|Part of the Eritrean–Ethiopian border conflict|
Map of the disputed territories on the Eritrea–Ethiopia border where vast majority of the fighting took place
|Commanders and leaders|
|Casualties and losses|
20,000–100,000 or 16,559 dead
1 Aermacchi MB-339
34,000–60,000 dead (Ethiopian claim)|
123,000 Ethiopians dead
(Ethiopian clandestine opposition claim)
50,000 Ethiopians dead
The Eritrean–Ethiopian War was a conflict that took place between Ethiopia and Eritrea from May 1998 to June 2000, with the final peace only agreed to in 2018, twenty years after the initial confrontation. Eritrea and Ethiopia both spent considerable amount of their revenue and wealth on the armament ahead of the war and suffered reportedly 100,000 casualties combined as a direct consequence thereof, excluding indeterminate number of refugees. The conflict ultimately led to minor border changes through final binding border delimitation overseen by the Permanent Court of Arbitration.
According to a ruling by an international commission in The Hague, Eritrea broke international law and triggered the war by invading Ethiopia. At the end of the war, Ethiopia held all of the disputed territory and had advanced into Eritrea. After the war ended, the Eritrea–Ethiopia Boundary Commission, a body founded by the UN, established that Badme, the disputed territory at the heart of the conflict, belongs to Eritrea. As of 2019[update], Ethiopia still occupies the territory near Badme, including the town of Badme. On 5 June 2018, the ruling coalition of Ethiopia (Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front), headed by Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed, agreed to fully implement the peace treaty signed with Eritrea in 2000, with peace declared by both parties in July 2018.
From 1961 until 1991, Eritrea had fought a long war of independence against Ethiopia. The Ethiopian Civil War began on 12 September 1974 when the Marxist Derg staged a coup d'état against Emperor Haile Selassie. It lasted until 1991 when the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF)—a coalition of rebel groups led by the Tigrayan People's Liberation Front (TPLF)—overthrew the Derg government and installed a transitional government in the Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa. The Derg government had been weakened by their loss of support due to the fall of communism in Eastern Europe.
During the civil war, the groups fighting the Derg government had a common enemy, so the TPLF allied itself with the Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF). In 1991 as part of the United Nations-facilitated transition of power to the transitional government, it was agreed that the EPLF should set up an autonomous transitional government in Eritrea and that a referendum would be held in Eritrea to find out if Eritreans wanted to secede from Ethiopia. The referendum was held and the vote was overwhelmingly in favour of independence. In April 1993 independence was achieved and the new state joined the United Nations.
In 1991, the EPLF-backed transitional government of Eritrea and the TPLF-backed transitional government of Ethiopia agreed to set up a commission to look into any problems that arose between the two former wartime allies over the foreseen independence of Eritrea. This commission was not successful, and during the following years relations between the governments of the two sovereign states deteriorated.
Determining the border between the two states became a major conflict, and in November 1997 a border committee was set up to try to resolve that specific dispute. After federation and before independence, the line of the border had been of minor importance because it was only a demarcation line between federated provinces, and initially the two governments tacitly agreed that the border should remain as it had been immediately before independence. However, upon independence the border became an international frontier, and the two governments could not agree on the line that the border should take along its entire length, and they looked back to the colonial period treaties between Italy and Ethiopia for a basis in international law for the precise line of the frontier between the states. Problems then arose because they could not agree on the interpretation of those agreements and treaties, and it was not clear under international law how binding colonial treaties were on the two states.
Writing after the war had finished, Jon Abbink postulated that President Isaias Afewerki of Eritrea, realising that his influence over the government in Ethiopia was slipping and given that "the facts on the ground, in the absence of a concrete border being marked—which anyhow lost much of its relevance after 1962 when Eritrea was absorbed by Ethiopia—have eminent relevance to any borderline decision of today" calculated that Eritrea could annex Badme. If successful, this acquisition could have been used to enhance his reputation and help maintain Eritrea's privileged economic relationship with Ethiopia. However, because Badme was in Tigray Province, the region from which many of the members of the Ethiopian government originated (including Meles Zenawi, the former Ethiopian prime minister), the Ethiopian government came under political pressure from within the EPRDF as well as from the wider Ethiopian public to meet force with force.
After a series of armed incidents in which several Eritrean officials were killed near Badme, on 6 May 1998, a large Eritrean mechanized force entered the Badme region along the border of Eritrea and Ethiopia's northern Tigray Region, resulting in a firefight between the Eritrean soldiers and the Tigrayan militia and security police they encountered.
On 13 May 1998 Ethiopia, in what Eritrean radio described as a "total war" policy, mobilized its forces for a full assault against Eritrea. The Claims Commission found that this was in essence an affirmation of the existence of a state of war between belligerents, not a declaration of war, and that Ethiopia also notified the United Nations Security Council, as required under Article 51 of the UN Charter.
The fighting quickly escalated to exchanges of artillery and tank fire, leading to four weeks of intense fighting. Ground troops fought on three fronts. On 5 June 1998, the Ethiopian Air Force launched air attacks on the airport in Asmara and the Eritreans retaliated by attacking the airport of Mekele. These raids caused civilian casualties and deaths on both sides of the border. The United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 1177 condemning the use of force and welcomed statements from both sides to end the air strikes.
There was then a lull as both sides mobilized huge forces along their common border and dug extensive trenches. Both countries spent several hundred million dollars on new military equipment. This was despite the peace mediation efforts by the Organization of African Unity (OAU) and the US/Rwanda peace plan that was in the works. The US/Rwanda proposal was a four-point peace plan that called for withdrawal of both forces to pre-June 1998 positions. Eritrea refused, and instead demanded the demilitarization of all disputed areas along the common border, to be overseen by a neutral monitoring force, and direct talks.
With Eritrea's refusal to accept the US/Rwanda peace plan, on 22 February 1999 Ethiopia launched a massive military offensive to recapture Badme. Tension had been high since 6 February 1999, when Ethiopia claimed that Eritrea had violated the moratorium on air raids by bombing Adigrat, a claim it later withdrew. Surveying the extensive trenches the Eritreans had constructed, Ethiopian General Samora Yunis observed, "The Eritreans are good at digging trenches and we are good at converting trenches into graves. They, too, know this. We know each other very well". Ethiopia's offensive, codenamed Operation Sunset, began with an air attack on Assab airport by four Ethiopian fighter jets, followed by a massive artillery barrage against Eritrean positions on the Tsorona front, which was meant as a diversion to make the Eritreans prepare for an Ethiopian offensive against eastern or southern Eritrea. The following day, the Ethiopian ground attack began. Three Ethiopian divisions broke through the Eritrean defenses in the Biyukundi area and then advanced toward Dukambiya, 20 kilometers southeast of Barentu, before turning east and hitting an Eritrean division north of Badme in the flank, taking the Eritreans by surprise. The Eritrean division was almost totally destroyed and the Ethiopians continued their advance toward Dukambiya. Realizing that they were about to be cut off, the remaining Eritrean units deployed in the Badme area hastily retreated, abandoning nearly 100 kilometers of fortifications and most of their heavy weapons. Ethiopian helicopter gunships attacked the fleeing Eritreans with rockets.
After five days of heavy fighting, Ethiopian forces were 10 kilometers (six miles) deep into Eritrean territory. Eritrea accepted the OAU peace plan on 27 February 1999. While both states said that they accepted the OAU peace plan, Ethiopia did not immediately stop its advance because it demanded that peace talks be contingent on an Eritrean withdrawal from territory occupied since the first outbreak of fighting. The widespread use of trench warfare by both sides resulted in comparisons of the conflict to the trench warfare of World War I. According to some reports, trench warfare led to the loss of "thousands of young lives in human-wave assaults on Eritrea's positions".
On 16 May the BBC reported that, after a lull of two weeks, the Ethiopians had attacked at Velessa on the Tsorona front-line, south of Eritrea's capital Asmara and that after two days of heavy fighting the Eritreans had beaten back the attack claiming to have destroyed more than 45 Ethiopian tanks; although not able to verify the claim, which the Ethiopian Government dismissed as ridiculous, a BBC reporter did see more than 300 dead Ethiopians and more than 20 destroyed Ethiopian tanks. In June 1999 the fighting continued with both sides in entrenched positions. About a quarter of Eritrean soldiers were women.
Proximity talks broke down in early May 2000 with Ethiopia accusing Eritrea of imposing "unacceptable conditions". On 12 May Ethiopia launched a massive combined arms offensive on multiple fronts involving four armored divisions and 22 infantry divisions, extensive artillery and close air support. The Ethiopians used pack animals such as donkeys for logistical support for their infantry, and due to their cumbersome logistical chain, primarily relied on infantry assaults to capture Eritrean positions and held their tanks in reserve, then brought forward the tanks to secure positions they had captured. Ethiopian forces struggled to exploit the gaps they had tore in the Eritrean positions, often at great cost in frontal assaults against Eritrean trenches. The Ethiopians broke through the Eritrean lines between Shambuko and Mendefera, crossed the Mareb River, and cut the road between Barentu and Mendefera, the main supply line for Eritrean troops on the western front of the fighting.
Ethiopian sources stated that on 16 May Ethiopian aircraft attacked targets between Areza and Maidema and between Barentu and Omhajer and that all aircraft returned to base, while heavy ground fighting continued in the Da'se and Barentu area and in Maidema. The next day Ethiopian ground forces with air support captured Da'se. Barentu was taken in a surprise Ethiopian pincer movement on the Western front. The Ethiopians attacked a mined but lightly defended mountain, resulting in the capture of Barentu and an Eritrean retreat. Fighting also continued in Maidema. Also on 17 May, due to the continuing hostilities, the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 1298 imposing an arms embargo on both countries.
By 23 May Ethiopia claimed that its "troops had seized vital command posts in the heavily defended Zalambessa area, about 100 km (60 mi) south of the Eritrean capital, Asmara". But the Eritreans claimed they withdrew from the disputed border town of Zalambessa and other disputed areas on the central front as a "'goodwill' gesture to revive peace talks" and claimed it was a 'tactical retreat' to take away one of Ethiopia's last remaining excuses for continuing the war; a report from Chatham House observes, "the scale of Eritrean defeat was apparent when Eritrea unexpectedly accepted the OAU peace framework." Having recaptured most of the contested territories—and having heard that the Eritrean government would withdraw from any other territories it occupied at the start of fighting in accordance with a request from the OAU, on 25 May 2000 Ethiopia declared the war was over. By the end of May 2000, Ethiopia occupied about a quarter of Eritrea's territory, displacing 650,000 people and destroying key components of Eritrea's infrastructure.
The fighting also spread to Somalia as both governments tried to outflank one another. The Eritrean government began supporting the Oromo Liberation Front, a rebel group seeking independence of Oromia from Ethiopia that was based in a part of Somalia controlled by Mohamed Farrah Aidid. Ethiopia retaliated by supporting groups in southern Somalia who were opposed to Aidid, and by renewing relations with the Islamic regime in Sudan—which is accused of supporting the Eritrean Islamic Salvation, a Sudan-based group that had launched attacks in the Eritrea–Sudan border region—while also lending support to various Eritrean rebel groups including a group known as the Eritrean Islamic Jihad.
Casualties, displacement and economic disruption
Eritrea claimed that 19,000 Eritrean soldiers were killed during the conflict; most reports put the total war casualties from both sides as being around 70,000. All these figures have been contested and other news reports simply state that "tens of thousands" or "as many as 100,000" were killed in the war. Eritrea accused Ethiopia of using "human waves" to defeat Eritrean trenches. But according to a report by The Independent, there were no "human waves" because Ethiopian troops instead outmanoeuvred and overpowered the Eritrean trenches.
The fighting led to massive internal displacement in both countries as civilians fled the war zone. Ethiopia expelled 77,000 Eritreans and Ethiopians of Eritrean origin it deemed a security risk, thus compounding Eritrea's refugee problem. The majority of those were considered well off by the Ethiopian standard of living. They were deported after their belongings had been confiscated. On the Eritrean side, around 7,500 Ethiopians living in Eritrea were interned, and thousands of others were deported. Thousands more remain in Eritrea, many of whom are unable to pay the 1,000 Birr tax on Ethiopians relocating to Ethiopia. According to Human Rights Watch, detainees on both sides were subject in some cases to torture, rape, or other degrading treatment.
The economies of both countries were already weak as a result of decades of cold-war politics, colonialism, civil war and drought. The war exacerbated these problems, resulting in food shortages. Prior to the war, much of Eritrea's trade was with Ethiopia, and much of Ethiopia's foreign trade relied on Eritrean roads and ports.
Cessation of hostilities
On 18 June 2000, the parties agreed to a comprehensive peace agreement and binding arbitration of their disputes under the Algiers Agreement. On 31 July 2000, Unites Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 1312 and a 25-kilometer-wide Temporary Security Zone (TSZ) was established within Eritrea, patrolled by the United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) from over 60 countries. On 12 December 2000 a peace agreement was signed by the two governments.
On 13 April 2002, the Eritrea–Ethiopia Boundary Commission that was established under the Algiers Agreement in collaboration with Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague agreed upon a "final and binding" verdict. The ruling awarded some territory to each side, but Badme (the flash point of the conflict) was awarded to Eritrea. Martin Pratt writes:
"However, as it became clear that the boundary identified by the commission placed the village of Badme inside Eritrea, satisfaction gave way to triumphalism within Eritrea and dismay within Ethiopia. Despite its tiny size and lack of any apparent strategic or economic value, Badme—the location of the spark that ignited the conflagration—had taken on great symbolic significance over the course of the war;war; previous research (Hensel and Mitchell, 2005) indicates thay symbolically valued territory may be especially prone to violent conflict. For many people in both countries, Badme's fate became the primary indicator of whether the enormous loss of life during the fighting had been justified."
Both countries vowed to accept the decision wholeheartedly the day after the ruling was made official. A few months later Ethiopia requested clarifications, then stated it was deeply dissatisfied with the ruling. In September 2003 Eritrea refused to agree to a new commission, which they would have had to agree to if the old binding agreement was to be set aside, and asked the international community to put pressure on Ethiopia to accept the ruling. In November 2004, Ethiopia accepted the ruling "in principle".
On 10 December 2005, Ethiopia announced it was withdrawing some of its forces from the Eritrean border "in the interests of peace". Then, on 15 December the United Nations began to withdraw peacekeepers from Eritrea in response to a UN resolution passed the previous day.
On 21 December 2005, a commission at the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague ruled that Eritrea broke international law when it attacked Ethiopia in 1998, triggering the broader conflict.
Ethiopia and Eritrea subsequently remobilized troops along the border, leading to fears that the two countries could return to war. On 7 December 2005, Eritrea banned UN helicopter flights and ordered Western members (particularly from the United States, Canada, Europe and Russia) of the UN peacekeeping mission on its border with Ethiopia to leave within 10 days, sparking concerns of further conflict with its neighbour. In November 2006 Ethiopia and Eritrea boycotted an Eritrea–Ethiopia Boundary Commission meeting at The Hague which would have demarcated their disputed border using UN maps. Ethiopia was not there because it does not accept the decision and as it will not allow physical demarcation it will not accept map demarcation, and Eritrea was not there because although it backs the commission's proposals, it insists that the border should be physically marked out.
Both nations have been accused of supporting dissidents and armed opposition groups against each other. John Young, a Canadian analyst and researcher for IRIN, the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs news agency, reported that "the military victory of the EPRDF (Ethiopia) that ended the Ethiopia–Eritrea War, and its occupation of a swath of Eritrean territory, brought yet another change to the configuration of armed groups in the borderlands between Ethiopia and Eritrea. Asmara replaced Khartoum as the leading supporter of anti-EPRDF armed groups operating along the frontier". However, Ethiopia is also accused of supporting rebels opposed to the Eritrean government.
At the November 2007 deadline, some analysts feared the restart of the border war but the date passed without any conflict. There were many reasons why war did not resume. Former U.S. Ambassador David Shinn said both Ethiopia and Eritrea were in a bad position. Many fear the weak Eritrean economy is not improving like those of other African nations while others say Ethiopia is bogged down in Mogadishu. David Shinn said Ethiopia has "a very powerful and so far disciplined national army that made pretty short work of the Eritreans in 2000 and the Eritreans have not forgotten that." But he stated Ethiopia is not interested in war because America would condemn Ethiopia if it initiated the war saying "I don't think even the US could sit by and condone an Ethiopian initiated attack on Eritrea."
Arbitration through the Permanent Court of Arbitration
As decided in the Algiers Agreement, the two parties presented their cases at the Permanent Court of Arbitration to two different Commissions:
- Eritrea–Ethiopia Boundary Commission
The Eritrea–Ethiopia Boundary Commission ruled that Badme lies in Eritrea.
The International Bureau serves as Registry for this Commission established pursuant to the Agreement of 12 December 2000 between the Government of the State of Eritrea and the Government of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, with a mandate "to delimit and demarcate the colonial treaty border based on pertinent colonial treaties (1900, 1902 and 1908) and applicable international law". Its first progress report to the UN Secretary-General was presented on 19 June 2001.
The Eritrea–Ethiopia Boundary Commission delivered its Decision on Delimitation of the Border between Eritrea and Ethiopia to representatives of the two governments on Saturday, 13 April 2002. ...
On 19 November 2003, the Commission met in The Hague with representatives of the parties. The President of the Commission made an opening statement expressing the concern of the Commission at the lack of progress in the demarcation process, setting out the Commission’s understanding of the positions of the parties and indicating that if progress was to be made, certain rigid positions would have to be modified. Following that meeting, the Commission concluded that, until the positions of either or both of the parties were modified, there was nothing more that the Commission could do.— Eritrea–Ethiopia Boundary Commission
- Eritrea–Ethiopia Claims Commission
The Eritrea–Ethiopia Claims Commission (the Commission) was established and operates pursuant to Article 5 of the Agreement signed in Algiers on 12 December 2000 between the Governments of the State of Eritrea and the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (the "December Agreement"). The Commission is directed to decide through binding arbitration all claims for loss, damage or injury by one Government against the other, and by nationals (including both natural and juridical persons) of one party against the Government of the other party or entities owned or controlled by the other party that are (a) related to the conflict that was the subject of the Framework Agreement, the Modalities for its Implementation and the Cessation of Hostilities Agreement, and (b) result from violations of international humanitarian law, including the 1949 Geneva Conventions, or other violations of international law.— Eritrea Ethiopia Claims Commission
In July 2001 the Commission sat to decide its jurisdiction, procedures and possible remedies. The result of this sitting was issued in August 2001. In October 2001, following consultations with the Parties, the Commission adopted its Rules of Procedure. In December 2001 the Parties filed their claims with the commission. The claims filed by the Parties relate to such matters as the conduct of military operations in the front zones, the treatment of POWs and of civilians and their property, diplomatic immunities and the economic impact of certain government actions during the conflict. At the end of 2005 final awards have been issued on claims on Pensions, and Ports. Partial awards have been issued for claims about: Prisoners of War, the Central Front, Civilians Claims, the Western and Eastern Fronts, Diplomatic, Economic and property losses, and Jus Ad Bellum.
The Ethiopia–Eritrean claim committee ruled that:
15. The areas initially invaded by Eritrean forces on that day [12 May 1998] were all either within undisputed Ethiopian territory or within territory that was peacefully administered by Ethiopia and that later would be on the Ethiopian side of the line to which Ethiopian armed forces were obligated to withdraw in 2000 under the Cease-Fire Agreement of 18 June 2000. In its Partial Award in Ethiopia’s Central Front Claims, the Commission held that the best available evidence of the areas effectively administered by Ethiopia in early May 1998 is that line to which they were obligated to withdraw in 2000. ...
16. Consequently, the Commission holds that Eritrea violated Article 2, paragraph 4, of the Charter of the United Nations by resorting to armed force to attack and occupy Badme,
then under peaceful administration by Ethiopia, as well as other territory in the Tahtay Adiabo and Laelay Adiabo Weredas of Ethiopia, in an attack that began on 12 May 1998, and is liable to compensate Ethiopia, for the damages caused by that violation of international law.— Eritrea Ethiopia Claims Commission
Christine Gray, in an article in the European Journal of International Law (2006), questioned the jurisdiction of the Commission making such an award, because "there were many factors which suggested that the Commission should have abstained from giving judgment". For example, the hearing of this claim, according to the Algiers agreement was to be heard by a separate commission and to be an investigation of exclusively factual concern not compensation.
2018 Peace Agreement
The Ethiopian government under the leadership of new prime minister Abiy Ahmed unexpectedly announced on 5 June 2018 that it fully accepted the terms of the Algiers Agreement. Ethiopia also announced that it would accept the outcome of the 2002 UN-backed Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission (EEBC) ruling which awarded disputed territories including the town of Badme to Eritrea.
Eritrean President Isaias Afwerki noted the “positive signals”.
Eritrea Foreign Minister Osman Saleh led the first Eritrean delegation to Ethiopia in almost two decades when he visited Addis Ababa in late June 2018.
At a summit in July 2018 in Asmara, Eritrea's President Isaias Afwerki and Ethiopia's Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed signed a joint declaration formally ending the state of war between Ethiopia and Eritrea. Following the peace agreement, on July 18, 2018, after twenty years Ethiopian Airlines restarted its operations to Eritrea. Flight ET0312 left Bole International Airport to Asmara.
The Ethiopian Prime minister Dr. Abiy Ahmed won the 2019 Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts.
In an interview made on February 7, 2020, between the country's major national media outlets, Eritrean TV and Dimtsi Hafash Radio Program, with President Isaias Afwerki, the president expressed uncertainty in finalizing the peace agreement processes. He said the condition in Badme has been heightened in the past months. Even though the decisions were made favoring Eritrea to gain the disputed land, the “bankrupt clique,” the president referring to small group of people who control the regional power near Badme, demand further conflict in order to change the decision. Therefore, according to the Eritrean president, the situation in Badme has aggravated and might lead to additional future conflicts.
Timeline: Continuing border conflicts
On 19 June 2008 the BBC published a time line (which they update periodically) of the conflict and reported that the "Border dispute rumbles on":
- 2007 September – War could resume between Ethiopia and Eritrea over their border conflict, warns United Nations special envoy to the Horn of Africa, Kjell Magne Bondevik.
- 2007 November – Eritrea accepts border line demarcated by international boundary commission. Ethiopia rejects it.
- 2008 January – UN extends mandate of peacekeepers on Ethiopia–Eritrea border for six months. UN Security Council demands Eritrea lift fuel restrictions imposed on UN peacekeepers at the Eritrea–Ethiopia border area. Eritrea declines, saying troops must leave border.
- 2008 February – UN begins pulling 1,700-strong peacekeeper force out due to lack of fuel supplies following Eritrean government restrictions.
- 2008 April – UN Secretary-General Ban Ki Moon warns of likelihood of new war between Ethiopia and Eritrea if peacekeeping mission withdraws completely. Outlines options for the future of the UN mission in the two countries.
- Djibouti accuses Eritrean troops of digging trenches at disputed Ras Doumeira border area and infiltrating Djiboutian territory. Eritrea denies charge.
- 2008 May – Eritrea calls on UN to terminate peacekeeping mission.
- 2008 June – Fighting breaks out between Eritrean and Djiboutian troops.
- 2016 June – Battle of Tsorona between Eritrean and Ethiopian troops— BBC
In August 2009, Eritrea and Ethiopia were ordered to pay each other compensation for the war.
In March 2011, Ethiopia accused Eritrea of sending bombers across the border. In April, Ethiopia acknowledged that it was supporting rebel groups inside Eritrea. In July, a United Nations Monitoring Group accused Eritrea of being behind a plot to attack an African Union summit in Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia, in January 2011. Eritrea stated the accusation was a total fabrication.
In January 2012, five European tourists were killed and another two were kidnapped close to the border with Eritrea in the remote Afar Region in Ethiopia. In early March the kidnappers announced that they had released the two kidnapped Germans. On 15 March, Ethiopian ground forces attacked Eritrean military posts that they stated were bases in which Ethiopian rebels, including those involved in the January kidnappings, were trained by the Eritreans.
- Maasho, Aaron (6 June 2018). "Ethiopia's PM says ending war, expanding economic links with Eritrea key for regional stability". Reuters. Reuters. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
- Solomon, Salem (8 June 2018). "Ethiopia's Move to End Border Stalemate Could Bring Change in Eritrea". VOA. Voice of America. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
- BBC staff (31 May 2000). "Ethiopia says 'war is over'". BBC.
- Adar, Korwa; Schraeder, Peter (2007), Globalization and Emerging Trends in African Foreign Policy: A Comparative Perspective of Eastern Africa, University Press of America, p. 62
- Abbink 2003.
- Zewde, Bahru (2011). "History and conflict in Africa: The experience of Ethiopia-Eritrea and Rwanda". Rassegna di Studi Etiopici. 3 (46): 27–39. JSTOR 23622762.
- Lata, Leenco (2003). "The Ethiopia-Eritrea War". Review of African Political Economy. 30 (97): 369–388. doi:10.1080/03056244.2003.9659772. JSTOR 4006982. S2CID 219713933.
- "thiopia and Eritrea - UNMEE - Background". https://peacekeeping.un.org/. United Nations. Retrieved 15 November 2020. External link in
- Abbink 2003, pp. 221–231.
- Stephanie Busari and Schams Elwazer, "Former sworn enemies Ethiopia and Eritrea have declared end of war," CNN, July 9, 2018. Retrieved 9 July 2018.
- "Decision regarding delimitation of the border between Eritrea and Ethiopia" (PDF). Un - Reports of International Arbitral Awards. XXV: 83–195. 13 April 2002.
- Abbink 2003, p. 221.
- David Hamilton Shinn, Historical Dictionary of Ethiopia. The Scarecrow Press, inc.: Lanham, Maryland; Toronto; Oxford, 2004, pp. 387–8.
- Fantahun, Arefaynie (7 June 2018). "Seare Mekonnen Named Ethiopian Military's Chief of Staff". Ethiopia Observer. Retrieved 6 August 2018.
- Giorgis, Andebrhan Welde (2014). Eritrea at a Crossroads: A Narrative of Triumph, Betrayal and Hope. Strategic Book Publishing & Rights Agency, LLC. p. 526. ISBN 978-1628573312. Retrieved 7 August 2018.
- Pike, John. "Ethiopia / Eritrea War".
- Former U.S. Ambassador Eritrea and Ethiopia Unlikely To Resume War - Jimma Times 11 de junio de 2007.
- Pike, John. "Ethiopia - Army".
- Claimed by President Isaias Afeworki, 2001. Shinn, Historical Dictionary of Ethiopia, p.149
- "Eritrea reveals human cost of war". BBC News. 20 June 2001. Retrieved 12 March 2007.
- Banks, Arthur; Muller, Thomas; and Overstreet, William, ed. Political Handbook of the World 2005–6 (A Division of Congressional Quarterly, Inc.: Washington, D.C., 2005), p.366. 156802952-7
- "http://awate.com/profiling-martyrs-ethiopia-border-war-1998-2000-part-1/". Archived from the original on 1 March 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2009. External link in
- "Air War between Ethiopia and Eritrea, 1998-2000".
- Claimed by Chief of Staffs Tsadkan Gebretensae. Shinn, Historical Dictionary of Ethiopia, p. 149.
- Claimed by Major General Samora Yunis. Shinn, Historical Dictionary of Ethiopia, p. 149.
- Claimed on 8 April 2002 by the Voice of the Democratic Path of Ethiopian Unity, an Ethiopian clandestine opposition group operating from Germany. The claim also stated that each family that lost a member in the war would receive $350 in indemnity, but this number has not been verified, although it has been often cited by other groups (see Number of war dead soldiers reportedly 123,000 – internet news message; and clandestineradio.com audio button), and no indemnities have been paid as of 2007[update]. Shinn, Historical Dictionary of Ethiopia, p. 149
- "Ethiopia: Number of war dead soldiers reportedly 123,000" (in Amharic). Wonchif. 10 April 2001.
- "Former U.S. Ambassador: Eritrea and Ethiopia Unlikely To Resume War". Archived from the original on 1 March 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2009.
- "That time Flankers fought Fulcrums over Africa". 4 February 2020.
- Government of Eritrea - Government of Ethiopia Retrieved 9 July 2018.
- Xan Rice, east Africa correspondent (31 October 2006). "Annan warns of another war between Ethiopia and Eritrea". London: Guardian. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
- "Ethiopia: Nation on verge of war with Eritrea, report says". Archived from the original on 26 March 2014.
- Will arms ban slow war? BBC 18 May 2000
- Winfield, Nicole (Associated Press) (13 May 2000). "UN hints at sanctions if Eritrea and Ethiopia do not end fighting". The Independent. Archived from the original on 8 October 2010.
- Staff. Ethiopia rejects war criticism, BBC, 14 April 2000
- Tens of thousands Eritrea: Final deal with Ethiopia BBC 4 December 2000
- "International commission: Eritrea triggered the border war with Ethiopia". BBC News. 21 December 2005. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
- Andrew England (Associated Press). 500,000 flee as Ethiopian troops storm Eritrea[dead link], The Independent, 18 May 2000.
- "Report of the Secretary-General on Ethiopia and Eritrea". United Nations. 2005. Annex I. Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission – Sixteenth report on the work of the Commission, p. 5 § 20. S/2005/142. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
- Schemm, Paul (5 June 2018). "Ethiopia says it is ready to implement Eritrea peace deal and privatize parts of the economy". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
- Valentino, Benjamin A. (2004). Final Solutions: Mass Killing and Genocide in the Twentieth Century. p. 196. ISBN 0801472733.
- Briggs, Philip; Blatt, Brian (2009). Ethiopia. Bradt Guides (5, illustrated ed.). Bradt Travel Guides. pp. 28, 29. ISBN 978-1-84162-284-2.
- "Eritrea profile: A chronology of key events". BBC. 4 May 2016. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
- Tesfai, Alemseged. "The Cause of the Eritrean–Ethiopian Border Conflict". Retrieved 2 August 2006.
- Mussie, Tesfagiorgis G. (2010). "Eritrean colonial boundaries". Eritrea. Africa in Focus (illustrated ed.). ABC-CLIO. pp. 53–54. ISBN 978-1-59884-231-9.
- Shapland, Greg (1997). Rivers of discord: international water disputes in the Middle East. C. Hurst & Co. p. 71. ISBN 1-85065-214-7.
- Degefu, Gebre Tsadik (2003). The Nile: Historical, Legal and Developmental Perspectives (illustrated ed.). Trafford Publishing. pp. 94–99. ISBN 1-4120-0056-4.
- Abbink 2003, p. 221,226.
- "Issaias believed that Meles was weak and that war would result in his overthrow. He was wrong." (Dowden, Richard (2 June 2000). "There are no winners in this insane and destructive war". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 12 December 2008.)
- Connell, Dan (2 October 2005). Woods, Emira (ed.). "Eritrea/Ethiopia War Looms". Foreign Policy in Focus.
- Hans van der Splinter. "Border conflict with Ethiopia". eritrea.be. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
- Dowden, Richard (2 June 2000). "There are no winners in this insane and destructive war". The Independent. Archived from the original on 12 December 2008.
- The Eritreans describe the start of the war thus: "after a series of armed incidents during which several Eritrean officials were murdered near the disputed village of Badme, Ethiopia declared total war as on 13 May and mobilized its armed forces for a full-scale assault on Eritrea." (Staff. "history". Embassy of the State of Eritrea, New Delhi, India. Archived from the original on 9 February 2015.)
- BBC staff (6 June 1998). "World: Africa Eritrea: 'Ethiopia pursues total war'". BBC Monitoring service.
- "A commentary on Eritrea Ethiopia Claims Commission findings". Archived from the original on 9 October 2007.
- Ethiopia's War on Eritrea. Asmara: Sabur Printing Services. 1999.[page needed]
- Patricia Scotland, Baroness Scotland of Asthal, speaking for the British government in the Eritrea and Ethiopia debate, House of Lords, (Hansard) 30 November 1999 : Column 802
- Eritrea Ethiopia Claims Commission. "PARTIAL AWARD Central Front - Ethiopia's Claim 2". "J. Aerial Bombardment of Mekele" Paragraphs 101–113. Archived from the original on 13 July 2014.
- Biles, Peter (20 May 2000). "Ethiopia's push north". BBC.
- IRIN. "Ethiopia-Eritrea: New peace efforts amid claims of civilian abuses". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
- "HRW World Report 1999: Ethiopia: The Role of the International Community". Archived from the original on 14 November 2008.
- Visafric (7 February 1999). "Ethiopian Leader admits allegation of Eritrean air strike based 'on wrong information'". www.dehai.org. Retrieved 29 March 2017.[unreliable source?]
- Tareke, Gebru (2009). The Ethiopian Revolution: War in the Horn of Africa. New Haven: Yale University. p. 345. ISBN 978-0-300-14163-4.
- Cooper, Tom; Fontanellaz, Adrien (31 July 2018). Ethiopian-Eritrean Wars. Volume 2: Eritrean War of Independence, 1988-1991 & Badme War, 1998-2001. ISBN 9781913118358.
- BBC staff (1 March 1999). "Ethiopia declares victory". BBC.
- CNN staff (27 February 1999). "Eritrea accepts peace deal after Ethiopian incursion". CNN. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
- BBC staff (15 July 1999). "World: Africa Ethiopian-Eritrean war of words continues". BBC World Service.
- Fisher, Ian (23 August 1999). "Peace Deal May Be Near for Ethiopia and Eritrea". New York Times.
- Last, Alex (16 March 1999). "World: Africa Hundreds killed in Horn". BBC.
- Laeke, Mariam Demassie (23 July 1999). "Touring the Ethiopian front". BBC.
- Jenkins, Cathy (22 July 1999). "Eritrea's women fighters: A quarter of Eritrean soldiers are women". BBC.
- Pearce, Justin (12 May 2000). "Diplomats fail to bridge the gap". BBC News.
- BBC staff (23 May 2000). "Ethiopia says war nearly over". BBC.
- Lyall, Jason (11 February 2020). Divided Armies: Inequality and Battlefield Performance in Modern War. ISBN 9780691194158.
- CNN staff and wire reporters (22 May 2000). "Eritrean independence celebrations muted as Ethiopian troops advance". CNN. Archived from the original on 18 June 2008.
- Gilkes, Patrick (19 May 2000). "Ethiopia's war strategy". BBC.
- Lortan, Fiona (2000). "The Ethiopia-Eritrea Conflict: A Fragile Peace". African Security Review. 9 (4). Archived from the original on 5 March 2012.
- "Ethiopia and Eritrea Border Conflict". London: Embassy of The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. Archived from the original on 7 March 2016.
- "UN SC Resolution 1298". United Nations. 17 May 2000. S/RES/1298(2000). Retrieved 18 March 2017.
- Hannan, Lucy (27 May 2000). "Stubborn Eritrea denies defeat but seeks peace". The Independent. Archived from the original on 15 February 2001.
- Last, Alex (26 May 2000). "Eritrea's 'tactical retreat'". BBC.
- Plaut, Martin; Gilkes, Patrick (31 March 1999). "Conflict in the Horn: Why Eritrea and Ethiopia are at War". ReliefWeb. Chatham House.
- BBC staff (1 June 2000). "Ethiopia's victory statement". BBC world monitoring service.
- Tran, Mark (25 May 2000). "Ethiopia declares victory over Eritrea". he Guardian Unlimited.
- CNN staff (23 December 2000). "Eritrean, Ethiopian exchange of POWs begins". CNN. Archived from the original on 16 April 2009.
- Staff. Human Rights Developments, World report 2001 Human Rights Watch (2001).
- Ethiopia and Eritrea in UN & Conflict Monitor Issue 4, Africa E-S. On website of Bradford University citing The Financial Times 9 June 1999
- The Somali connection BBC 23 July 1999
- Angel Rabasa, et al., Beyond al-Qaeda: Part 2, The Outer Rings of the Terrorist Universe RAND Project AIR FORCE RAND Corporation pp. 82–85 online pp. 44–47 hardcopy
- Eritrean KIA
- Eritrea reveals human cost of war BBC, 20 June 2001
- A Statistical Report of Eritrea's Casualties in the Eritrea–Ethiopia Border War (1998–2000) Archived 2007-12-25 at the Wayback Machine published by Awate Foundation Archived 2007-04-06 at the Wayback Machine, P.O. Box 580312, Elk Grove, CA, 95758-0006 U.S.A.
- "After 70,000 deaths, Eritrea and Ethiopia prepare for war again". Timesonline.co.uk. 8 December 2005. Archived from the original on 12 October 2011.
- "Ethiopia accuses Eritrea of instigating war". AlertNet, Reuters. 8 October 2007. Archived from the original on 12 December 2007.
- "Ethiopia-Eritrea impasse could lead to new war - UN". Reuters.com. 24 January 2007. Archived from the original on 24 December 2007.
- "PBS NewsHour Analysis – Ethiopia and Eritrea – Transcript". PBS. 30 May 2000. Archived from the original on 15 September 2013.
- "Ethiopia, Eritrea Run Risk of New War - UN Envoy". globalpolicy.org. AlertNet, Reuters. 27 March 2005. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
- Peter Biles, Eritrean disaster looms as a million flee from rapidly advancing Ethiopian forces, The Independent, 20 May 2000.
- Staff. Human Rights Developments, World report 1999 Human Rights Watch (1999).Accessed 2007-02-19
- "A critical look into the Ethiopian elections". Archived from the original on 29 November 2006. Retrieved 19 February 2007.
- Natalie S. Klein Mass expulsion from Ethiopia: Report on the Deportation of Eritreans and Ethiopians of Eritrean origin from Ethiopia, June – August, 1998 "NOTE: This report is being reproduced, with the author's permission, by the Embassy of Eritrea, Washington DC, USA. The text is identical to the original. It has been reformatted and therefore pagination is not the same." — This website site is developed and maintained by Denden LLC and dehai.org. The site was initially developed by the Eritrean Media and Information Task Force (Badme Task Force), a volunteer group of Eritrean-Americans in the Washington Metropolitan Area.
- "Eritrea expels over 800 Ethiopians home – official". Sudan Tribune. 29 October 2007. Retrieved 6 January 2008.
- Tadesse, Zenbeworke. "The Ethiopian-Eritrean Conflict" (PDF). Calx Proclivia. pp. 109–110. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 June 2007. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
- Staff. Horn peace deal: Full text BBC, 11 December 2000. "Agreement between the Government of the State of Eritrea and the Government of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia"
- Zane, Damian. Ethiopia regrets Badme ruling, BBC, 3 April 2003.
- "Eritrea–Ethiopia Boundary Commission website". Archived from the original on 23 October 2006.
- Pratt, Martin (2006). "A Terminal Crisis? Examining the Breakdown of the Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Dispute Resolution Process". Conflict Management and Peace Science. 23 (4): 329–341. doi:10.1080/07388940600972669. ISSN 0738-8942. JSTOR 26275139. S2CID 153507924. Retrieved 16 March 2021.
- Astill, James (15 April 2002). "Ethiopia and Eritrea claim border victory". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 7 January 2007.
- Bhalla, Nita. Badme: Village in no man's land, BBC, 22 April 2002
- Ethiopian official wants border clarification ,BBC, 23 April 2002
- Plaut, Martin. Crucial Horn border talks, BBC, 17 September 2003
- Staff. Eritrea firm over disputed border ruling BBC, 25 September 2003
- Staff. Ethiopia backs down over border, BBC, 25 November 2004
- "Ethiopia 'to reduce' border force" BBC 10 December 2005
- "Some UN Staff to Relocate to Ethiopia From Eritrea Archived 2005-12-22 at the Wayback Machine", Voice of America, 15 December 2005
- "Ruling: Eritrea broke international law in Ethiopia attack Archived 2006-01-02 at the Wayback Machine" CNN 21 December 2005
- UN: Ethiopia–Eritrea Stalemate Could Spark Renewed War Archived 2005-04-06 at the Wayback Machine article by Voice of America 31 March 2005
- Horn border tense before deadline BBC 23 December 2005
- Eritrea orders Westerners in UN mission out in 10 days, International Herald Tribune, 7 December 2005
- Staff. Horn rivals reject border plans, BBC, 21 November 2006
- Young, John (November 2007). Armed groups along the Ethiopia–Sudan–Eritrea frontier (PDF). Geneva: Small Arms Survey, Graduate Institute of International Studies. p. 32 (PDF 17). ISBN 978-2-8288-0087-1.
- "Free rein for Eritrean opposition". BBC News. 23 May 2000. Retrieved 26 November 2007.
- Peter Heinlein. On the possibility of war restarting Archived 2007-12-20 at the Wayback Machine, Voice of America, 17 December 2007
- "Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission". Archived from the original on 7 July 2015. A constituent of the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague
- Eritrea–Ethiopia Boundary Commission (24 June 2002). "Decision regarding the "Request for interpretation, correction and consultation" Submitted by the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia on 13 May 2002" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 February 2012.
- "Eritrea–Ethiopia Claims Commission". Archived from the original on 2 June 2015. A constituent of the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague
- "Jus Ad Bellum Ethiopia's Claims 1–8". Eritrea Ethiopia Claims Commission. 19 December 2005. p. 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 August 2013.
- Gray, Christine. "The Eritrea/Ethiopia Claims Commission Oversteps Its Boundaries: A Partial Award?". The European Journal of International Law. 17 (4).
- Allo, Awol K. "Ethiopia offers an olive branch to Eritrea". aljazeera.com. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
- "Ethiopia, Eritrea leaders to meet 'soon' in surprising thaw - NEWS 1130". NEWS 1130. 28 June 2018. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
- "Ethiopia's Abiy and Eritrea's Afewerki declare end of war". BBC News. 9 July 2018. Retrieved 9 July 2018.
- "Ethiopia, Eritrea officially end war". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 9 July 2018.
- "First commercial flight in 20 years leaves Ethiopia for Eritrea". First commercial flight in 20 years leaves Ethiopia for Eritrea (in Turkish). Retrieved 19 July 2018.
- Maasho, Aaron. "Flags, flowers greet first Ethiopia-Eritrea flight in 20 years". Reuters. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
- BBC staff (28 July 2011). "UN report accuses Eritrea of plotting to bomb AU summit". BBC.
- "12 years after bloody war, Ethiopia attacks Eritrea". World news on msnbc.com. Reuters. 15 March 2012. Archived from the original on 7 July 2012.
- Abbink, Jon (2003). "Badme and the Ethio-Eritrean Border: The challenge of demarcation in the Post-war period" (PDF). Africa: Rivista trimestrale di studi e documentazione. 58 (1–4): 219–231. JSTOR 40761693.
- Banks, Arthur; Muller, Thomas; and Overstreet, William, ed. Political Handbook of the World 2005-6 (A Division of Congressional Quarterly, Inc.: Washington, D.C., 2005), p. 366. 156802952-7
- Brothers at War: Making Sense of the Eritrean-Ethiopian War (Eastern African Series) by T. Negash, K. Tronvoll, Ohio University Press ISBN 0-8214-1372-4.
- Andrea de Guttry, Harry H. G. Post, and Gabriella Venturini (eds.). 2021. The 1998–2000 Eritrea-Ethiopia War and Its Aftermath in International Legal Perspective. Springer.
- News reports
- Ethiopia Eritrea Conflict Archive: News and Article Archive Day to day coverage of war.
- Onwar.com: Armed Conflict Events Data: Ethiopian-Eritrean Border War 1999 (Present)
- BBC: War blocks Ethiopia's lifeline 13 April 2000
- BBC:Eritrea and Ethiopia at war 16 May 2000
- BBC: Ethiopia's next move 22 May 2000
- BBC: Horn peace boost 30 March 2001
- BBC: Eritrean PoWs return home 29 November 2002
- BBC: Peace 'undermined' by Ethiopia 10 March 2003
- Crisis briefing and news on simmering tensions over the Eritrea-Ethiopia border from Reuters AlertNet, 6 March 2008
- Ethiopia / Eritrea War GlobalSecurity.org 2000–2005
- Eritrea – Ethiopia Conflict Page This site is developed and maintained by Denden LLC and dehai.org. The site was initially developed by the Eritrean Media and Information Task Force (Badme Task Force), a volunteer group of Eritrean-Americans in the Washington Metropolitan Area.
- Tom Cooper & Jonathan Kyzer. II Ethiopian Eritrean War, 1998 – 2000 website of ACIG.ORG 2 September 2003. Details the use of air power during the war.
- Abbink, Jon. 'Law against reality? Contextualizing the Ethiopian-Eritrean border problem.' In: Andrea de Guttry, Harry Post & Gabriella Venturini, eds., The 1998–2000 War Between Eritrea and Ethiopia: An International Legal Perspective, pp. 141–158. The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press – Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
- Charity Butcher & Makda Maru (2018) Diversionary Tactics and the Ethiopia–Eritrea War (1998–2000), Small Wars & Insurgencies, 29:1, 68-90
- Connell, Dan Eritrea-Ethiopia War Looms, Foreign Policy in Focus 21 January 2004
- Gilkes, Patrick and Plaut, Martin. The War Between Ethiopia and Eritrea, Foreign Policy in Focus Volume 5, Number 25 August 2000
- Hamilton, Kevin Analysis of the Ethio-Eritrean conflict and international mediation efforts in the Princeton Journal of Public and International Affairs, Volume 11 Spring 2000
- Reid, Richard "Old Problems in New Conflicts: Some Observations on Eritrea and Its Relations with Tigray, from Liberation Struggle to Inter-State War", Africa: Journal of the International African Institute, 73 (2003), pp. 369–401
- Staff. Eritrea – Ethiopia Conflict Analysis Page This site is developed and maintained by Denden LLC and dehai.org. The site was initially developed by the Eritrean Media and Information Task Force (Badme Task Force), a volunteer group of Eritrean-Americans in the Washington Metropolitan Area. It includes documents from non-Eritrean sources as well as analysis by Eritreans.
- Demarcation Watch. A list of articles on the demarcation dispute. This site is developed and maintained by Denden LLC and dehai.org. The site was initially developed by the Eritrean Media and Information Task Force (Badme Task Force), a volunteer group of Eritrean-Americans in the Washington Metropolitan Area.
- Brothers at Arms – Eritrea. A news clip filmed by Journeyman Pictures during the war.