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European beech (Fagus sylvatica)
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Fagales
Family: Fagaceae
Subfamily: Fagoideae
Genus: Fagus
Type species
Castanea fagus

See text

Beech (Fagus) is a genus of deciduous trees in the family Fagaceae, native to temperate Eurasia and North America. There are 13 accepted species in two distinct subgenera, Engleriana and Fagus. The subgenus Engleriana is found only in East Asia, distinctive for its low branches, often made up of several major trunks with yellowish bark. The better known Fagus subgenus beeches are native to Europe and North America. They are high-branching trees with tall, stout trunks and smooth silver-grey bark. The European beech Fagus sylvatica is the most commonly cultivated species, yielding a utility timber used for furniture construction, flooring and engineering purposes, in plywood, and household items. The timber can be used to build homes. Beechwood makes excellent firewood. Slats of washed beech wood are spread around the bottom of fermentation tanks for Budweiser beer. Beech logs are burned to dry the malt used in some German smoked beers. Beech is also used to smoke Westphalian ham, andouille sausage, and some cheeses.


Leaf of Fagus sylvatica
Beechnuts in autumn

Beeches are monoecious, bearing both male and female flowers on the same plant. The small flowers are unisexual, the female flowers borne in pairs, the male flowers wind-pollinating catkins. They are produced in spring shortly after the new leaves appear. The fruit of the beech tree, known as beechnuts or mast, is found in small burrs that drop from the tree in autumn. They are small, roughly triangular, and edible, with a bitter, astringent, or mild and nut-like taste.

The European beech (Fagus sylvatica) is the most commonly cultivated, although few important differences are seen between species aside from detail elements such as leaf shape. The leaves of beech trees are entire or sparsely toothed, from 5–15 centimetres (2–6 inches) long and 4–10 cm (2–4 in) broad.

The bark is smooth and light gray. The fruit is a small, sharply three-angled nut 10–15 mm (3858 in) long, borne singly or in pairs in soft-spined husks 1.5–2.5 cm (58–1 in) long, known as cupules. The husk can have a variety of spine- to scale-like appendages, the character of which is, in addition to leaf shape, one of the primary ways beeches are differentiated.[1] The nuts have a bitter taste (though not nearly as bitter as acorns) and a high tannin content; these are called beechnuts[2] or beech mast.


Recent classification systems of the genus recognize 10 to 13 species in two distinct subgenera, Engleriana and Fagus.[3][1] The Engleriana subgenus is found only in East Asia, and is notably distinct from the Fagus subgenus in that these beeches are low-branching trees, often made up of several major trunks with yellowish bark. Further differentiating characteristics include the whitish bloom on the underside of the leaves, the visible tertiary leaf veins, and a long, smooth cupule-peduncle. Proposed by botanist Chung-Fu Shen in 1992, F. japonica, F. engleriana, and F. okamotoi comprise this subgenus.[1]

The better known Fagus subgenus beeches are high-branching with tall, stout trunks and smooth silver-gray bark. This group includes F. sylvatica, F. grandifolia, F. crenata, F. lucida, F. longipetiolata, and F. hayatae.[1] The classification of the European beech, F. sylvatica, is complex, with a variety of different names proposed for different species and subspecies within this region (for example F. taurica, F. orientalis, and F. moesica[4]). Research suggests that beeches in Eurasia differentiated fairly late in evolutionary history, during the Miocene. The populations in this area represent a range of often overlapping morphotypes, and genetic analysis does not clearly support separate species.[5]

Fagus is the most basal group in the evolution of the Fagaceae family, which also includes oaks and chestnuts.[6] The southern beeches (genus Nothofagus) previously thought closely related to beeches, are now treated as members of a separate family, the Nothofagaceae (which remains a member of the order Fagales). They are found throughout the Southern Hemisphere in Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea, New Caledonia, as well as Argentina and Chile (principally Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego).


Species accepted by Plants of the World Online as of April 2023:[7]

Image Name Distribution
Fagus chienii W.C.Cheng China (Sichuan)
Fagus crenata Blume – Siebold's beech or Japanese beech Japan
Fagus engleriana Seemen ex Diels – Chinese beech China
Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. – American beech Canada, United States, Mexico
Fagus hayatae Palib. ex Hayata Taiwan
Fagus japonica Maxim. Japan
Fagus lucida Rehder & E.H.Wilson China
Fagus multinervis Nakai South Korea (Ulleungdo)
Fagus orientalis Lipsky – Oriental beech Eastern Europe and Western Asia
Fagus pashanica C.C.Yang China (Sichuan, Zhejiang)
Fagus sinensis Oliv. China (Hubei), Vietnam
Fagus sylvatica L. – European beech Europe

Natural hybrids[edit]

Image Name Parentage Distribution
Fagus × taurica Popl. – Crimean beech F. orientalis × F. sylvatica Eurasia

Fossil species[edit]

Numerous species have been named globally from the fossil record spanning from the Cretaceous to the Pleistocene[8]

Fossil species formerly placed in Fagus include:[8]


The name of the tree in Latin, fagus (from whence the generic epithet), is cognate with English "beech" and of Indo-European origin, and played an important role in early debates on the geographical origins of the Indo-European people, the beech argument. Greek φηγός (figós) is from the same root, but the word was transferred to the oak tree (e.g. Iliad 16.767) as a result of the absence of beech trees in southern Greece.[13]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

European beech (Fagus sylvatica)
Beeches in Ehrenbach, Germany
North American beech, seen in autumn
Chinese beech (Fagus engleriana)

Britain and Ireland[edit]

Fagus sylvatica was a late entrant to Great Britain after the last glaciation, and may have been restricted to basic soils in the south of England. Some suggest that it was introduced by Neolithic tribes who planted the trees for their edible nuts.[14] The beech is classified as a native in the south of England and as a non-native in the north where it is often removed from 'native' woods.[15] Large areas of the Chilterns are covered with beech woods, which are habitat to the common bluebell and other flora. The Cwm Clydach National Nature Reserve in southeast Wales was designated for its beech woodlands, which are believed to be on the western edge of their natural range in this steep limestone gorge.[16]

Beech is not native to Ireland; however, it was widely planted in the 18th century and can become a problem shading out the native woodland understory.

Beech is widely planted for hedging and in deciduous woodlands, and mature, regenerating stands occur throughout mainland Britain at elevations below about 650 m (2,100 ft).[17] The tallest and longest hedge in the world (according to Guinness World Records) is the Meikleour Beech Hedge in Meikleour, Perth and Kinross, Scotland.

Continental Europe[edit]

Fagus sylvatica is one of the most common hardwood trees in north-central Europe, in France constituting alone about 15% of all nonconifers. The Balkans are also home to the lesser-known oriental beech (F. orientalis) and Crimean beech (F. taurica).

As a naturally growing forest tree, beech marks the important border between the European deciduous forest zone and the northern pine forest zone. This border is important for wildlife and fauna.

In Denmark and Scania at the southernmost peak of the Scandinavian peninsula, southwest of the natural spruce boundary, it is the most common forest tree. It grows naturally in Denmark and southern Norway and Sweden up to about 57–59°N. The most northern known naturally growing (not planted) beech trees are found in a small grove north of Bergen on the west coast of Norway. Near the city of Larvik is the largest naturally occurring beech forest in Norway, Bøkeskogen.

Some research suggests that early agriculture patterns supported the spread of beech in continental Europe. Research has linked the establishment of beech stands in Scandinavia and Germany with cultivation and fire disturbance, i.e. early agricultural practices. Other areas which have a long history of cultivation, Bulgaria for example, do not exhibit this pattern, so how much human activity has influenced the spread of beech trees is as yet unclear.[18]

The primeval beech forests of the Carpathians are also an example of a singular, complete, and comprehensive forest dominated by a single tree species - the beech tree. Forest dynamics here were allowed to proceed without interruption or interference since the last ice age. Nowadays, they are amongst the last pure beech forests in Europe to document the undisturbed postglacial repopulation of the species, which also includes the unbroken existence of typical animals and plants. These virgin beech forests and similar forests across 12 countries in continental Europe were inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2007.[19]

North America[edit]

The American beech (Fagus grandifolia) occurs across much of the eastern United States and southeastern Canada, with a disjunct population in Mexico. It is the only Fagus species in the Western Hemisphere. Before the Pleistocene Ice Age, it is believed to have spanned the entire width of the continent from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific but now is confined to the east of the Great Plains. F. grandifolia tolerates hotter climates than European species but is not planted much as an ornamental due to slower growth and less resistance to urban pollution. It most commonly occurs as an overstory component in the northern part of its range with sugar maple, transitioning to other forest types further south such as beech-magnolia. American beech is rarely encountered in developed areas except as a remnant of a forest that was cut down for land development.

The dead brown leaves of the American beech remain on the branches until well into the following spring, when the new buds finally push them off.


East Asia is home to five species of Fagus, only one of which (F. crenata) is occasionally planted in Western countries. Smaller than F. sylvatica and F. grandifolia, this beech is one of the most common hardwoods in its native range.


Beech grows on a wide range of soil types, acidic or basic, provided they are not waterlogged. The tree canopy casts dense shade and thickens the ground with leaf litter.

In North America, they can form beech-maple climax forests by partnering with the sugar maple.

The beech blight aphid (Grylloprociphilus imbricator) is a common pest of American beech trees. Beeches are also used as food plants by some species of Lepidoptera.

Beech bark is extremely thin and scars easily. Since the beech tree has such delicate bark, carvings, such as lovers' initials and other forms of graffiti, remain because the tree is unable to heal itself.[20]


Beech bark disease is a fungal infection that attacks the American beech through damage caused by scale insects.[21] Infection can lead to the death of the tree.[22]

Beech leaf disease is a disease that affects American beeches spread by the newly discovered nematode, Litylenchus crenatae mccannii. This disease was first discovered in Lake County, Ohio, in 2012 and has now spread to over 41 counties in Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York, and Ontario, Canada.[23] As of 2024, the disease has become widespread in Connecticut, Massachusetts and Rhode Island, and in portions of coastal New Hampshire and coastal and central Maine.[24]


The beech most commonly grown as an ornamental tree is the European beech (Fagus sylvatica), widely cultivated in North America as well as its native Europe. Many varieties are in cultivation, notably the weeping beech F. sylvatica 'Pendula', several varieties of copper or purple beech, the fern-leaved beech F. sylvatica 'Asplenifolia', and the tricolour beech F. sylvatica 'Roseomarginata'. The columnar Dawyck beech (F. sylvatica 'Dawyck') occurs in green, gold, and purple forms, named after Dawyck Botanic Garden in the Scottish Borders, one of the four garden sites of the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.


Beech Tree photographed by Eugène Atget, circa 1910–1915


Beech wood is an excellent firewood, easily split and burning for many hours with bright but calm flames. Slats of beech wood are washed in caustic soda to leach out any flavour or aroma characteristics and are spread around the bottom of fermentation tanks for Budweiser beer. This provides a complex surface on which the yeast can settle, so that it does not pile up, preventing yeast autolysis which would contribute off-flavours to the beer.[citation needed] Beech logs are burned to dry the malt used in German smoked beers.[25] Beech is also used to smoke Westphalian ham,[26] traditional andouille (an offal sausage) from Normandy,[27] and some cheeses.

Some drums are made from beech, which has a tone between those of maple and birch, the two most popular drum woods.

The textile modal is a kind of rayon often made wholly from reconstituted cellulose of pulped beech wood.[28][29][30]

The European species Fagus sylvatica yields a tough, utility timber. It weighs about 720 kg per cubic metre and is widely used for furniture construction, flooring, and engineering purposes, in plywood and household items, but rarely as a decorative wood. The timber can be used to build chalets, houses, and log cabins.[citation needed]

Beech wood is used for the stocks of military rifles when traditionally preferred woods such as walnut are scarce or unavailable or as a lower-cost alternative.[31]


The edible fruit of the beech tree,[2] known as beechnuts or mast, is found in small burrs that drop from the tree in autumn. They are small, roughly triangular, and edible, with a bitter, astringent, or in some cases, mild and nut-like taste. According to the Roman statesman Pliny the Elder in his work Natural History, beechnut was eaten by the people of Chios when the town was besieged, writing of the fruit: "that of the beech is the sweetest of all; so much so, that, according to Cornelius Alexander, the people of the city of Chios, when besieged, supported themselves wholly on mast".[32] They can also be roasted and pulverized into an adequate coffee substitute.[33] The leaves can be steeped in liquor to give a light green/yellow liqueur.


Painting on beech wood - 1511

In antiquity, the bark of the beech tree was used by Indo-European people for writing-related purposes, especially in a religious context.[34] Beech wood tablets were a common writing material in Germanic societies before the development of paper. The Old English bōc[35] has the primary sense of "beech" but also a secondary sense of "book", and it is from bōc that the modern word derives.[36] In modern German, the word for "book" is Buch, with Buche meaning "beech tree". In modern Dutch, the word for "book" is boek, with beuk meaning "beech tree". In Swedish, these words are the same, bok meaning both "beech tree" and "book". There is a similar relationship in some Slavic languages. In Russian and Bulgarian, the word for beech is бук (buk), while that for "letter" (as in a letter of the alphabet) is буква (bukva), while Serbo-Croatian and Slovene use "bukva" to refer to the tree.


The pigment bistre was made from beech wood soot. Beech litter raking as a replacement for straw in animal husbandry was an old non-timber practice in forest management that once occurred in parts of Switzerland in the 17th century.[37][38][39][40] Beech has been listed as one of the 38 plants whose flowers are used to prepare Bach flower remedies.[41]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d Shen, Chung-Fu (1992). A Monograph of the Genus Fagus Tourn. Ex L. (Fagaceae) (PhD). City University of New York. OCLC 28329966.
  2. ^ a b Lyle, Katie Letcher (2010) [2004]. The Complete Guide to Edible Wild Plants, Mushrooms, Fruits, and Nuts: How to Find, Identify, and Cook Them (2nd ed.). Guilford, CN: FalconGuides. p. 138. ISBN 978-1-59921-887-8. OCLC 560560606.
  3. ^ Denk, Thomas; Grimm, Guido; Hemleben, Vera (2005). "Patterns of Molecular and Morphological Differentiation in Fagus (Fagaceae): Phylogenetic Implications". American Journal of Botany. 92 (6): 1006–16. doi:10.3732/ajb.92.6.1006. JSTOR 4126078. PMID 21652485.
  4. ^ Gömöry, D.; Paule, L.; Brus, R.; Zhelev, P.; Tomović, Z.; Gračan, J. (1999). "Genetic differentiation and phylogeny of beech on the Balkan peninsula". Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 12 (4): 746–752. doi:10.1046/j.1420-9101.1999.00076.x. S2CID 83666988.
  5. ^ Denk, Thomas; Grimm, Guido; Stogerer, K.; Langer, M.; Hemleben, Vera (2002). "The evolutionary history of Fagus in western Eurasia: Evidence from genes, morphology and the fossil record". Plant Systematics and Evolution. 232 (3–4): 213–236. Bibcode:2002PSyEv.232..213D. doi:10.1007/s006060200044. JSTOR 23644392. S2CID 33581227.
  6. ^ Manos, Paul S.; Steele, Kelly P. (1997). "Phylogenetic analysis of "Higher" Hamamelididae based on Plasid Sequence Data". American Journal of Botany. 84 (10): 1407–19. doi:10.2307/2446139. JSTOR 2446139. PMID 21708548.
  7. ^ "Fagus L. - Plants of the World Online". Plants of the World Online. 2022-05-07. Retrieved 2023-04-24.
  8. ^ a b "Fagus". The International Fossil Plant Names Index. Retrieved 6 Feb 2023.
  9. ^ Tanai, T. "Des fossiles végétaux dans le bassin houiller de Nishitagawa, Préfecture de Yamagata, Japon". Japanese Journal of Geology and Geography. 22: 119–135.
  10. ^ Brown, R. W. (1937). Additions to some fossil floras of the Western United States (PDF) (Report). Professional Paper. Vol. 186. United States Geological Survey. pp. 163–206. doi:10.3133/pp186J.
  11. ^ Manchester, S. R.; Dillhoff, R. M. (2004). "Fagus (Fagaceae) fruits, foliage, and pollen from the Middle Eocene of Pacific Northwestern North America". Canadian Journal of Botany. 82 (10): 1509–1517. doi:10.1139/b04-112.
  12. ^ Wilf, P.; Johnson, K.R.; Cúneo, N.R.; Smith, M.E.; Singer, B.S.; Gandolfo, M.A. (2005). "Eocene Plant Diversity at Laguna del Hunco and Río Pichileufú, Patagonia, Argentina". The American Naturalist. 165 (6): 634–650. doi:10.1086/430055. PMID 15937744. S2CID 3209281. Retrieved 2019-02-22.
  13. ^ Robert Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Leiden and Boston 2010, pp. 1565–6
  14. ^ "Map" (JPG). linnaeus.nrm.se. Retrieved 2019-08-07.
  15. ^ "International Foresters Study Lake District's greener, friendlier forests". Forestry Commission. Archived from the original on 28 January 2010. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
  16. ^ "Cwm Clydach". Countryside Council for Wales Landscape & wildlife. Archived from the original on 25 September 2010. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
  17. ^ Preston, C.D.; Pearman, D.; Dines, T.D. (2002). New Atlas of the British Flora. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-851067-3.
  18. ^ Bradshaw, R.H.W.; Kito and, N.; Giesecke, T. (2010). "Factors influencing the Holocene history of Fagus". Forest Ecology and Management. 259 (11): 2204–12. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2009.11.035.
  19. ^ "Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. Retrieved 13 November 2021.
  20. ^ Lawrence, Gale; Tyrol, Adelaide (1984). A Field Guide to the Familiar: Learning to Observe the Natural World. Prentice-Hall. pp. 75–76. ISBN 978-0-13-314071-2.
  21. ^ "beech." The Columbia Encyclopedia. New York: Columbia University Press, 2008. Credo Reference. Web. 17 September 2012.
  22. ^ "beech bark disease". Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology. Wiley. 2006. ISBN 978-0-470-03545-0. Credo Reference. Web. 27 September 2012.
  23. ^ Crowley, Brendan (2020-09-28). "Deadly 'Beech Leaf Disease' Identified Across Connecticut and Rhode Island". The Connecticut Examiner. Retrieved 2020-11-15.
  24. ^ University of New Hampshire
  25. ^ "Der Brauprozeß von Schlenkerla Rauchbier". Schlenkerla - die historische Rauchbierbrauerei (in German). Schlenkerla. 2011. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  26. ^ "GermanFoods.org - Guide to German Sausages and German Hams". Archived from the original on 2012-11-23. Retrieved 2012-05-17.
  27. ^ "What is andouille? | Cookthink". Archived from the original on 2012-05-12. Retrieved 2012-11-22.
  28. ^ holistic-interior-designs.com, Modal Fabric Archived 2011-10-09 at the Wayback Machine, retrieved 9 October 2011
  29. ^ uniformreuse.co.uk, Modal data sheet Archived 2011-10-24 at the Wayback Machine, retrieved 9 October 2011
  30. ^ fabricstockexchange.com, Modal Archived 2011-09-25 at the Wayback Machine (dictionary entry), retrieved 9 October 2011
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  33. ^ United States Department of the Army (2009). The Complete Guide to Edible Wild Plants. New York: Skyhorse Publishing. p. 29. ISBN 978-1-60239-692-0. OCLC 277203364.
  34. ^ Pronk-Tiethoff, Saskia (25 October 2013). The Germanic loanwords in Proto-Slavic. Rodopi. p. 81. ISBN 978-94-012-0984-7.
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  37. ^ Bürgi, M.; Gimmi, U. (2007). "Three objectives of historical ecology: the case of litter collecting in Central European forests" (PDF). Landscape Ecology. 22 (S1): 77–87. Bibcode:2007LaEco..22S..77B. doi:10.1007/s10980-007-9128-0. hdl:20.500.11850/58945. S2CID 21130814.
  38. ^ Gimmi, U.; Poulter, B.; Wolf, A.; Portner, H.; Weber, P.; Bürgi, M. (2013). "Soil carbon pools in Swiss forests show legacy effects from historic forest litter raking" (PDF). Landscape Ecology. 28 (5): 385–846. Bibcode:2013LaEco..28..835G. doi:10.1007/s10980-012-9778-4. hdl:20.500.11850/66782. S2CID 16930894.
  39. ^ McGrath, M.J.; et al. (2015). "Reconstructing European forest management from 1600 to 2010". Biogeosciences. 12 (14): 4291–4316. Bibcode:2015BGeo...12.4291M. doi:10.5194/bg-12-4291-2015.
  40. ^ Scalenghe, R.; Minoja, A.P.; Zimmermann, S.; Bertini, S. (2016). "Consequence of litter removal on pedogenesis: A case study in Bachs and Irchel (Switzerland)". Geoderma. 271: 191–201. Bibcode:2016Geode.271..191S. doi:10.1016/j.geoderma.2016.02.024.
  41. ^ D. S. Vohra (1 June 2004). Bach Flower Remedies: A Comprehensive Study. B. Jain Publishers. p. 3. ISBN 978-81-7021-271-3. Retrieved 2 September 2013.

External links[edit]