Dominant minority

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A dominant minority, also called elite dominance is a minority group that has overwhelming political, economic, or cultural dominance in a country, despite representing a small fraction of the overall population (a demographic minority). Dominant minorities are also known as alien elites if they are recent immigrants.

The term is most commonly used to refer to an ethnic group which is defined along racial, national, religious, cultural or tribal lines and that holds a disproportionate amount of power. A notable example is South Africa during the apartheid regime, where White South Africans, or Afrikaners more specifically, wielded predominant control of the country, despite never composing more than 22 per cent of the population. African American-descended nationals in Liberia, Sunni Arabs in Ba'athist Iraq, the Alawite minority in Syria (since 1970 under the rule of the Alawite Assad family), and the Tutsi in Rwanda since the 1990s have also been cited as current or recent examples.






See also[edit]


  1. ^ Oded Haklai. A minority rule over a hostile majority: The case of Syria.
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  3. ^ Bolliger, Monika (12 May 2017). "Drei Regierungen für Jemen - NZZ" – via NZZ.
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  5. ^ "Bahrain country profile - Overview". BBC. BBC News. 25 November 2014. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  6. ^ "International Religious Freedom Report for 2013". US State Department. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  7. ^ "Bahrain: The Authorities Continue to Oppress the Shia Sect". Bahrain Center for Human Rights. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  8. ^ Dahir, Abdi Latif (30 October 2016). "Ethiopia's crisis is a result of decades of land disputes and ethnic power battles". Quartz Africa. Retrieved 4 February 2017. For a quarter of a century, the Tigrayans, who make up only 6% of the country’s over 100 million population, have enjoyed disproportionate influence and representation in government.
  9. ^ Decker, Markus. "Studie: Westdeutsche dominieren die Eliten – sogar in Ostdeutschland".
  10. ^ Decker, Markus. "Studie: Westdeutsche dominieren die Eliten – sogar in Ostdeutschland".
  11. ^ "Osten wird von westdeutschen Beamten beherrscht". 25 September 2013 – via Tagesspiegel.
  12. ^ "Der Tag mit Jenny Friedrich-Freksa - Dominieren Westdeutsche die Eliten?".
  13. ^ "Brasileiros abrem 7 de cada 10 indústrias do Paraguai".
  14. ^ Chua, Amy (2003). World On Fire. Knopf Doubleday Publishing. p. 34. ISBN 978-0385721868.
  15. ^ Siegel, Matt; Veisamasama, Malakai (16 September 2014). "Ghosts of ethnic conflicts past haunt Fiji vote". Reuters. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
  16. ^ Chua, Amy (2003). World On Fire. Knopf Doubleday Publishing. p. 113. ISBN 978-0385721868.
  17. ^ "Gujarati of Madagascar - Pray Africa".
  18. ^ Dawood, Farhana (15 May 2016). "Ugandan Asians dominate economy after exile". BBC News. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
  19. ^ Chua, Amy (2003). World On Fire. Knopf Doubleday Publishing. p. 246. ISBN 978-0385721868.
  20. ^ [1]
  21. ^ Anwar, Mohammad Amir. "White people in South Africa still hold the lion's share of all forms of capital".
  22. ^ Yasmin Saikia. Fragmented Memories.
  23. ^ President William V. S. Tubman, 1944 - 1971.
  24. ^ U.S. Department of State. U.S. Relations With Liberia.
  25. ^ Nicole Itano. For Liberians, old ties to US linger.
  26. ^ Chua, Amy (2003). World On Fire. Knopf Doubleday Publishing. p. 23. ISBN 978-0385721868.
  27. ^ "Italy: Fifth-century political trends". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved August 23, 2018. Its growing number of non-Roman military detachments tended increasingly to have their own ethnic leaders and to be organized according to their own rules. Ricimer (in power 456–472, by this time only in Italy) was a Germanic tribesman, not a Roman. He was culturally highly Romanized and, as such, was himself part of a tradition of Romano-Germanic military leadership that went back to the 370s, but he could not, as a “barbarian,” be emperor, and he made and unmade several emperors in a search for a stable ruler who would not undermine his own power. Significantly, in 456–457 and 465–467 he ruled alone, subordinate only to the Eastern emperor in Constantinople.
  28. ^ "Ricimer". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved August 23, 2018.
  29. ^ "Flavius Ardaburius Aspar". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved August 23, 2018. Aspar’s influence increased; he was made a patrician after Marcian, who had formerly been in his service, became emperor in 450. When Marcian died Aspar had a protégé raised to the throne as Leo I (February 457). The general, head of a Gothic army devoted to him, was then at the height of his power. Leo, however, was not content to be Aspar’s puppet... A conspiracy organized by the Isaurians and Leo in 471 led to Aspar’s murder, and German domination over Eastern Roman policy ended.
  30. ^ Wolfram, Herwig (2005). The Roman Empire and Its Germanic Peoples. University of California Press. p. 7. ISBN 0520244907. In real life, these tribes were surprisingly small... In defiance of the facts, we hear to this day of barbarian hordes. These people are likewise presented as conquerors of the Roman Empire, even though they constituted a vanishing minority within it.
  31. ^ "Ancient Rome: The Barbarian Kingdoms". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved August 23, 2018. The barbarians were everywhere a small minority. They established themselves on the great estates and divided the land to the benefit of the federates without doing much harm to the lower classes or disturbing the economy.
  32. ^ a b c Phillips, E. D. (1963). "The Peoples of the Highland: Vanished Cultures of Luristan, Mannai and Urartu". Vanished Civilizations of the Ancient World. McGraw-Hill: 241. Retrieved 25 July 2018. During the 2nd millennium the long process began by which Indo-European peoples from the northern steppes beyond the Caucasus established themselves about Western Asia, Iran and northern India. Their earliest pressure perhaps drove some the native peoples of the mountains to migrate or infiltrate and sometimes come as invaders into Mesopotamia and northern Syria, even in the 3rd millennium. The Indo-Europeans then drove their way through these peoples, drawing many of them in their train as subjects or allies, and appeared themselves early in the 2nd millennium as invaders and conquerors in the Near East. For the first half of the millenium the highlanders under Indo-European leadership dominated the older peoples of the plains, most of whom were Semites. The most powerful of these Indo-Europeans were the Hittites who ruled Anatolia, and later extended their dominion over northern Syria, but their connection with our three cultures is not direct, unles more Hittite influence was felt in Urartu than has so far appeared. Two other peoples are directly relevant, namely the Kassites from the Zagros mountains in the region of Luristan, and the Hurrians, who spread from regions further north, particularly from Armenia. Both were themselves native peoples of the highland, and spoke languages which were not Indo-European, but belonged to a group sometimes loosely called Caucasian, once widespread but later surviving only in the Caucasus. They were led by Indo- European aristocracies small in numbers but great in energy and achievement. They were the first to use the horse in war to draw the light chariot with spoked wheels. Indo-European names of gods at least appear among the Kassites, and of gods and rulers much more obviously among the Hurrians, in whom this element was clearly stronger. In both cases the names reveal the Indic branch of the Indo-European family, of which the main body moved through Iran to conquer northern India.
  33. ^ "Cimmerian". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved August 23, 2018. The origin of the Cimmerians is obscure. Linguistically they are usually regarded as Thracian or as Iranian, or at least to have had an Iranian ruling class.
  34. ^ "Theodoric". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved August 23, 2018. With his people, who may have numbered 100,000 persons, Theodoric arrived in Italy in late August 489... his people could not legally intermarry with Romans.
  35. ^ "Italy: The Ostrogothic Kingdom". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved August 23, 2018. Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths, conquered Italy and killed Odoacer in 493. The decades of the Ostrogothic kingdom in Italy (493–552) can be seen as the first true period of Germanic rule in the peninsula, for an entire tribe of 100,000 to 200,000 people came with Theodoric... Theodoric, who did not want the Ostrogoths to become Romanized, encouraged them to keep their distance from the Romans. Yet such apartheid did not last. Some Romans joined the army; many more Goths became landowners, legally or illegally, and adopted civilian Roman cultural traditions.
  36. ^ Khan, Maryam (1 April 2014). "Ethnic Federalism in Pakistan: Federal Design, Construction of Ethno-Linguistic Identity, and Group Conflict". Harvard Journal on Racial and Ethnic Justice (Harvard JREJ). doi:10.2139/ssrn.2185435 – via ResearchGate.
  37. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-09-09. Retrieved 2013-08-31.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  38. ^ "Spain: Visigothic Spain to c. 500". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved August 23, 2018. Despite the collapse of imperial rule in Spain, Roman influence remained strong. The majority of the population, probably about six million, were Hispano-Romans, as compared with 200,000 barbarians... A Roman law that prohibited intermarriage between the two peoples was, however, abolished in the late 6th century. Still, the task of bringing the two peoples together and of achieving some sort of political and cultural unity was a formidable one.


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