National Unity Government of Myanmar

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National Unity Government

Cabinet of Myanmar in exile
Date formed16 April 2021; 2 years ago (2021-04-16)
People and organisations
PresidentDuwa Lashi La (acting)
Prime MinisterMahn Win Khaing Than
No. of ministers28
History
Outgoing election2020 Myanmar general election
Incoming formation2021 Myanmar coup d'état
leads to formation of the
NUG in exile
PredecessorActing Cabinet of the CRPH

The National Unity Government of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar (Burmese: အမျိုးသားညီညွတ်ရေး အစိုးရ; abbreviated NUG) is a Myanmar government in exile formed by the Committee Representing Pyidaungsu Hluttaw (CRPH), a group of elected lawmakers and members of parliament ousted in the 2021 Myanmar coup d'état. The European Parliament has recognized the NUG as the legitimate government of Myanmar. It includes representatives of the National League for Democracy (the deposed ruling party of former state counsellor Aung San Suu Kyi), ethnic minority insurgent groups, and various minor parties.[1]

The State Administration Council (SAC)—the country's ruling military junta—has declared the NUG illegal[2] and a terrorist organization,[3] while the NUG designated the Tatmadaw and its affiliated organizations as terrorist organizations under Section 3 of Myanmar’s Counter-Terrorism Law.[4]

In May 2021, the NUG announced the formation of a "People's Defense Force", and in September the launch of a "defensive war" and nationwide revolution against the military junta.[5][6] As of September 2021, the NUG had established representative offices in the United States, United Kingdom, Norway, France, Czech Republic, Australia, and South Korea.[7] On 1 February 2022, the Foreign Affairs Ministry of the NUG appointed Saw Ba Hla Thein as the first representative to Japan.[8]

Although the NUG is widely described as a government-in-exile,[1][9] it has not declared a temporary capital in another country or in Myanmar, and instead conducts its operations remotely and from hiding within Myanmar.[10][11]

History[edit]

Following the 1 February 2021 military coup, a Committee Representing Pyidaungsu Hluttaw (the Myanmar legislature) was created by members of the National League for Democracy (NLD) who had been elected as lawmakers in the 2020 general election.[12][13] It claimed to be the legitimate legislative authority for Myanmar.[12][13] It named a set of office-holders of the National Unity Government on 16 April, which included members of the NLD, other parties and independents.[10]

The NUG immediately sought international recognition as the government of Myanmar and gained much support from the people of Myanmar.[14] When the NUG was announced, its designated minister for home affairs and immigration, Lwin Ko Latt, stated that he expected recognition by several countries soon.[15] The International Trade Union Confederation called for recognition of the NUG by governments and the United Nations,[16] and the ASEAN Parliamentarians for Human Rights, a group of pro-human rights lawmakers within ASEAN countries, called on ASEAN to invite to the ASEAN Leaders Meeting on 24 April the NUG rather than representatives of the military junta.[17]

In April 2021, the NUG established Public Voice Television (PVTV) as a media outlet for the NUG, the CRPH, and NUCC.[18] PVTV hosts a series of programmes, including a satirical show called People's Voice TV, and news reports.[11][19]

On 5 May 2021, the NUG announced the formation of the People's Defense Force as its armed wing to launch an armed revolution against the military junta, which designated it a terrorist organization on 8 May.[5][3]

On 7 September 2021, the NUG announced the launch of a defensive war against the military junta, and urged the citizens to revolt against the junta in every corner of the country.[6]

On 6 October 2021, Malaysia's foreign minister Saifuddin Abdullah warned the Burmese military it was prepared to hold official talks with the NUG if the military did not cooperate with the terms of ASEAN's five-point consensus.[20] On October 24, the Foreign Affairs Ministry appointed Bo Hla Tint, who served as a minister in the National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma, as an ambassador to ASEAN.[21]

On 26 April 2022, Lwin Ko Latt, the Minister of Home Affairs and Immigration, announced the formation of the Bureau of Special Intelligence. The announcement also mentioned that due to arbitrary arrests, torture, killings, and other acts by the SAC within the country through the exercise of people's power, the Bureau of Special Intelligence was set up to build national security that would ensure the social security and socio-economic development of the people while preventing violence.[22]

On 7 September 2022, NUG acting president Duwa Lashi La stated that the regime had lost control of half of the country, noting that NUG had formed over 300 PDF battalions, and township public defence forces in 250 of the country's townships, while approximately 1,500 resistance fighers had died since the coup.[23]

On 6 February 2023, NUG stated that it had restored internet access in at least 15 townships where the junta had cut off access since 2021. NUG spokesman Nay Phone Latt also added that they were providing access without using the junta's infrastructure.[24] On 13 February, the NUG opened an official liaison office in Washington, DC to engage with the American government.[25]

On 17 September 2023, the NUG's Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation (MONREC) stated it dissolved the Myanmar Gems and Jewellery Entrepreneurs Association (MGJEA) for providing tax revenue to the SAC.[26]

International relations[edit]

In April 2021, Building and Wood Workers' International announced its support of NUG and called for the international community to recognise NUG's legitimacy.[27]

In September 2021, in the lead up to the 76th United Nations General Assembly (UNGA), the UN had been expected to make a formal decision on recognizing the legitimate government of Myanmar.[28] Ahead of the UNGA, major global labour unions issued a statement calling for a global day of action for Myanmar, specifically calling on international governments to recognise NUG and for humanitarian assistance to be provided solely through NUG channels.[29] A behind-the-scenes compromise between China and the US prevented the Burmese military's representatives from attending the UNGA session, effectively forestalling a decision to replace Kyaw Moe Tun, the incumbent Permanent Representative of Myanmar who represents the NUG.[28][30] As of 24 November 2022, the United Nations list of Heads of State, Heads of Government, and Ministers for Foreign Affairs of all Member States continues to list Win Myint as President of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and Aung San Suu Kyi as Minister of Foreign Affairs.[31]

On 5 October 2021, the French Senate unanimously passed a resolution to formally recognize the NUG as the official government of Myanmar, and sent it to the National Assembly for passage.[32][33][9] On 7 October 2021, the European Parliament adopted a resolution that recognizes the CRPH and the NUG as the only legitimate representatives of Myanmar.[34]

Since ASEAN implemented the Five-Point Consensus with respect to the Myanmar situation in April 2021, the military-led State Administration Council has not honoured its commitment to the peace plan.[35] ASEAN member states, particularly Singapore, Malaysia, and Indonesia, have publicly expressed their dissatisfaction with SAC's continued intransigence.[36] In May 2022, Malaysia's foreign minister, Saifuddin Abdullah, publicly called on ASEAN member states to begin informally engaging NUG.[37][38] The suggestion prompted a protest from SAC.[39] On 20 September 2022, Malaysia became the first ASEAN member state to publicly engage with the competing NUG.[40]

The NUG has called on the People's Defence Force to not target Chinese projects. Additionally, it reportedly sent congratulatory letters to Chinese Communist Party general secretary Xi Jinping after the 20th CCP National Congress in October 2022.[41]

In November 2021 and December 2023, the Inter-Parliamentary Union affirmed that the NUG's parent organisation, the Committee Representing Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, is the legitimate interlocutor for Myanmar and its members are able to participate in the official business of the IPU as observers.[42]

Funding and revenues[edit]

In May 2022, the NUG announced it had raised $42 million USD from fundraising activities, with the majority of revenues spent on weapons and support for civil servants on strike.[43][44] It has launched a number of successful initiatives, including the sale of Spring Revolution treasury bonds, an online lottery, and the sale of military-linked land and properties. Most NUG donors live abroad, and limited evidence suggests the Burmese diaspora in Singapore is the primary source of funding.[45] The NUG has also encouraged Burmese-based companies and taxpayers to redirect taxes to the NUG, instead of the military regime.[45] The NUG has also launched NUGPay, a parallel digital currency system.[45]

In May 2022, the NUG raised $10 million from the sale of Min Aung Hlaing's Yangon home on Inya Lake Road.[45][44][46] In October 2022, the NUG raised $9.3 million USD during an auction of land in Mandalay's Patheingyi Township illegally seized by the military.[46] In January 2023, the NUG raised $10 million in 18 hours, after a pre-sale of apartments on military-owned land in Yangon.[47] In February 2023, the NUG raised $4 million after an entrepreneur bought rights to a gem mine in Mogok Township.[48]

Office holders[edit]

Executives of the Government[edit]

Office Name Portfolio Term in office Political Party Source
Took office Left Office Days
President Win Myint
(incarcerated)
Head of State 16 April 2021 Incumbent 1052 National League for Democracy [49]
Vice President and Acting President Duwa Lashi La Deputy Head of State 16 April 2021 Incumbent 1052 Kachin National Consultative Assembly / Kachin Political Interim Coordination Team
State Counsellor and Minister of Foreign Affairs Aung San Suu Kyi
(incarcerated)
Head of Government 16 April 2021 Incumbent 1052 National League for Democracy
Prime Minister Mahn Win Khaing Than Deputy Head of Government 16 April 2021 Incumbent 1052 National League for Democracy

Ministries of the Government[edit]

Ministries Source
Ministry of Defense [50]
Ministry of Health
Ministry of Planning, Finance and Investment
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Ministry of Education
Ministry of Home Affairs and Immigration
Ministry of Federal Union Affairs
Ministry of Humanitarian Affairs and Disaster Management
Ministry of Human Rights
Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation
Ministry of International Cooperation
Ministry of Women, Youths and Children Affairs
Ministry of Labour
Ministry of Justice
Ministry of Communications, Information & Technology
Ministry of Electricity & Energy
Ministry of Commerce

Ministers of the Government[edit]

Office Name Term in office Political Party Source
Took office Left Office Days
Minister of Commerce Khin Ma Ma Myo 25 August 2021 Incumbent 921 Independent [49]
Minister of Communications, Information & Technology Htin Linn Aung 5 June 2021 Incumbent 1002 Independent
Minister of Defence Yee Mon 16 April 2021 Incumbent 1052 National League for Democracy
Deputy Minister of Defence Nai Kao Rot (Colonel Naing Kaung Yuat) 16 April 2021 Incumbent 1052 New Mon State Party
Minister of Education Dr. Zaw Wai Soe 16 April 2021 Incumbent 1052 Independent
Minister of Health
Deputy Minister of Education Ja Htoi Pan 16 April 2021 Incumbent 1052 Kachin Political Interim Coordination Team
Dr. Sai Khaing Myo Tun 3 May 2021 Incumbent 1035 Independent
Deputy Minister of Health Dr. Shwe Pon 16 April 2021 Incumbent 1052 National League for Democracy
Minister of Electricity and Energy Soe Thura Tun 5 June 2021 Incumbent 1002 National League for Democracy
Deputy Minister of Electricity and Energy Maw Htun Aung 26 July 2021 Incumbent 951 Shan Nationalities League for Democracy
Minister of Federal Union Affairs Dr. Lian Hmung Sakhong 16 April 2021 Incumbent 1052 Chin National Front / Interim Chin National Consultative Council
Deputy Minister of Federal Union Affairs Chit Tun 16 April 2021 Incumbent 1052 Karenni National People's Liberation Front
Maing Win Htoo 16 April 2021 Incumbent 1052 Ta'ang National Party
Minister of Foreign Affairs Zin Mar Aung 16 April 2021 Incumbent 1052 National League for Democracy
Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs Moe Zaw Oo 16 April 2021 Incumbent 1052 National League for Democracy
Minister of Home Affairs and Immigration Lwin Ko Latt 16 April 2021 Incumbent 1052 National League for Democracy
Deputy Minister of Home Affairs and Immigration Khu Hte Bu 16 April 2021 Incumbent 1052 Karenni National Progressive Party
Minister of Humanitarian Affairs and Disaster Management Win Myat Aye 16 April 2021 Incumbent 1052 National League for Democracy
Deputy Minister of Humanitarian Affairs and Disaster Management Naw Htoo Phaw 16 April 2021 Incumbent 1052 Independent
Minister of Human Rights Aung Myo Min 3 May 2021 Incumbent 1035 Independent
Deputy Minister of Human Rights Ba Ham Htan 3 May 2021 Incumbent 1035 Kayan New Land Party
Aung Kyaw Moe 1 July 2023 Incumbent 246 days Independent
Minister of International Cooperation Dr. Sasa 16 April 2021 Incumbent 1052 National League for Democracy
Deputy Minister of International Cooperation Hkaung Naw 3 May 2021 6 November 2022 Independent
Deputy Minister of International Cooperation David Gum Awng 6 November 2022 Incumbent 1 year, 123 days Independent
Minister of Labour Nai Suwanna 3 May 2021 Incumbent 1035 Former member of Mon Unity Party
Deputy Minister of Labour Kyaw Ni 3 May 2021 Incumbent 1035 All Burma Federation of Trade Unions
Minister of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation Dr. Hkalen Tu Hkawng 16 April 2021 Incumbent 1052 Independent
Deputy Minister of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation Khun Bedu 16 April 2021 28 July 2023 832 Kayan National Party
Khun Saw Hpu 28 July 2023[51] Incumbent 220
Minister of Justice Thein Oo 5 June 2021 Incumbent 1002 Independent
Minister of Planning, Finance and Investment Tin Tun Naing 16 April 2021 Incumbent 1052 National League for Democracy
Deputy Minister of Planning, Finance and Investment Min Zayar Oo 16 April 2021 Incumbent 1052 Former member of Mon Unity Party
Minister of Women, Youths and Children Affairs Naw Susanna Hla Hla Soe 16 April 2021 Incumbent 1052 National League for Democracy
Deputy Minister of Women, Youths and Children Affairs Ei Thinzar Maung 16 April 2021 Incumbent 1052 Former member of Democratic Party for a New Society
Auditor General of the Union Toe Aung 26 July 2021 Incumbent 951 Independent

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  42. ^ https://crphmyanmar.org/
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  44. ^ a b "NUG Ministry of Planning, Finance and Investment receives $42 million from fundraising". Mizzima Myanmar News and Insight. 22 May 2022. Retrieved 27 February 2023.
  45. ^ a b c d "Crowdfunding a War: The Money behind Myanmar's Resistance - Myanmar". ReliefWeb. 20 December 2022. Retrieved 27 February 2023.
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  48. ^ "Myanmar Civilian Government Sells Gem Mining Rights". The Irrawaddy. 21 February 2023. Retrieved 27 February 2023.
  49. ^ a b "Who's Who in Myanmar's National Unity Government". The Irrawaddy. 16 April 2021. Archived from the original on 21 April 2021. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  50. ^ "Ministries". National Unity Government Official Website. 10 October 2022.
  51. ^ CRPH (28 July 2023). "Appointment of Deputy Minister (Announcement Number : 2/2023)". ပြည်ထောင်စုသမ္မတမြန်မာနိုင်ငံတော်. Retrieved 2 November 2023.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]