Chinese Super League
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|Number of teams||16|
|Level on pyramid||1|
|Relegation to||China League One|
|Domestic cup(s)||Chinese FA Cup|
|International cup(s)||AFC Champions League|
|Current champions||Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao, 5th title
|Most championships||Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao
|2016 Chinese Super League|
The Chinese Football Association Super League (Chinese: 中国足球协会超级联赛; pinyin: Zhōngguó Zúqiú Xiéhuì Chāojí Liánsài), commonly known as Chinese Super League (中超联赛) or CSL, currently known as the Ping Ping Chinese Football Association Super League for sponsorship reasons, is the highest tier of professional association football in China, operating under the auspices of the Chinese Football Association.
The Chinese Super League was created by the rebranding of the former top division Chinese Football Association Jia-A League in 2004. (see Chinese Jia-A League, not to be confused with Chinese Football Association Jia League, which is the current second tier league.)
Originally contested by 12 teams in the inaugural year, the league has been expanding. There are 16 teams in the current season. The title has been won by seven teams: Shanghai Shenhua, Shenzhen Jianlibao, Dalian Shide, Shandong Luneng, Changchun Yatai, Beijing Guoan, and Guangzhou Evergrande. The current Super League champions are Guangzhou Evergrande.
- 1 Overview
- 2 History
- 3 International players policy
- 4 Chinese Super League seasons and champions
- 5 Most successful clubs
- 6 Current clubs
- 7 Former clubs
- 8 All-time CSL table
- 9 Attendances
- 10 Awards
- 11 Sponsors
- 12 Reserve league
- 13 Youth league
- 14 See also
- 15 References
- 16 External links
Unlike in many top European leagues, the Chinese Super League starts in February or March (spring in China) and ends in November or December (early winter). In each season, each club plays each of the other clubs twice, once at home and another away. The current system, with 16 clubs in the Super League, so the teams played 30 games each for a total of 240 games in the season.
The two lowest placed teams by the end of the season are relegated to the China League One and the top two teams from the League One are promoted, taking their places.
The top three of the league, as well as the winner of the Chinese FA Cup, qualify for the AFC Champions League of the next year. If the FA Cup finalists finish the league 3rd or higher, 4th place in the league will take the Champions League spot.
In 1994, the Chinese Jia-A League became the country's first professional football league. On October 29, 2000, Yan Shiduo, vice-president of the Chinese Football Association, talked about setting up a new professional league system. In 2002, the CFA made a decision to establish the Chinese Super League, which started in 2004.
Compared to the Jia-A, the CSL is a lot more demanding on teams. The CFA and CSL committee imposed a range of minimum criteria to ensure professional management and administration, financial probity, and a youth development program at every club. The second division, China League One, was also re-established under a new system. Besides the regular professional league, the CSL also has a reserve league, U-19 league, U-17 league and an U-15 league.
The CSL and China League One's goals are to promote high quality and high-level competition; introduce advanced managerial concepts to the market; enforce the delivery of minimum standards of professionalism; encourage the influx of more higher quality foreign coaches and players; and gradually establish the European system for player registrations and transfers.
The first CSL season began in 2004, with 12 teams in the league. The inaugural season was plagued with controversy, which continued from the former league, Jia-A. After 1998, scandals such as match fixing and gambling were uncovered. This resulted in loss of interest in the domestic game, low attendances and great financial losses.
The original plan was to have one relegated team and two promoted teams for the 2004 season and 2005 season, thus increasing the number of teams in 2006 to 14. But the CFA's decisions caused the relegations to be cancelled for these 2 years.
For the 2005 season, the league expanded to 14 teams after Wuhan Huanghelou and Zhuhai Zhongbang won promotion from China League One. The Zhuhai team, formerly Zhuhai Anping, had been bought by the Shanghai Zhongbang real estate company and relocated to Shanghai for the 2005 season, and subsequently renamed to Shanghai Zobon.
In 2006, the league was planned to expand to 16 teams with the newly promoted Xiamen Lanshi and Changchun Yatai. However, Sichuan Guancheng withdrew before the start of the season, leaving only 15 teams when the season started on March 11. Shanghai Liancheng Zobon, after another change of ownership, was renamed Shanghai United.
In 2007, the league was again planned to be expanded to 16 teams, but once again it found itself one team short. Shanghai United's owner, Zhu Jun, bought a major share in local rival Shanghai Shenhua and merged the two teams. As a result, Shanghai Shenhua retained its name as it already had a strong fanbase in the city, while Shanghai United pulled out of the league.
In 2008, the season started with 16 clubs participating for the first time, however Wuhan protested against punishments made by the CFA after a match against Beijing Guo'an, and announced its immediate withdrawal from the league, which left the season to finish with 15 clubs.
Since 2009, the league has run with 16 stable clubs participating in each year. Two are relegated to China League One, and two promoted from China League One each season.
In 2010, the CSL was beset by a scandal going right to the top of the CFA. The Chinese government took nationwide action against football gambling, match-fixing and corruption, and former CFA vice presidents Xie Yalong, Nan Yong and Yang Yimin were arrested.
In 2011, the anti-corruption movement had visibly improved the image of the CSL, with increases to attendance. Clubs such as Guangzhou Evergrande and Shanghai Shenhua began investing heavily in foreign stars. After former Fluminense midfielder Darío Conca transferred in 2011, Some noticeable signings during the 2012 seasons include former Chelsea forward Didier Drogba and Nicolas Anelka, former Barcelona midfielder Seydou Keita and Fábio Rochemback, former Sevilla forward Frédéric Kanouté, former Blackburn Rovers forward Yakubu Aiyegbeni and former Borussia Dortmund forward Lucas Barrios. Former Japanese national team coach Takeshi Okada took up the reins as the new coach of Hangzhou Greentown, former Argentina national team coach Sergio Batista replaced Jean Tigana as Shanghai Shenhua's head coach, and former Italy national team and Juventus manager Marcello Lippi replaced Lee Jang-Soo as Guangzhou Evergrande's head coach.
International players policy
Professional footballers in China receive relatively high salaries when compared to other Chinese sports leagues and football leagues in other countries. As a result, numerous players from Serbia, Brazil, Honduras, and other Latin American regions are signed as the foreign players in the Chinese league. The league has rules, however, restricting the number of foreign players strictly to five per team, including a slot for a player from AFC countries. A team could use a maximum of four foreign players on the field each game. This is to promote native player improvement and to conform to rules regarding international club competitions in the AFC. During the middle of the 2012 season, it was decided that teams that were competing in the AFC Champions League were allowed to have two extra foreign players, which can bring the number of foreigners on a team's roster to seven; however, the policy was removed in the 2013 season.
|2001–2003||4||3||In 2001, foreign goalkeepers were restricted to play in matches.|
|2004–2006||3||2||After 2006, players from Hong Kong, Macau and Chinese Taipei were not considered as foreign players (except goalkeepers)|
|2009–||4+1||3+1||"+1" refers to the AFC quota. Teams may add a player from another country within the AFC; examples include Japan, South Korea and Uzbekistan.|
Hong Kong, Macau and Chinese Taipei player
Hong Kong players were considered foreigners at the beginning of 2009 but the league hold back the change in summer transfer. After 2010 season, players from Macau and Chinese Taipei (except goalkeepers) were not considered foreigners in CSL matches, but will be regarded as foreigners in AFC competitions. After 2015 season, players who didn't play for Hong Kong national football team, Macau national football team or Chinese Taipei national football team were no longer deemed as native players. After 2016 season, players from Hong Kong, Macau and Chinese Taipei whose contract was signed after 1 January 2016 were no longer deemed as native players.
Chinese Super League seasons and champions
Most successful clubs
|Club||Champions||Runners-up||Winning Seasons||Runners-up Seasons|
||1994, 1996, 1997, 1998, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2005|
|Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao||
||2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015||1994|
||1999, 2006, 2008, 2010||2004, 2013|
||1995||1996, 1997, 1998, 2000, 2001, 2005, 2006, 2008|
||2009||1995, 2007, 2011, 2014|
- Including Chinese Jia-A League
|Club||Chinese name||Home stadium||Capacity||Seasons in CSL||Best finish||Worst finish||Spell in level 1|
|Beijing Guoan||北京国安||Workers Stadium||66,000||2004 to 2016||1st, 2009||7th, 2004||from 2004|
|Changchun Yatai||长春亚泰||Development Area Stadium||25,000||2006 to 2016||1st, 2007||14th, 2013||from 2006|
|Chongqing Lifan||重庆力帆||Chongqing Olympic Sports Center||58,600||2004 to 2006, 2009 to 2010, 2015 to 2016||8th, 2015||16th, 2009||from 2015|
|Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao||广州恒大淘宝||Tianhe Stadium||58,500||2008 to 2009, 2011 to 2016||1st, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015||9th, 2009||from 2011|
|Guangzhou R&F||广州富力||Yuexiushan Stadium||30,000||2004 to 2010, 2012 to 2016||3rd, 2014||16th, 2010||from 2012|
|Hangzhou Greentown||杭州绿城||Yellow Dragon Sports Center||52,600||2007 to 2016||4th, 2010||15th, 2009||from 2007|
|Hebei CFFC||河北华夏幸福||Qinhuangdao Olympic Sports Center Stadium||33,572||2016||from 2016|
|Henan Jianye||河南建业||Zhengzhou Hanghai Stadium||29,800||2007 to 2012, 2014 to 2016||3rd, 2009||16th, 2012||from 2014|
|Jiangsu Suning||江苏苏宁||Nanjing Olympic Sports Center||62,000||2009 to 2016||2nd, 2012||13th, 2013||from 2009|
|Liaoning F.C.||辽宁队||Shenyang Olympic Sports Center Stadium||60,000||2004 to 2008, 2010 to 2016||3rd, 2011||15th, 2008||from 2010|
|Shandong Luneng Taishan||山东鲁能泰山||Jinan Olympic Sports Luneng Stadium||56,800||2004 to 2016||1st, 2006, 2008, 2010||12th, 2012||from 2004|
|Shanghai Greenland Shenhua||上海绿地申花||Hongkou Football Stadium||33,000||2004 to 2016||2nd, 2005, 2006, 2008||11th, 2011||from 2004|
|Shanghai SIPG||上海上港||Shanghai Stadium||56,800||2013 to 2016||2nd, 2016||9th, 2013||from 2013|
|Shijiazhuang Ever Bright||石家庄永昌||Yutong International Sports Center||38,000||2015 to 2016||7th, 2015||from 2015|
|Tianjin Teda||天津泰达||Tianjin Olympic Center Stadium||54,700||2004 to 2016||2nd, 2010||13th, 2015||from 2004|
|Yanbian Funde||延边富德||Yanji Nationwide Fitness Centre Stadium||30,000||2016||from 2016|
|Club||Chinese name||Seasons in CSL||Best finish||Worst finish||Current league|
|Shanghai Shenxin||上海申鑫||2010 to 2015||7th, 2013||16th, 2015||China League One|
|Beijing Renhe||北京人和||2004 to 2015||3rd, 2004||15th, 2015||China League One|
|Zhejiang Yiteng||浙江毅腾||2014||16th, 2014||China League One|
|Dalian Aerbin||大连阿尔滨||2012 to 2014||5th, 2012, 2013||15th, 2014||China League One|
|Wuhan Zall||武汉卓尔||2013||16th, 2013||China League One|
|Qingdao Jonoon||青岛中能||2004 to 2013||6th, 2011||15th, 2013||China League One|
|Shenzhen F.C.||深圳市||2004 to 2011||1st, 2004||16th, 2011||China League One|
|Dalian Shide||大连实德||2004 to 2012||1st, 2005||14th, 2008, 2012||Defunct|
|Chengdu Tiancheng||成都天诚||2008 to 2009, 2011||9th, 2009||15th, 2011||Defunct|
|Wuhan Guanggu||武汉光谷||2005 to 2008||5th, 2005||16th, 2008||Defunct|
|Xiamen Lanshi||厦门蓝狮||2006 to 2007||8th, 2006||15th, 2007||Defunct|
|Shanghai United||上海联城||2005 to 2006||7th, 2006||11th, 2005||Defunct|
|Sichuan Guancheng||四川冠城||2004 to 2005||9th, 2004, 2005||Defunct|
All-time CSL table
The All-time CSL table is an overall record of all match results, points, and goals of every team that has played in CSL since its inception in 2004. The table is accurate as of the end of the 2015 season.
|1||Shandong Luneng Taishan||12||344||177||94||73||611||372||239||625||3||2|
|3||Shanghai Greenland Shenhua||12||344||138||109||97||463||407||56||523||-||3|
|7||Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao||7||210||121||54||35||422||207||215||417||5||-|
|25||Shijiazhuang Ever Bright||1||30||8||15||7||34||31||3||39||-||-|
|2016 Chinese Super League|
|2016 China League One|
|2016 China League Two|
|Clubs that no longer exist|
|Season||Total Attendance||Games||Average||Change||High avg.||Team||No. Of Clubs||Relegation Slots|
Attendance by clubs
This table lists average attendances of clubs yearly, but only for seasons when that club played in the top division. Clubs are listed with their current names.
|Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao||-||-||-||-||19,624||20,057||–||45,666||37,250||40,428||42,154||45,889|
|Shandong Luneng Taishan||23,636||26,000||30,679||22,607||26,501||17,015||15,901||12,112||20,148||27,683||23,931||22,559|
|Shanghai Greenland Shenhua||13,636||12,462||12,786||11,393||11,510||12,627||12,963||9,828||14,761||12,739||15,417||19,506|
|Shijiazhuang Ever Bright||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||25,070|
The official Chinese Super league annual awards are given to players, managers and referees based on their performance during the season.
Most valuable player
It is also named the "Mr. Football Golden Ball award".
|2004||Zhao Junzhe||Liaoning Zhongyu||China|
|2005||Branko Jelic||Beijing Guoan||Serbia|
|2006||Zheng Zhi||Shandong Luneng||China|
|2007||Du Zhenyu||Changchun Yatai||China|
|2008||Emil Martínez||Shanghai Shenhua||Honduras|
|2009||Samuel Caballero||Changchun Yatai||Honduras|
|2010||Duvier Riascos||Shanghai Shenhua||Colombia|
|2012||Cristian Dănălache||Jiangsu Sainty||Romania|
|2013||Darío Conca||Guangzhou Evergrande||Argentina|
|2015||Ricardo Goulart||Guangzhou Evergrande||Brazil|
Golden Boot award
This award is awarded to the top goalscorer of the league that year.
|2004||Kwame Ayew||Inter Shanghai||17|
|2005||Branko Jelić||Beijing Guoan||21|
|2006||Li Jinyu||Shandong Luneng||26|
|2007||Li Jinyu||Shandong Luneng||15|
|2008||Éber Luís||Tianjin Teda||14|
|2009|| Hernán Barcos
|Shenzhen Asia Travel / Shanghai Shenhua
|2010||Duvier Riascos||Shanghai Shenhua||20|
|2012||Cristian Dănălache||Jiangsu Sainty||23|
|2015||Aloísio||Shandong Luneng Taishan||22|
There is also an award that is awarded to the top Chinese goalscorer of that season, which was first introduced in 2011.
|2011||Yu Hanchao||Liaoning Whowin||12|
|2012||Wang Yongpo||Shandong Luneng Taishan||10|
|2013||Wu Lei||Shanghai East Asia||15|
|2014||Wu Lei||Shanghai East Asia||12|
|2015||Wu Lei||Shanghai SIPG||14|
Manager of the year
|2004||Zhu Guanghu||Shenzhen Jianlibao||Chinese Super League champions||China|
|2005||Vladimir Petrovic Pizon||Dalian Shide||Chinese Super League champions; Chinese FA Cup winners||Serbia|
|2006||Ljubisa Tumbakovic||Shandong Luneng Taishan||Chinese Super League champions; Chinese FA Cup winners||Serbia|
|2007||Gao Hongbo||Changchun Yatai||Chinese Super League champions||China|
|2008||Ljubisa Tumbakovic||Shandong Luneng||Chinese Super League champions||Serbia|
|2009||Tang Yaodong||Henan Jianye||Chinese Super League third place||China|
|2010||Branko Ivankovic||Shandong Luneng Taishan||Chinese Super League champions||Croatia|
|2011||Ma Lin||Liaoning Whowin||Chinese Super League third place||China|
|2012||Dragan Okuka||Jiangsu Sainty||Chinese Super League runners-up||Serbia|
|2013||Marcello Lippi||Guangzhou Evergrande||Chinese Super League champions; AFC Champions League winners||Italy|
|2014||Gregorio Manzano||Beijing Guoan||Chinese Super League runners-up||Spain|
|2015||Luiz Felipe Scolari||Guangzhou Evergrande||Chinese Super League champions; AFC Champions League winners||Brazil|
Youth player of the year
|2004||Chen Tao||Shenyang Ginde||China|
|2005||Hao Junmin||Tianjin Teda||China|
|2006||Wang Dalei||Shanghai Liancheng||China|
|2007||Hao Junmin||Tianjin Teda||China|
|2008||Huang Bowen||Beijing Guoan||China|
|2009||Deng Zhuoxiang||Jiangsu Sainty||China|
|2010||Zheng Zheng||Shandong Luneng Taishan||China|
|2011||Song Wenjie||Qingdao Jonoon||China|
|2012||Zhang Xizhe||Beijing Guoan||China|
|2013||Jin Jingdao||Shandong Luneng Taishan||China|
|2014||Liu Binbin||Shandong Luneng Taishan||China|
Goalkeeper of the year
|2012||Deng Xiaofei||Jiangsu Sainty||China|
|2013||Zeng Cheng||Guangzhou Evergrande||China|
|2014||Wang Dalei||Shandong Luneng Taishan||China|
|2015||Zeng Cheng||Guangzhou Evergrande||China|
|Season||Sponsor||Annual Value||Official League Name|
|2004||Siemens Mobile||€8 million||Siemens Mobile Chinese Super League|
|2005||No sponsor||Chinese Football Association Super League|
|2006||IPhox||€6 million||Iphox Chinese Super League|
|2007||Kingway Beer||￥ 36 million||Kingway Beer Chinese Super League|
|2008||￥ 38 million||Kingway Beer Chinese Super League|
|2009||Pirelli||€5 million||Pirelli Chinese Super League|
|2010||€5 million||Pirelli Chinese Super League|
|2011||Wanda Plaza||￥ 65 million||Wanda Plaza Chinese Super League|
|2012||￥ 65 million||Wanda Plaza Chinese Super League|
|2013||￥ 65 million||Wanda Plaza Chinese Super League|
|2014||Ping An Insurance||￥ 150 million||China Ping'an Chinese Super League|
|2015||￥ 150 million||China Ping'an Chinese Super League|
The reserve league is open to all of the reserve teams from the Chinese Super League, China League One, and China League Two clubs.
Like the reserve league, the youth league is open to all the youth teams of all professional clubs in China.
|Season||U-19 Champions||U-17 Champions||U-15 Champions|
|2004||Shanghai Shenhua||Shandong Luneng||Shandong Luneng|
|2005||Shandong Luneng||Shandong Luneng||Shandong Luneng|
|2006||Beijing Guoan||Shandong Luneng||Shandong Luneng|
|2007||Chongqing Lifan||Shandong Luneng||Shandong Luneng|
|2008||Beijing Guoan||Changchun Yatai||Shandong Luneng|
|2009||Shandong Luneng||Changchun Yatai||Wuhan FA|
|2010||Not held||Shandong Luneng||Shanghai Luckystar|
|2011||Beijing Guoan||Shanghai FA||Hubei FA|
|2012||Jiangsu FA||Liaoning FA||Guangzhou FA|
- Football in China
- Chinese Football Association
- Chinese football champions
- Chinese football records
- Chinese FA Cup
- Chinese FA Super Cup
- Chinese Jia-A League
- China League One
- China League Two
- China Amateur Football League
- 足协重新定义港澳台内援 必须入选地区代表队
- 港澳台球员转会新政 新转入算亚外有合同算内援
- Official site of the Chinese Super League (Chinese)
- Official site of the Chinese Football Association (Chinese)
- RSSSF.com - China - List of Champions
- English side about the CSL