Corylus americana

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Corylus americana
Corylus americana1.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Fagales
Family: Betulaceae
Genus: Corylus
Species: C. americana
Binomial name
Corylus americana
Marshall, 1785
Distribution map.

Corylus americana, the American Hazelnut, is a species of the genus Corylus that is native to eastern North America, in eastern Canada and the Eastern United States.[1]

Description[edit]

The plant grows to a height of 8–12 feet, with a crown spread of 10 to 15 feet. It is a medium to large shrub that under some conditions can take the form of a small tree. It is an often multi-stemmed shrub with long, outward growing branches that form a dense, spreading or spherical shape.

American Hazelnut has edible nuts that mature in September–October.

Ecology[edit]

The nuts produced by American hazelnut are a mast of squirrels, deer, turkey, woodpeckers, pheasants and other animals. The male catkins are a food staple of ruffed grouse throughout the winter.

Uses[edit]

The nuts are edible, although smaller than the more commonly cultivated filberts (Corylus maxima,[1][2] Corylus colurna,[1] Corylus avellana,[2] and hybrids thereof[2]).

Native Americans used Corylus americana for medicinal purposes.[3]

Multiple fruit of Corylus americana

Cultivation[edit]

Corylus americana is cultivated as an ornamental plant for native plant gardens, and in wildlife gardens to attract and keep fauna in an area. There are cultivated hybrids of Corylus americana with Corylus avellana which aim to combine the larger nuts of the latter with the former's resistance to a North American fungus Cryptosporella anomala.[2]

It is a medium to fast-growing species, that suckers moderately, eventually producing a multi-stemmed, clump appearance.

It adapts well to a range of soil pH and types, but does best on well-drained loams. American hazelnut prefers full sun for best growth and development. Though it can grow and persist in partial shade, plant density and fruit production are greatly reduced.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c 1. Corylus americana Walter, Flora of North America
  2. ^ a b c d "Filbert", Hortus Third, 1976, p. 479, ISBN 0-02-505470-8 
  3. ^ Corylus americana Marshall, GRIN Taxonomy for Plants

External links[edit]