suspended.[63] The curfew was lifted from all parts on 31 August 2016.[13][14][15] More than 90 people died in the unrest[16][17][18][19] and over 15,000 civilians were injured.[21] Indian security forces reportedly used assault rifles to open fire on protestors.[64] Over 4,000 security personnel were also injured during the unrest.[22]

Peoples Democratic Party leader Muzaffar Hussain Baig alleged that the standard operating procedure had not been followed during the encounter involving Wani and his accomplices. Baig demanded that a commission be appointed to probe Wani's killing.[65] Deputy Chief Minister Nirmal Singh refused, stating that it was an anti-terrorist operation and there was no need for an inquiry.[66]

A day after Wani's death former Chief Minister of state Omar Abdullah said that his killing had made him the new icon of the disaffected section of the Kashmiri society and further warned that more Kashmiris will join the militancy after his death.[67] On 12 July, Pakistan's Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif in a statement expressed "shock" over the killing of Burhan Wani[68] which was criticised by the Indian government.[69] Sharif called Wani a "martyr" on 15 July. The Indian Ministry of External Affairs in response criticized Pakistan for "glorifying" terrorists belonging to proscribed terrorist organisations.[70] Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi criticised the media alleging it was portraying the slain Wani as a hero.[71] Pakistan's Ambassador to the United Nations Maleeha Lodhi during meeting with UN officials raised the killing of Wani describing it as an "assassination of a Kashmiri youth leader".[72] During his speech at the United Nations General Assembly on 21 September, Sharif described Burhan Wani as a "young leader" who had emerged as a symbol of the latest "Kashmiri Intifada".[73]

His family was allowed to be given ex-gratia compensation of Rs. 4 lakh by the Jammu and Kashmir government in December 2016 for the controversial killing of his older brother Khalid. This led to protest by opposition parties[74] as well as Bharatiya Janta Party.[75] Chief Minister Mufti denied on 18 January 2017 that any compensation has been paid.[76]

Legacy

In July 2017, Pakistan Today praised Wani and compared his death to the death of Che Guevara, citing "History repeats itself".[77]

On the Pakistani independence day in August 2017, Wani was featured on a special train named Azadi Train which was organised by Pakistan Railways in the memory of country's national heroes.[78]

He became the face of Kashmir independence movement,[citation needed] and was also compared with Bhagat Singh.[79][80][81]

Burhan Wani had released a group photo on 1 July 2015 of himself seated with 10 other militants, all armed and dressed in army fatigues, which went viral. The militants in the photo included Sabzar Ahmad Bhat, Waseem Malla, Naseer Ahmad Pandit, Ishfaq Hameed, Tariq Ahmad Pandit, Afaaquallah Bhat, Adil Ahmad Khanday, Saddam Padder, Waseem Ahmad Shah and Anees.[82] All of the militants in the photograph have been killed apart from Tariq who surrendered,[83] in May 2016.[84]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The use of social media in conflict is considered a form of information warfare.[85] In 2019 the Indian Defence Ministry "approved a new Information Warfare branch in the army to combat misinformation and false propaganda being spread through social media for adverse psychological impact."[86][87]

References

  1. ^ Irfan, Hakeem (2 August 2016). "Burhan Wani incident shows that homegrown militancy is back after a prolonged hiatus". The Economic Times. Retrieved 14 March 2017.
  2. ^ a b "Kashmir: Mob sets ablaze house in which Burhan Wani was killed". Deccan Chronicle. 14 July 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
  3. ^ Dutt, Barkha; Masoodi, Nazir; Pandey, Surabhi (9 July 2016). "Curfew In Srinagar, Amarnath Yatra Suspended After Hizbul's Wani Killed". NDTV. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
  4. ^ "J&K: Top Hizbul terrorist killed in encounter with security forces". Deccan Chronicle. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
  5. ^ "Hizbul Mujahideen 'poster boy' Burhan Wani killed in joint encounter", The Indian Express, 8 July 2016, archived from the original on 24 September 2016, retrieved 9 July 2016
  6. ^ "Burhan Wani killed", The Kashmir Monitor, archived from the original on 19 July 2016, retrieved 9 July 2016
  7. ^ a b c "Burhan Wani, Hizbul poster boy, killed in encounter". The Hindu. 9 July 2016. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
  8. ^ Bukhari, Shujaat (11 July 2016). "Why the death of militant Burhan Wani has Kashmiris up in arms". BBC. Retrieved 30 July 2016.
  9. ^ "This militant was a folk hero on social media. Now his death has roiled Indian Kashmir". The Washington Post. 11 July 2016. Retrieved 19 August 2017.
  10. ^ "Doctors stage protest in J-K against civilian deaths in Kashmir unrest". The Indian Express. Retrieved 17 August 2016. Kashmir Valley is on the boil since July 9, a day after Hizbul Mujahideen commander Burhan Wani was killed in an encounter with security forces in Anantnag district of south Kashmir. The widespread protests claimed the lives of 55 people and left over 6000 injured, with hundreds hit by pellets in their eyes as a result of which, doctors say, a number of youths have lost their eye sight.
  11. ^ "India's Modi lashes out at Pakistan, Pakistan hits back". Reuters. 15 August 2016. Retrieved 17 August 2016. Modi met national party leaders on Friday to seek ways to end the worst unrest in Kashmir since 2010.
  12. ^ "Five civilians killed, 31 injured in fresh firing in Kashmir; toll reaches 65". Hindustan Times. 17 August 2016. Retrieved 17 August 2016. The worst violence since 2010 — when the Valley was rocked by similar protests leaving scores dead and injured — has sparked a verbal spat between India and Pakistan, both blaming each other for the flare-up.
  13. ^ a b "Curfew lifted from Valley, one killed in clash in Sopore". Press Trust of India. 31 August 2016. Retrieved 31 August 2016.
  14. ^ a b Peerzada Ashiq (31 August 2016). "One killed, 100 injured in Valle". The Hindu. Retrieved 31 August 2016.
  15. ^ a b "Curfew lifted from entire Kashmir valley, says Div Com". Greater Kashmir. 31 August 2016. Retrieved 31 August 2016.
  16. ^ a b "2016 Unrest: Not even one probe into killings completed". Greater Kashmir. 6 December 2016. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
  17. ^ a b "Day 85 Toll 92: Hit by pellets on Sep 15, Budgam youth succumbs at SKIMS". Greater Kashmir. 1 October 2016. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
  18. ^ a b "Indian troops kill three suspected separatists in Kashmir". The Nation. Agence France-Presse. 24 January 2017. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
  19. ^ a b Yasir, Sameer (2 January 2017). "Kashmir unrest: What was the real death toll in the state in 2016?". Firstpost. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
  20. ^ "Kashmir Is Paralyzed by an 'Adored' Band of Militants". The New York Times. 14 November 2016. Retrieved 4 January 2017.
  21. ^ a b Akmali, Mukeet (23 January 2017). "After 15000 injuries, Govt to train forces in pellet guns". Greater Kashmir. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
  22. ^ a b "Pakistan fomenting trouble, but Modi will solve Kashmir issue: Mehbooba Mufti". The Times of India. 29 August 2016. Retrieved 30 August 2016.
  23. ^ a b c d "Guns 'n' poses: The new crop of militants in Kashmir". The Indian Express. 26 July 2015. Retrieved 24 July 2016.
  24. ^ "Violence breaks out in Tral after youth killed in 'gun battle' with Army". The Hindu. 15 April 2015. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
  25. ^ a b "Kashmir tense after Hizbul Mujahideen militant Burhan Wani's killing". International Business Times. 10 July 2016. Retrieved 10 July 2016.
  26. ^ a b Gupta, Piyasree (11 July 2016). "Who Was Burhan Wani And Why Is Kashmir Mourning Him?". HuffPost. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
  27. ^ a b c d e f g Bhat, Tariq (18 October 2015). "Groups of wrath". The Week.
  28. ^ a b c Rashid, Toufiq (19 August 2015), "Burhan Wani: The new face of Kashmiri militancy in virtual world", Hindustan Times, retrieved 20 January 2020
  29. ^ "Hizbul Commander Burhan Wani Killed in Encounter in Kashmir". News18.com. 8 July 2016. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
  30. ^ Maqbool, Majid. "A Year After Burhan Wani's Death, His Father Remembers His Life". The Caravan. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
  31. ^ a b Nazir Masoodi (17 August 2015). "Rs 10 Lakhs Offer to Find Burhan, 21, Who is All Over Social Media". NDTV. Retrieved 26 December 2015.
  32. ^ a b Rashid, Toufiq (26 August 2015). "In new video, J-K militant Burhan Wani asks youth to join him". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 26 December 2015.
  33. ^ Safi, Michael (8 July 2017). "WhatsApp warriors on the new frontline of Kashmir's conflict". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 July 2017. Among militants, the digital pioneer was a young Hizbul mujahideen commander called Burhan Wani. His rise to be the most-followed militant in Kashmir started by accident, local journalists say. Early in 2013, supporters thought the teenage Wani had been killed in a gunfight with security forces. As was traditional, pictures of the deceased militant flooded social media. Wani had actually survived the encounter, but was suddenly the best-known fighter in Kashmir.
  34. ^ "Violence breaks out in Tral after youth killed in 'gun battle' with Army". The Hindu. 15 April 2015. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
  35. ^ "'If my son was killed in encounter why his body didn't bear a bullet wound?'". The Indian Express. 14 April 2015. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
  36. ^ a b "Most-wanted terror leader assures safe Amarnath yatra". Daily News and Analysis. 8 June 2016. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
  37. ^ a b "Hizbul Mujahideen terrorist Burhan Wani killed in J&K encounter". The Times of India. 8 July 2016. Retrieved 30 July 2016.
  38. ^ a b c Ehsan, Mir (9 July 2016). "Kashmir on boil after face of new militancy, Burhan Wani, is shot dead". The Indian Express. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
  39. ^ a b Ganai, Naseer (9 July 2016). "No militancy related incident attributed to Burhan Wani, says Omar Abdullah". India Today. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
  40. ^ Javaid, Azaan (10 July 2016). "Hizbul Commander Burhani Wani wanted more weapons in his final hours". Daily News and Analysis. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
  41. ^ Baweja, Harinder (11 July 2016). "Burhan Wani's death: Op wasn't for him, had targeted another militant". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 24 July 2016.
  42. ^ Rashid, Toufiq (28 July 2016). "If forces knew it was Burhan, they would have given him a chance: Mehbooba". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 30 July 2016.
  43. ^ Rajeshwari, Ankita (30 July 2016). "We did not know about Burhan Wani's presence at encounter site: J&K Deputy CM Nirmal Singh". The Times of India. Retrieved 31 July 2016.
  44. ^ A journey into the heart of Kashmir's crisis, Al Jazeera, 15 July 2016.
  45. ^ Rashid, Toufiq (28 May 2017). "Burhan Wani's father attends funeral of Hizbul militant Sabzar Bhat". Hindustan Times. Hizbul Mujahideen militant Sabzar Ahmad Bhat was buried in his village in Pulwama on Sunday morning, a day after the 27-year-old was killed in a gun fight with security forces in south Kashmir.
  46. ^ "Kashmir conflict: Top militant Sabzar Bhat killed, police say". BBC News. 27 May 2017. Retrieved 27 May 2017.
  47. ^ "With Burhan's death, militant icon is born; lakhs participate in his funeral". India Today. 9 July 2016. Retrieved 10 July 2016.[permanent dead link]
  48. ^ Fahad Shah (14 July 2016). "Burhan Wani's killing brings Kashmir to a crossroads". The Diplomat.
  49. ^ Baba Umar (13 July 2016). "Kashmir on fire". The Diplomat.
  50. ^ Praveen Swami (26 July 2016). "Decoding Burhan Wani's death: As rage gets younger, new hotspots emerge in Valley's islands of calm". The Indian Express.
  51. ^ Praveen Swami (8 September 2016). "Militants offer three-volley salute to Hizb commander Burhan Wani". Greater Kashmir.
  52. ^ "Social media outrages over alleged blocking of pro-Kashmir activist's Facebook account". Firstpost. 11 July 2016. Retrieved 30 July 2016.
  53. ^ "Burhan Wani encounter:12 civilians killed, 200 injured, 6 companies of CRPF rushed into Kashmir". India Today. 9 July 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2016.[permanent dead link]
  54. ^ "Don't Want To Kill Our Own, Say Police On Kashmir Clashes After Burhan Wani's Killing". NDTV. 9 July 2016. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
  55. ^ "Srinagar: Separatists call off strike on Friday due to Shivaratri". Hindustan Times. 20 February 2017. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  56. ^ "Everything You Need To Know About Burhan Wani – The Hizbul Mujahideen Posterboy Killed In An Encounter In Kashmir". The Times of India. 9 July 2016. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
  57. ^ "Amarnath pilgrims stranded after vehicular traffic suspended along Jammu-Srinagar highway". The Indian Express. 9 July 2016. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
  58. ^ Sharma, Arun (11 July 2016). "Amarnath Yatra resumes after three days, heavy security for pilgrims". The Indian Express. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
  59. ^ "Burhan Wani death: Amarnath Yatra suspended again over fresh disturbances". Daily News and Analysis. 13 July 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
  60. ^ "Amarnath yatra resumes from Jammu". The Times of India. 16 July 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
  61. ^ "Pandits Leave Valley, Threaten Not to Join Jobs in Kashmir". Outlook. 13 July 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
  62. ^ "Kashmiri pandits hold protest for second day". Zee News. 15 July 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
  63. ^ "Burhan Wani Killing: Authorities Impose Curfew Across Kashmir Valley Today". NDTV. 15 July 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2016.[permanent dead link]
  64. ^ "Protests intensify in Indian Kashmir, security forces kill five". Reuters. 16 August 2016. Retrieved 17 August 2016. The latest casualties came as security forces opened fire with automatic rifles, a step up from their earlier use of shotguns, whose pellets are meant to incapacitate but not kill.
  65. ^ Masoodi, Nazir (14 July 2016). "PDP Leader Demands Probe Into Burhan Wani's Killing, Says Rules Violated". NDTV. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
  66. ^ "Nirmal rebuffs Baig, says no to inquiry into Burhan's killing". The Tribune. 15 July 2016. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
  67. ^ "Burhan Wani More Dangerous In Death Than In Life, Says Omar Abdullah". NDTV. 9 July 2016. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
  68. ^ "Nawaz Sharif expresses shock over killing of Burhan Wani". The Indian Express. 11 July 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
  69. ^ "Pakistan's view on Burhan Wani reflects its association with terrorism: Govt". The Indian Express. 12 July 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
  70. ^ "Sharif calls Burhan a martyr, sparks another India-Pak war of words". The Indian Express. 15 July 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
  71. ^ "PM Narendra Modi 'unhappy' over media coverage of terrorist Burhan Wani being portrayed as 'hero'?". Zee News. 13 July 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
  72. ^ "Pakistan raises Kashmir issue with UN officials". The Indian Express. 21 July 2016. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
  73. ^ Rajghatta, Chidanand (22 September 2016). "At UN, Sharif talks of 'Intifada' in J&K, India says Pak 'in complete denial'". The Times of India. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
  74. ^ Masoodi, Nazir (15 December 2016). "At Row Over Compensation For Terrorist Burhan Wani's Brother". NDTV. Retrieved 1 January 2017.
  75. ^ Masood, Bashaarat; Sharma, Arun (14 December 2016). "J&K Govt names Burhan brother in compensation list, ally BJP protests". The Indian Express. Retrieved 1 January 2017.
  76. ^ Tripathi, Ashutosh (18 January 2018), "No Compensation Provided to Burhan Wani's Family: Mehbooba Mufti", News18 India, retrieved 7 June 2020
  77. ^ "Burhan Wani: A man to remember". Pakistan Today. 7 July 2017. Retrieved 19 August 2017.
  78. ^ "Pakistan's 'Azadi Train' depicts Hizb militant Burhan Wani as national hero". Hindustan Times. 19 August 2017. Retrieved 19 August 2017.
  79. ^ Ruhail Amin (14 July 2016), "Why Rajdeep Sardesai, Rahul Kanwal & Barkha Dutt are under attack?", Exchange4Media, Adsert Web Solutions Pvt Ltd, retrieved 2 July 2020
  80. ^ "Separatist Mirwaiz Farooq to India Today: Like Bhagat Singh, Burhan Wani was a freedom fighter". India Today. 13 July 2016. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
  81. ^ Drèze, Jean (25 November 2016). "The new abnormal in Kashmir". The Hindu. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
  82. ^ Pandey, Surabhi (14 October 2017). "Remember Burhan Wani's viral group photo? 2 years on, security forces have neutralised all but one". Daily News and Analysis. Retrieved 19 December 2017.
  83. ^ Hussain, Ashiq (7 May 2016), "Last of Burhan Wani's boys killed, marking end of the 11 who posed in photo that went viral", Hindustan Times, retrieved 7 June 2020
  84. ^ "Hizbul commander Burhan Wani's close aide, Tariq Pandit, arrested", Hindustan Times, 29 May 2016
  85. ^ Prier, Jarred (2017), "Commanding the Trend: Social Media as Information Warfare", Strategic Studies Quarterly, 11 (4), pp. 50–85, JSTOR 26271634
  86. ^ Gurung, Shaurya Karanbir (9 March 2019), "Defence ministry approves information warfare branch for Indian army", The Economic Times, retrieved 8 June 2020
  87. ^ Ganai, Naseer (24 September 2018), "In J&K, Tweet For A Tweet", Outlook (Indian magazine), retrieved 8 June 2020

External links