Deng Zhuoxiang started his football career in the 2005 league season playing for Wuhan Guanggu; however, he would have to wait until the 2006 league season to make his debut against Tianjin Teda on 12 July 2006 in a 4-3 loss. Throughout the season, he would steadily establish himself within the squad by playing in 10 league games, though this was often as a substitute. By the 2007 league season, Deng would establish himself within the team and even score his first goal against Qingdao Jonoon in a 1-0 win on 27 March 2007. While now a regular starter for Wuhan, he found that they were controversially relegated then subsequently disbanded during the 2008 season after the club's management did not accept the punishment given to them by the Chinese Football Association after a scuffle broke out during a match against Beijing Guoan on 27 September 2008.
Without a club, Deng would be loaned to the newly promoted Jiangsu Sainty by Hubei F.A. at the beginning of the 2009 league season. He would go on to play in 29 league games in the season, scoring five goals and providing six assists. On 4 December 2009, he was named as the Chinese Football Association Young Player of the Year and would then transfer to Shandong Luneng shortly after. He would go on to make his debut on 24 February 2010 against Sanfrecce Hiroshima in an AFC Champions League game that Shandong won 1-0. In his debut season for Shandong, he would have to fight for his position against Wang Yongpo; however, he quickly established himself as an integral member of the team and aid the club to the 2010 league title by the end of his first season.
Deng transferred back to Jiangsu on 6 February 2012. However, Deng did not play during the 2012 season, missing out after doctors found fractured bone fragments in his leg. He was flown to Germany to get surgery and recover for most of the season. Deng finally made his debut for Jiangsu in the final game of the season, coming off the bench in a 1-1 draw against Guangzhou R&F. He would miss the beginning of the 2013 season with a fear of a possible leg inflammation. Deng returned in his first appearance of the season on 22 June 2013 in a 2-1 win against Shandong Luneng. He scored his first goal for Jiangsu on 19 October 2013 against Shandong in a 1-1 draw.
Deng made his international debut on 18 July 2009 in a 3-1 win against Palestine. He would go on to be mainly used in friendlies until he was given a run of games in the 2010 East Asian Football Championship. On 10 February 2010, he scored his first goal in a 3-0 win against South Korea and help China beat them for the first time, ending the team's Koreaphobia. On 4 June 2010, Deng scored from a direct free kick in a 1-0 win against France, condemning the latter to a shock defeat.