Djiboutian Civil War

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Djiboutian Civil War
Djibouti Map.jpg
Map of Djibouti
Date November 1991 - December 1994
(3 years and 1 month)
Location Northern Djibouti
Result Government victory
FRUD Peace Accord
Belligerents

 Djibouti

Supported by:
 France
FRUD.png FRUD Movement
Commanders and leaders

Djibouti Hassan Gouled Aptidon

France François Mitterrand

FRUD.png A. D. Ahmed

FRUD.png A. M. Daoud
Strength
5,000 (1992)
20,000 (1994)[1]
3,000 (1991)
4,500 (1994)
Casualties and losses
Unknown 1,000 killed[2]

The Djiboutian Civil War (also known as the Afar insurgency) was a conflict in Djibouti, lasting from 1991 to 1994 and resulting in thousands of fatalities.[3]

Background[edit]

Since at least French rule, first as French Somaliland and then as French Territory of the Afars and the Issas, there have been ethnic tensions in Djibouti between the Issas, and the Afars. Following independence in 1977, the Issa-dominated People's Rally for Progress party had ruled Djibouti, and since 1981, had ruled it as a one-party state with the People's Rally for Progress the only authorized party. Many Afar felt marginalized.[citation needed]

At the same time, in 1991, neighboring countries' authoritarian governments were overthrown, Siad Barre in Somalia and Mengistu Haile Mariam in Ethiopia. Eritrea also became independent from the People's Republic of Ethiopia in 1991.

Outbreak[edit]

At the beginning of November 1991, the rebel organization Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy (FRUD), calling for greater political participation of Afar, launched a guerrilla struggle against the government. The rebel (FRUD) seized all military posts in the north of the country and laid siege to the city of Tadjoura and Obock. Throughout the war, the fighting was mainly in the north of the country with the exception of the incident in the capital, when the December 18 1991 the year the government troops entered the area Arhiba inhabited by the Afar, and opened fire on crowds of people. At the same time killed at least 59 people. [4][5] In February 1992, some French troops were deployed in the north to aid the government forces.[6] With about 3000 (FRUD) Afar attacked government institutions in Dikhil. France has tried to mediate between the government and the rebels, but all attempts to organize such talks (November 1992, May 1993 the year ) failed.[7] The government responded by increasing its armed forces from about 5,000 to 20,000 men, they were supported with some military equipments by France. On the 5 July 1993, government troops went on the offensive, capturing most of the rebel-held areas. Some thousands of Djiboutians fled the fighting in the neighboring Afar Region of Ethiopia.[8] The Civil War contributed to the reintroduction of a multi-party democracy in 1992 with a new constitution. In 1992 and 1993 parliamentary and presidential elections took place. Subsequently, the FRUD split on the question of how far it was to cooperate with the government.

Peace agreement[edit]

In December 1994, the Abb'a peace agreement between the government and the moderate majority of FRUDs largely ended the civil war. Two FRUD representatives received ministerial posts, and at the next 1999 elections the FRUD supported the RPP. [9] A faction of the rebels, the armed FRUD) under the leadership of Ahmed Dini, remained militarily active on a smaller scale until, in 2000 and 2001, it also concluded a peace agreement with the government.


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://dosfan.lib.uic.edu/ERC/democracy/1993_hrp_report/93hrp_report_africa/Djibouti.html
  2. ^ http://www.systemicpeace.org/warlist/warlist.htm
  3. ^ "Djibouti army reports 100 rebels killed." The Associated Press, January 19, 1992.
  4. ^ Perlez, Jane (December 20, 1991). "Soldiers Fire Into Crowd in Djibouti Tribal Strife". The New York Times. 
  5. ^ "Pour la 12ème commémoration du massacre d'Arhiba" (in French). Les nouvelles d'Addis. 
  6. ^ "250 French Troops Sent to Djibouti War Zone." Associated Press, February 25, 1992.
  7. ^ "Rebels turn down president's terms for negotiations." Agence France Presse, May 10, 1993
  8. ^ "Thousands Of Djiboutians Flee to Ethiopia." The Associated Press, July 12, 1993.
  9. ^ "Djibouti". U.S. Department of State. 

External links[edit]