National Unity Government of Myanmar

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National Unity Government
Flag of Myanmar.svg
Cabinet of Myanmar in exile
Date formed16 April 2021; 14 months ago (2021-04-16)
People and organisations
PresidentDuwa Lashi La (acting)
Prime MinisterMahn Win Khaing Than
History
Outgoing election2020 Myanmar general election
Incoming formation2021 Myanmar coup d'état
leads to formation of the
NUG in exile
PredecessorActing Cabinet of the CPRH

The National Unity Government of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar (Burmese: အမျိုးသားညီညွတ်ရေး အစိုးရ; abbreviated NUG) is a Myanmar government in exile formed by the Committee Representing Pyidaungsu Hluttaw (CRPH), a group of elected lawmakers and members of parliament ousted in the 2021 Myanmar coup d'état. The European Parliament has recognized the NUG as the legitimate government of Myanmar. It includes representatives of the National League for Democracy (the deposed ruling party of former state counsellor Aung San Suu Kyi), ethnic minority insurgent groups, and various minor parties.[1] The State Administration Council—the country's ruling military junta—has declared the NUG illegal[2] and a terrorist organization.[3]

In May 2021, the NUG announced the formation of a "People's Defense Force", and in September the launch of a "defensive war" and nation-wide revolution against the military junta.[4][5] As of September 2021, the NUG had established representative offices in the United States, United Kingdom, Norway, France, Czech Republic, Australia, and South Korea.[6] On 1 February 2022, the Foreign Affairs Ministry of the NUG appointed Saw Ba Hla Thein [ja] as the first representative to Japan.[7]

History[edit]

Following the 1 February 2021 military coup, a Committee Representing Pyidaungsu Hluttaw (the Myanmar legislature) was created by members of the National League for Democracy (NLD) who had been elected as lawmakers in the 2020 general election.[8][9] It claimed to be the legitimate legislative authority for Myanmar.[8][9] It named a set of office-holders of the National Unity Government on 16 April, which included members of the NLD, other parties and independents.[10]

The NUG immediately sought international recognition as the government of Myanmar and gained a lot of support from the people of Myanmar.[11] When the NUG was announced, its designated minister for home affairs and immigration, Lwin Ko Latt, stated that he expected recognition by several countries soon.[12] The International Trade Union Confederation called for recognition of the NUG by governments and the United Nations,[13] and the ASEAN Parliamentarians for Human Rights, a group of pro-human rights lawmakers within ASEAN countries, called on ASEAN to invite the NUG to the ASEAN Leaders Meeting on 24 April rather than representatives of the military junta.[14]

On 5 May 2021, the NUG announced the formation of "People's Defense Force" as its armed wing to launch an armed revolution against the military junta, which designated it a terrorist organization on 8 May.[4][3]

On 7 September 2021, the NUG announced the launch of a defensive war against the military junta, and urged the citizens to revolt against the junta in every corner of the country.[5]

On 6 October 2021, Malaysia's foreign minister Saifuddin Abdullah warned the Burmese military it was prepared to hold official talks with the NUG if the military did not cooperate with the terms of ASEAN's five-point consensus.[15]

On 26 April 2022, Lwin Ko Latt, the Minister of Home Affairs and Immigration, announced the formation of the Bureau of Special Intelligence. The announcement also mentioned that due to arbitrary arrests, torture, killings, and other fascist acts by the terrorist military council in the country through the exercise of people's power, the Bureau of Special Intelligence was set up to build national security that would ensure the social security and socio-economic development of the people while preventing violence.[16]

International recognition[edit]

In September 2021, in the leadup to the 76th United Nations General Assembly, the UN had been expected to make a formal decision on recognizing the legitimate government of Myanmar.[17] A behind-the-scenes compromise between China and the US, prevented the Burmese military's representatives from attending the session, effectively forestalling a decision to replace Kyaw Moe Tun, the incumbent Permanent Representative of Myanmar who represents the NUG.[17][18]

On 5 October 2021, the French Senate unanimously passed a resolution to formally recognize the NUG as the official government of Myanmar, and sent it to the National Assembly for passage.[19][20][21] On 7 October 2021, the European Parliament adopted a resolution that recognizes the CRPH and the NUG as the only legitimate representatives of Myanmar.[22]

Office holders[edit]

Executives of the Government[edit]

Office Name Portfolio Term in office Political Party Source
Took office Left Office Days
President Win Myint
(incarcerated)
Head of State 16 April 2021 Incumbent 438 National League for Democracy [23]
Vice President and Acting President Duwa Lashi La Deputy Head of State 16 April 2021 Incumbent 438 Kachin National Consultative Assembly / Kachin Political Interim Coordination Team
State Counsellor Aung San Suu Kyi
(incarcerated)
Head of Government 16 April 2021 Incumbent 438 National League for Democracy
Prime Minister Mahn Win Khaing Than Deputy Head of Government 16 April 2021 Incumbent 438 National League for Democracy

Ministers of the Government[edit]

Office Name Term in office Political Party Source
Took office Left Office Days
Ministry of Commerce Khin Ma Ma Myo 25 August 2021 Incumbent 307 Independent [23]
Ministry of Communications, Information & Technology Htin Linn Aung 5 June 2021 Incumbent 388 Independent
Ministry of Defense Yee Mon 16 April 2021 Incumbent 438 National League for Democracy
Deputy Minister of Defence Nai Kao Rot (Colonel Naing Kaung Yuat) 16 April 2021 Incumbent 438 New Mon State Party
Minister of Education Dr. Zaw Wai Soe 16 April 2021 Incumbent 438 Independent
Minister of Health
Deputy Minister of Education Ja Htoi Pan 16 April 2021 Incumbent 438 Kachin Political Interim Coordination Team
Dr. Sai Khaing Myo Tun 3 May 2021 Incumbent 421 Independent
Deputy Minister of Health Dr. Shwe Pon 16 April 2021 Incumbent 438 National League for Democracy
Minister of Electricity and Energy Soe Thura Tun 5 June 2021 Incumbent 388 National League for Democracy
Deputy Minister of Electricity and Energy Maw Htun Aung 26 July 2021 Incumbent 337 Shan Nationalities League for Democracy
Minister of Federal Union Affairs Dr. Lian Hmung Sakhong 16 April 2021 Incumbent 438 Chin National Front / Interim Chin National Consultative Council
Deputy Minister of Federal Union Affairs Chit Tun 16 April 2021 Incumbent 438 Karenni National People's Liberation Front
Maing Win Htoo 16 April 2021 Incumbent 438 Ta'ang National Party
Minister of Foreign Affairs Zin Mar Aung 16 April 2021 Incumbent 438 National League for Democracy
Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs Moe Zaw Oo 16 April 2021 Incumbent 438 National League for Democracy
Minister of Home Affairs and Immigration Lwin Ko Latt 16 April 2021 Incumbent 438 National League for Democracy
Deputy Minister of Home Affairs and Immigration Khu Hte Bu 16 April 2021 Incumbent 438 Karenni National Progressive Party
Minister of Humanitarian Affairs and Disaster Management Win Myat Aye 16 April 2021 Incumbent 438 National League for Democracy
Deputy Minister of Humanitarian Affairs and Disaster Management Naw Htoo Phaw 16 April 2021 Incumbent 438 Independent
Minister of Human Rights Aung Myo Min 3 May 2021 Incumbent 421 Independent
Deputy Minister of Human Rights Ba Ham Htan 3 May 2021 Incumbent 421 Kayan New Land Party
Minister of International Cooperation Dr. Sasa 16 April 2021 Incumbent 438 National League for Democracy
Deputy Minister of International Cooperation Hkaung Naw 3 May 2021 Incumbent 421 Independent
Minister of Labour Affairs Nai Thuwanna 3 May 2021 Incumbent 421 Former member of Mon Unity Party
Deputy Minister of Labour Affairs Kyaw Ni 3 May 2021 Incumbent 421 All Burma Federation of Trade Unions
Minister of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation Dr. Hkalen Tu Hkawng 16 April 2021 Incumbent 438 Independent
Deputy Minister of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation Khun Bedu 16 April 2021 Incumbent 438 Kayan National Party
Minister of Justice Thein Oo 5 June 2021 Incumbent 388 Independent
Minister of Planning, Finance and Investment Tin Tun Naing 16 April 2021 Incumbent 438 National League for Democracy
Deputy Minister of Planning, Finance and Investment Min Zayar Oo 16 April 2021 Incumbent 438 Former member of Mon Unity Party
Minister of Women, Youths and Children Affairs Naw Susanna Hla Hla Soe 16 April 2021 Incumbent 438 National League for Democracy
Deputy Minister of Women, Youths and Children Affairs Ei Thinzar Maung 16 April 2021 Incumbent 438 Former member of Democratic Party for a New Society
Auditor General of the Union Toe Aung 26 July 2021 Incumbent 337 Independent

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nachemson, Andrew (24 May 2021). "Myanmar diaspora in US rally, raise funds in battle against coup". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  2. ^ "Myanmar activists hold 'blue shirt' protests; report says junta chief to attend summit". Reuters. 21 April 2021. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  3. ^ a b "Myanmar junta designates shadow government as 'terrorist' group". Deutsche Welle. 8 May 2021. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
  4. ^ a b Sebastian Strangio (6 May 2021). "Can Myanmar's New 'People's Defense Force' Succeed?". The Diplomat.
  5. ^ a b "Myanmar shadow government launches 'people's defensive war'". www.aljazeera.com. 7 September 2021.
  6. ^ "Myanmar shadow government sets up office in South Korea". Nikkei Asia. 18 September 2021. Retrieved 8 October 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  7. ^ ""Can it be said that Japan exercises the fence-sitting policy? I think it may be the Japanese government's policy. In my view, Japan may give favour to the side which gets the upper hand." Saw Ba Hla Thein the NUG's representative to Japan". Myanmar Peace Monitor. 8 February 2022. Retrieved 16 February 2022.
  8. ^ a b "Myanmar politicians defy coup, say they are true government". AP News. 5 February 2021. Retrieved 26 September 2021.
  9. ^ a b "Amid Coup, Myanmar's NLD Lawmakers Form Committee to Serve as Legitimate Parliament". The Irrawaddy. 8 February 2021. Retrieved 26 September 2021.
  10. ^ "CRPH announces lineup of interim 'national unity government'". Myanmar Now. 16 April 2021. Retrieved 26 September 2021.
  11. ^ "Myanmar unity government says it must be part of any ASEAN bid to end crisis". Reuters. 18 April 2021. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  12. ^ "Some countries will officially recognise Myanmar's shadow government in the coming days, says new minister". Myanmar NOW. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  13. ^ "Myanmar: National unity government must be recognised". www.ituc-csi.org. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  14. ^ "Myanmar's National Unity Government must be invited to this week's ASEAN Special Summit, MPs say". ASEAN Parliamentarians for Human Rights. 20 April 2021. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  15. ^ "Malaysia to Talk to Myanmar's Parallel Govt if Junta Fails to Cooperate With ASEAN". The Irrawaddy. 6 October 2021. Retrieved 8 October 2021.
  16. ^ https://www.facebook.com/mohaimyanmar/posts/307775461516355[user-generated source]
  17. ^ a b Simpson, Adam. "Two governments claim to run Myanmar. So, who gets the country's seat at the UN?". The Conversation. Retrieved 8 October 2021.
  18. ^ "Interview: 'I Do Not Feel Worried at All Now,' Myanmar Envoy Says of Foiled Attack". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 8 October 2021.
  19. ^ "French Senate Recognises Myanmar National Unity Government". Scoop News. 7 October 2021. Retrieved 8 October 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  20. ^ "proposition de résolution en application de l'article 34-1 de la Constitution, portant sur la nécessité de reconnaître le Gouvernement d'unité nationale de Birmanie". www.senat.fr. Retrieved 8 October 2021.
  21. ^ Cabot, Cyrielle (1 February 2022). "Myanmar coup anniversary: Government in exile urges France to act against junta". France 24. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  22. ^ "European Parliament Throws Support Behind Myanmar's Shadow Government". The Irrawaddy. 8 October 2021. Retrieved 9 October 2021.
  23. ^ a b "Who's Who in Myanmar's National Unity Government". The Irrawaddy. 16 April 2021. Retrieved 6 June 2021.

External links[edit]