Cape Verdeans

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Cape Verdeans
Total population
c. 600,000
Cape Verdean ancestry and citizenship worldwide
Regions with significant populations
 Cape Verde 491,875 (2010)[1]
 Portugal 68,145 (almost 200,000 with 2nd/3rd generation)[2]
 United States 33,119 (Cape Verdeans born)[3]
 France 25,000
Languages
Cape Verdean Creole, Portuguese,
Religion
Predominantly Roman Catholicism
Protestantism, Irreligion

Cape Verdeans, also called Cabo Verdeans (Portuguese: cabo-verdiano), are the citizens of Cape Verde. Cape Verde is a sociedade mestiça (mestizo society; as described in Portuguese), which means that it is home to mixed race people. Nearly all Cape Verdeans or their ancestors immigrated within the past five centuries.

Racial groups[edit]

Cape Verdeans 1950 census
Racial group Ref. % of Cape Verde population
Mestiços [4] 69.6 69.6
 
Blacks (West African) [5] 28.4 28.4
 
White [6] 2.0 2
 
Other or unknown [7] 0.0
The last time Cape Verde counted racial origin was in the 1950 census.

The Cape Verde archipelago was uninhabited when the Portuguese landed there in 1456. Slaves from adjacent West Africa were brought to the islands to work on Portuguese plantations. As a result, many Cape Verdeans are mulattoes (mestiços in Portuguese), having biracial origins. European ancestors also include Spanish and Italian seamen who were granted land by the Portuguese Empire, followed by Portuguese settlers, exiles, and Portuguese Jews who were victims of the Inquisition. Many foreigners from other parts of the world settled in Cape Verde as their permanent country. Most of them were Dutch, French, British (English), Arab and Jewish (from Lebanon and Morocco).

A genetic study revealed that the ancestry of the population in Cape Verde is predominantly European in the male line and West African in the female line; counted together the percentage is 56% West African and 44% European.[8]

Diaspora[edit]

Prior to independence in 1975, many thousands of people emigrated from drought-stricken Portuguese Cape Verde, formerly an overseas province of Portugal. Because these people arrived using their Portuguese passports, they were registered as Portuguese immigrants by the authorities. Today, more Cape Verdeans live abroad than in Cape Verde itself, with significant emigrant[9] Cape Verdean communities in Brazil and in the United States (500,000 Cape Verdeans descent, with a major concentration on the New England coast from Providence, Rhode Island, to New Bedford, Massachusetts).

In 2008, Portugal’s National Statistics Institute estimated that there were 68,145 Cape Verdeans who legally resided in Portugal. This made up "15.7% of all foreign nationals living legally in the country."[10] Most notably, Portuguese professional footballer, Cristiano Ronaldo is of part-Cape Verdean descent through his paternal great-grandmother, Isabel da Piedade who at age 16 immigrated to the Portuguese island of Madeira from her native Praia, Cape Verde where she worked in the main city of the island, Funchal and married a Portuguese man, José Aveiro, Cristiano's paternal great-grandfather.[11]

There are other significant Cape Verde populations in Angola (45,000), São Tomé and Príncipe (25,000), Senegal (25,000), the Netherlands (20,000, of which 15,000 are concentrated in Rotterdam), France (25,000), Spain (12,500), Italy (10,000) Luxembourg (7,000) and Scandinavia (7,000). There is a Cape Verdean community in Argentina numbering 8,000.

Languages[edit]

Cape Verde's official language is Portuguese. It is the language of instruction and government.

Cape Verdean Creole is used colloquially, and is the mother tongue of virtually all Cape Verdeans. Cape Verdean Creole or Kriolu is a dialect continuum of a Portuguese-based creole. There is a substantial body of literature in Creole, especially in the Santiago Creole and the São Vicente Creole. Creole has been gaining prestige since the nation's independence from Portugal.

Religion[edit]

A church in Santiago, Cape Verde
Circle frame.svg

Religion in Cape Verde (2010)[12]

  Catholic Church (78.7%)
  Other Christian (10.4%)
  Other or Non Religious (10.9%)

More than 93% of the population of Cape Verde is nominally Roman Catholic, according to an informal poll taken by local churches.[13] About 5% of the population is Protestant.[14] The largest Protestant denomination is the Church of the Nazarene.[13]

Other religious groups include the Seventh-day Adventist Church, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons), the Assemblies of God, the Universal Church of the Kingdom of God, the New Apostolic Church, and various other Pentecostal and evangelical groups.[13] There are also small Bahá'í communities and a small Muslim community.[13] The number of atheists is estimated at less than 1 percent of the population.[13]

Culture[edit]

The culture of Cape Verde reflects its mixed West African and Portuguese roots. It is well known for its diverse forms of music such as Morna, and a wide variety of dances: the soft dance Morna, the Funaná, the extreme sensuality of coladeira, and the Batuque dance. These are reflective of the diverse origins of Cape Verde's residents. The term "Criolo", or also "Kriolu"[15] is used to refer to residents as well as the culture of Cape Verde.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Estado da população cabo-verdiana
  2. ^ A Semana. "Cape Verdeans make up 15.7% of all foreigners in Portugal." Retrieved January 20, 2008. Archived February 29, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  3. ^ "PLACE OF BIRTH FOR THE FOREIGN-BORN POPULATION IN THE UNITED STATES, Universe: Foreign-born population excluding population born at sea, 2007-2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 16 July 2013. 
  4. ^ Fractionalization in Portuguese colonial territories in 1950, according to the Portuguese Yearbook, 1950, vol. II. Racial composition of total population (Page: 6)
  5. ^ Fractionalization in Portuguese colonial territories in 1950, according to the Portuguese Yearbook, 1950, vol. II. Racial composition of total population
  6. ^ Fractionalization in Portuguese colonial territories in 1950, according to the Portuguese Yearbook, 1950, vol. II. Racial composition of total population (Page: 6)
  7. ^ Fractionalization in Portuguese colonial territories in 1950, according to the Portuguese Yearbook, 1950, vol. II. Racial composition of total population
  8. ^ "Actualidade". Asemana.sapo.cv. Retrieved 2013-01-31. 
  9. ^ Jorgen Carling, 2004, p.113-132
  10. ^ A Semana. "Cape Verdeans make up 15.7% of all foreigners in Portugal." Retrieved January 20, 2008. Archived February 29, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  11. ^ "Cristiano Ronaldo of Cape Verdean descent, according to Portuguese newspaper". www.asemana.publ.cv. 13 January 2009. 
  12. ^ (CABO VERDE). Retrieved 06-10-2012.
  13. ^ a b c d e International Religious Freedom Report 2007: Cape Verde. United States Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor (September 14, 2007). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  14. ^ Susanne Lipps: Kapverdische Inseln, p.47. Ostfilern 2009.
  15. ^ Hurley-Glowa, Susan (2015). "Cape Verdeans in the Atlantic: the formation of Kriolu music and dance styles on ship and in port". African Music. 10 (1): 7–30. doi:10.21504/amj.v10i1.1224. Retrieved 23 March 2017.