The jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), also known as jack tree, jakfruit, or sometimes simply jack or jak) is a species of tree in the Artocarpus genus of the mulberry family (Moraceae). It is native to parts of South and Southeast Asia, and is believed to have originated in the southwestern rain forests of India, in present-day Goa, Kerala, coastal Karnataka, and Maharashtra. The jackfruit tree is well suited to tropical lowlands, and its fruit is the largest tree-borne fruit, reaching as much as 35 kg (80 lb) in weight, 90 cm (35 in) in length, and 50 cm (20 in) in diameter.
The jackfruit tree is a widely cultivated and popular food item in tropical regions of India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Jackfruit is also found across Africa (e.g., in Cameroon, Uganda, Tanzania, Madagascar, São Tomé and Príncipe, Ethiopia, and Mauritius), as well as throughout Brazil, west-central Mexico, and in Caribbean nations such as Jamaica. Jackfruit is the national fruit of Bangladesh.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Synonym discussion
- 3 Cultivation and ecology
- 4 Aroma
- 5 Fruit
- 6 Culinary uses
- 7 Nutrition
- 8 Seeds
- 9 Wood
- 10 Commercial availability
- 11 Production and marketing
- 12 Cultural significance
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 External links
The word "jackfruit" comes from Portuguese jaca, which in turn, is derived from the Malayalam language term, chakka (Malayalam chakka pazham : ചക്കപ്പഴം). When the Portuguese arrived in India at Kozhikode (Calicut) on the Malabar Coast (Kerala) in 1498, the Malayalam name chakka was recorded by Hendrik van Rheede (1678–1703) in the Hortus Malabaricus, vol. iii in Latin. Henry Yule translated the book in Jordanus Catalani's (f. 1321–1330) Mirabilia descripta: the wonders of the East.
The common English name "jackfruit" was used by the physician and naturalist Garcia de Orta in his 1563 book Colóquios dos simples e drogas da India. Centuries later, botanist Ralph Randles Stewart suggested it was named after William Jack (1795–1822), a Scottish botanist who worked for the East India Company in Bengal, Sumatra, and Malaysia.
Artocarpus integer (Thunb.) Merr. is currently accepted name, whereas Artocarpus integrifolius L.f. is synonym. However in Flora of British India, Volume 5 (Page 541), J.D. Hooker mentions it as Artocarpus integrifolia L.f. Moreover, Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. is a different species.
Cultivation and ecology
The jackfruit has played a significant role in Indian agriculture for centuries. Archeological findings in India have revealed that jackfruit was cultivated in India 3000 to 6000 years[clarification needed] ago. It is also widely cultivated in southeast Asia.
Thailand and Vietnam are major producers of jackfruit, which are often cut, prepared, and canned in a sugary syrup (or frozen in bags/boxes without syrup), and exported overseas, frequently to North America and Europe.
In other areas, the jackfruit is considered an invasive species as in Brazil's Tijuca Forest National Park in Rio de Janeiro. The Tijuca is mostly an artificial secondary forest, whose planting began during the mid-19th century, and jackfruit trees have been a part of the park's flora since its founding. Recently, the species has expanded excessively; its fruits, which naturally fall to the ground and open, are eagerly eaten by small mammals such as the common marmoset and coati. The seeds are dispersed by these animals, which allows the jackfruit to compete for space with native tree species. Additionally, as the marmoset and coati also prey opportunistically on bird's eggs and nestlings, the supply of jackfruit as a ready source of food has allowed them to expand their populations, to the detriment of the local bird populations. Between 2002 and 2007, 55,662 jackfruit saplings were destroyed in the Tijuca Forest area in a deliberate culling effort by the park's management.
Jackfruit are known for having a distinct aroma. In a study using five jackfruit cultivars, the main jackfruit volatile compounds that were detected are: ethyl isovalerate, 3-methylbutyl acetate, 1-butanol, propyl isovalerate, isobutyl isovalerate, 2-methylbutanol, and butyl isovalerate. These compounds were consistently present in all the five cultivars studied, suggesting these esters and alcohols contributed to the sweet and fruity aroma of jackfruit.
The flesh of the jackfruit is starchy and fibrous and is a source of dietary fiber. The flavor is comparable to a combination of apple, pineapple, mango, and banana. Varieties are distinguished according to characteristics of the fruit's flesh. In Brazil, three varieties are recognized: jaca-dura, or the "hard" variety, which has a firm flesh and the largest fruits that can weigh between 15 and 40 kg each, jaca-mole, or the "soft" variety, which bears smaller fruits with a softer and sweeter flesh, and jaca-manteiga, or the "butter" variety, which bears sweet fruits whose flesh has a consistency intermediate between the "hard" and "soft" varieties. In Indochina, the two varieties are the "hard" version (more crunchy, drier and less sweet but fleshier), and the "soft" version (more soft, moister, much sweeter with a darker gold-color flesh than the hard variety).
In Kerala, two varieties of jackfruit predominate: varikka (വരിക്ക) and koozha (കൂഴ). Varikka has a slightly hard inner flesh when ripe, while the inner flesh of the ripe koozha fruit is very soft and almost dissolving. A sweet preparation called chakka varattiyathu (jackfruit jam) is made by seasoning pieces of varikka fruit flesh in jaggery, which can be preserved and used for many months. Huge jackfruits up to four feet in length with a corresponding girth are sometimes seen in Kerala.
In West Bengal, the two varieties are called khaja kathal and moja kathal. The fruits are either eaten alone or as a side to rice, roti, chira, or muri. Sometimes, the juice is extracted and either drunk straight or as a side with muri. The extract is sometimes condensed into rubbery delectables and eaten as candies. The seeds are either boiled or roasted and eaten with salt and hot chillies. They are also used to make spicy side-dishes with rice or roti.
In Mangalore, Karnataka, the varieties are called bakke and imba. The pulp of the imba jackfruit is ground and made into a paste, then spread over a mat and allowed to dry in the sun to create a natural chewy candy.
In Maharashtra, the hard variety is called kaapa and the soft variety is called barka. The juice of the barka is extracted and spread on greased metal dishes which are then kept for sun-drying. Within 2–3 days, a tasty dried pancake-like dried jackfruit juice called as phansacha saath or phanas poli results. The young fruit is called polos in Sri Lanka and idichakka or idianchakka in Kerala.
In Indochina, jackfruit is a frequent ingredient in sweets and desserts. In Vietnam, jackfruit is used to make jackfruit chè (chè is a sweet dessert soup, similar to the Chinese derivative, bubur chacha). The Vietnamese also use jackfruit puree as part of pastry fillings, or as a topping on xôi ngọt (sweet version of sticky rice portions).
Culinary uses for ripe fruit
Kripik nangka, Indonesian jackfruit chips.
Es teler, Indonesian dessert made from shaved ice, condensed milk, coconut, avocado, and jackfruit.
Halo-halo, an ice dessert from the Philippines with different fruits and toppings.
Ripe jackfruit is naturally sweet with subtle flavoring. It can be used to make a variety of dishes, including custards, cakes, or mixed with shaved ice as es teler in Indonesia or halo-halo in the Philippines. In India, when the jackfruit is in season, an ice cream chain store called "Naturals" carries jackfruit flavored ice cream.
Ripe jackfruit arils are sometimes seeded, fried, or freeze-dried and sold as jackfruit chips.
The seeds from ripe fruits are edible, are said to have a milky, sweet taste, and may be boiled, baked, or roasted. When roasted, the flavor of the seeds is comparable to chestnuts. Seeds are used as snacks either by boiling or fire roasting, or to make desserts. For making the traditional breakfast dish in southern India: idlis, the fruit is used with rice as an ingredient and jackfruit leaves are used as a wrapping for steaming. Jackfruit dosas can be prepared by grinding jackfruit flesh along with the batter.
Culinary uses for unripe fruit
Green jackfruit and potato curry, Kolkata.
The cuisines of India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Cambodia, Thailand and Vietnam use cooked young jackfruit. In Indonesia, young jackfruit is cooked with coconut milk as gudeg. In many cultures, jackfruit is boiled and used in curries as a staple food. In northern Thailand, the boiled young jackfruit is used in the Thai salad called tam kanun. In West Bengal, the unripe green jackfruit called aechor or ichor is used as a vegetable to make various spicy curries and side dishes, and as fillings for cutlets and chops. It is especially sought after by vegetarians who substitute this for meat, hence is nicknamed as gacch-patha (tree-mutton). In the Philippines, it is cooked with coconut milk (ginataang langka). In Réunion Island, it is cooked either alone or with meat, such as shrimp or smoked pork. In southern India, unripe jackfruit slices are deep fried to make chips. In Udipi cuisine, jackfruit is used make appa and addae.
Because unripe jackfruit has a meat-like taste, it is used in curry dishes with spices, in Bihar, Jharkhand, Sri Lankan, Andhran, eastern Indian (Bengali) and (Odisha) and Keralan cuisines. The skin of unripe jackfruit must be peeled first, then the remaining whole jackfruit can be chopped into edible portions and cooked before serving. Young jackfruit has a mild flavor and distinctive meat-like texture and is compared to poultry. Meatless sandwiches have been suggested and are popular with both vegetarian and nonvegetarian populations. Unripe jackfruit is widely known as panasa katha in Odisha.
The edible jackfruit is made of easily digestible flesh (bulbs); a 100-g portion of edible raw jackfruit provides about 95 calories and is a good source of the antioxidant vitamin C, providing about 13.7 mg. Jackfruit seeds are rich in protein. The fruit is also rich in vitamin B6, potassium, calcium, and iron.
In general, the seeds are gathered from the ripe fruit, sun-dried, then stored for use in rainy season in many parts of South Indian states. They are extracted from fully matured fruits and washed in water to remove the slimy part. Seeds should be stored immediately in closed polythene bags for one or two days to prevent them from drying out. Germination is improved by soaking seeds in clean water for 24 hours. During transplanting, sow seeds in line, 30 cm apart, in a nursery bed filled with 70% soil mixed with 30% organic matter. The seedbed should be shaded partially from direct sunlight to protect emerging seedlings.
Boiled jackfruit seed is also edible. Seasoned with nothing more than salt, this snack is very popular in Java.
The wood of the tree is used for the production of musical instruments. In Indonesia, hardwood from the trunk is carved out to form the barrels of drums used in the gamelan, and in the Philippines, its soft wood is made into the body of the kutiyapi, a type of boat lute. It is also used to make the body of the Indian string instrument veena and the drums mridangam, thimila, and kanjira; the golden, yellow timber with good grain is used for building furniture and house construction in India. The ornate wooden plank called avani palaka made of the wood of jackfruit tree is used as the priest's seat during Hindu ceremonies in Kerala. In Vietnam, jackfruit wood is prized for the making of Buddhist statuaries in temples.
Jackfruit wood is widely used in the manufacture of furniture, doors and windows, and in roof construction. The heartwood is used by Buddhist forest monastics in Southeast Asia as a dye, giving the robes of the monks in those traditions their distinctive light-brown color.
Outside of its countries of origin, fresh jackfruit can be found at Asian food markets, especially in the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, Cambodia, and Bangladesh. It is also extensively cultivated in the Brazilian coastal region, where it is sold in local markets. It is available canned in sugary syrup, or frozen, already prepared and cut. Dried jackfruit chips are produced by various manufacturers. In northern Australia, particularly in Darwin, jackfruit can be found on the outdoor produce markets during the dry season. Outside of countries where it is grown, jackfruit can be obtained year-round both canned or dried. It has a ripening season in Asia of late spring to late summer.
Jackfruit industries are established in Sri Lanka and Vietnam, where the fruit is processed into products such as flour, noodles, papad, and ice cream. It is also canned and sold as a vegetable for export.
Production and marketing
The marketing of jackfruit involves three groups: producers, traders (middlemen) including wholesalers, and retailers. The marketing channels are rather complex. Large farms sell immature fruits to wholesalers which help cash flow and reduce risk, whereas medium-sized farms sell fruits directly to local markets or retailers.
In Kerala, a large amount of jackfruit production occurs naturally, but around 97% of its production is wasted due to lack of processing units and marketing.
Selling jackfruit in Bangkok
|This section requires expansion. (December 2011)|
- Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis)
- Cempedak (Artocarpus champeden)
- Common fig (Ficus carica)
- Durian, an unrelated fruit similar in appearance
- Marang (Artocarpus odoratissimus)
- List of culinary fruits
- "Corta Jaca" (song)
- Under its accepted name Artocarpus heterophyllus (then as heterophylla) this species was described in Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique 3: 209. (1789) by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, from a specimen collected by botanist Philibert Commerson. Lamarck said of the fruit that it was coarse and difficult to digest. "Larmarck's original description of tejas". Retrieved November 23, 2012.
On mange la chair de son fruit, ainsi que les noyaux qu'il contient; mais c'est un aliment grossier et difficile à digérer.
- "Name - !Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.". Tropicos. Saint Louis, Missouri: Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved November 23, 2012.
- "TPL, treatment of Artocarpus heterophyllus". The Plant List; Version 1. (published on the internet). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and Missouri Botanical Garden. 2010. Retrieved November 23, 2012.
- "Name - Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. synonyms". Tropicos. Saint Louis, Missouri: Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved November 23, 2012.
- GRIN (November 2, 2006). "Artocarpus heterophyllus information from NPGS/GRIN". Taxonomy for Plants. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland: USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Retrieved November 23, 2012.
- "Artocarpus heterophyllus". Tropical Biology Association. October 2006. Retrieved November 23, 2012.
- Boning, Charles R. (2006). Florida's Best Fruiting Plants: Native and Exotic Trees, Shrubs, and Vines. Sarasota, Florida: Pineapple Press, Inc. p. 107.
- "Jackfruit, Breadfruit & Relatives". Know & Enjoy Tropical Fruit. 2012. Retrieved November 23, 2012.
- "JACKFRUIT Fruit Facts". California Rare Fruit Growers, Inc. 1996. Retrieved November 23, 2012.
- T. Pradeepkumar; B. Suma Jyothibhaskar; K. N. Satheesan (2008). Prof. K. V. Peter, ed. Management of Horticultural Crops, Vol.11. Horticulteral Science Series (New Delhi, India: Sumit Pal Jain for New India Publishing Agency). p. 81. ISBN 81-89422-49-9.
The English name jackfruit is derived from Portuguese jaca, which is derived from Malayalam chakka.
- Friar Jordanus, 14th century, as translated from the Latin by Henry Yule (1863). Mirabilia descripta: the wonders of the East. Hakluyt Society. p. 13. Retrieved November 23, 2012.
- Oxford English Dictionary, Second Edition, 1989, online edition
- Anon. (2000) The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition.
- Ralph R Stewart (1984). "How Did They Die?". Taxon 33 (1): 48–52. doi:10.2307/1222028.
- "Artocarpus integer (Thunb.) Merr. — The Plant List". Theplantlist.org. Retrieved 2014-06-17.
- "Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. — The Plant List". Theplantlist.org. 2012-03-23. Retrieved 2014-06-17.
- Livia de Almeida, "Guerra contra as jaqueiras" ("War on Jackfruit"), Revista Veja Rio, May the 5th.2007; see also [http:/,/www.jbrj.gov.br/enbt/posgraduacao/resumos/2008/rodolfo_de_abreu.htm]
- Ong, B.T.; S.A.H. Nazimah, C.P. Tan, H. Mirhosseini, A. Osman, D. Mat Hashim, G. Rusul (August 2008). "Analysis of volatile compounds in five jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus L.) cultivars using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS)". Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 21 (5): 416–422. doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2008.03.002. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
- The encyclopedia of fruit & nuts, By Jules Janick, Robert E. Paull, p. 155
- General information, Department of Agriculture, State of Bahia. seagri.ba.gov.br (in Portuguese)
- Morton, J. "Jackfruit - Artocarpus heterophyllus".
- "Show Foods". Ndb.nal.usda.gov. Retrieved 2014-06-17.
- Suzanne Goldenberg (23 April 2014). "Jackfruit heralded as 'miracle' food crop". The Guardian.
- Jackfruit Artocarpus heterophyllus. Field Manual for Extension Workers and Farmers (PDF). Southampton, UK: Southampton Centre for Underutilised Crops. 2006. ISBN 0854328343.
- "Gỗ mít nài". Nhagoviethung.com. Retrieved 2014-06-17.
- Forest Monks and the Nation-state: An Anthropological and Historical Study in Northeast Thailand J.L. Taylor 1993 p. 218
- Jackfruit. Hort.purdue.edu. Retrieved on 2011-10-17.
- Haq, Nazmul (2006). Jackfruit: Artocarpus heterophyllus (PDF). Southampton, UK: Southampton Centre for Underutilised Crops. p. 129. ISBN 0854327851.
- Subrahmanian N, Hikosaka S, Samuel GJ (1997). Tamil social history. p. 88. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
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