Ethnofiction is a neologism which refers to an ethnographic docufiction, a blend of documentary and fictional film in the area of visual anthropology. It is a film type in which, by means of fictional narrative or creative imagination, often improvising, the portrayed characters (natives) play their own roles as members of an ethnic or social group.
Jean Rouch is considered to be the father of ethnofiction. An ethnologist, he discovered that a filmmaker interferes with the event he registers. His camera is never a candid camera. The behavior of the portrayed individuals, the natives, will be affected by its presence. Contrary to the principles of Marcel Griaule, his mentor, for Rouch a non-participating camera registering "pure" events in ethnographic research (like filming a ritual without interfering with it) is a preconception denied by practice.
An ethnographer cameraman, in this view, will be accepted as a natural partner by the actors who play their roles. The cameraman will be one of them, and may even be possessed by the rhythm of dancers during a ritual celebration and induced in a state of cine-trance. Going further than his predecessors, Jean Rouch introduces the actor as a tool in research.
Being mainly used to refer to ethnographic films as an object of visual anthropology, the term ethnofiction is as well adequate to refer to experimental documentaries preceding and following Rouch's oeuvre and to any fictional creation in human communication, arts or literature, having an ethnographic or social background.
Parallel to those of Flaherty or Rouch, ethnic portraits of hard local realities are often drawn in Portuguese films since the thirties, with particular incidence from the sixties to the eighties, and again in the early 21st century. The remote Trás-os-Montes region (see: Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro Province in Portugal), Guinea-Bissau or the Cape Verde islands (ancient Portuguese colonies), which step in the limelights from the eighties on thanks to the work of certain directors (Flora Gomes, Pedro Costa, or Daniel E. Thorbecke, the unknown author of Terra Longe) are themes for pioneering films of this genre, important landmarks in film history. Arousing fiction in the heart of ethnicity is something current in the Portuguese popular narrative (oral literature): in other words, the traditional attraction for legend and surrealistic imagery in popular arts inspires certain Portuguese films to strip off realistic predicates and become poetical fiction. This practice is common to many fictional films by Manoel de Oliveira and João César Monteiro and to several docufiction hybrids by António Campos, António Reis and others. Since the 1960s, ethnofiction (local real life and fantasy in one) is a distinctive mark of Portuguese cinema.
- 1930 – Maria do Mar by José Leitão de Barros, Portugal
- 1931 – Tabu written by Robert Flaherty and directed by F. W. Murnau, US
- 1932 – L'or des mers by Jean Epstein, France
- 1933 – Las Hurdes: Tierra Sin Pan by Luis Buñuel, Spain
- 1934 – Man of Aran by Robert Flaherty, UK
- 1955 – Les maîtres fous (The Mad Masters) by Jean Rouch. France
- 1958 – Moi, un noir (Me a Black) by Jean Rouch. France
- 1961 – La pyramide humaine by Jean Rouch, France
- 1962 – Acto da Primavera (Act of Spring) by Manoel de Oliveira. Portugal
- 1963 – Pour la suite du monde (Of Whales, the Moon and Men) by Pierre Perrault and Michel Brault, Canada
- 1967 – Jaguar, by Jean Rouch, France
- 1976 – People from Praia da Vieira (Gente da Praia da Vieira) by António Campos, Portugal
- 1976 – Trás-os-Montes by António Reis and Margarida Cordeiro, Portugal
- 1982 - Nelisita: narrativas nyaneka by Ruy Duarte de Carvalho, Angola
- 1988 – Mortu Nega (Death Denied) by Flora Gomes, Guiné-Bissau
- 2000 – No Quarto da Vanda (In Vanda's Room) by Pedro Costa
- 2003 – Terra Longe (Remote Land) by Daniel E. Thorbecke
- 2006 – Colossal Youth by Pedro Costa
- 2007 – Transfiction by Johannes Sjöberg
- 2011 – Toomelah by Ivan Sen
- 2012 – The Act of Killing, by Joshua Oppenheimer, Indonesia
- 2015 – Dead Slow Ahead by Mauro Herce
- 2018 – The Dead and the Others by João Salaviza
- 2019 – Work, or To Whom Does the World Belong, by Elisa Cepedal, Spain
- Glossary at MAITRES_FOUS.NET
- Types of Cameras – definition at UCLA
- Marcel Griaule (1898–1956) – Article by Sybil Amber
- From Pictorializing to Visual Anthropology1 – Chapter from "Handbook of Methods in Cultural Anthropology"
- Nannicelli, Ted (July 2006). "From Representation to Evocation: Tracing a Progression in Jean Rouch's Les magiciens de Wanzerbé, Les maîtres fous, and Jaguar". Visual Anthropology. 19 (2): 123–143. doi:10.1080/08949460600596558. S2CID 144385606.
- Ciarcia, Gaetano (2002). "L'ethnofiction à l'œuvre. Prisme et images de l'entité dogon" [Ethnofiction at work. Prism and images of the dogon entity]. Ethnologies Comparées (in French) (5).
- Father of 'cinema verite' dies – BBC news
- BIOGRAPHIES: Jean Rouch – Article by Ben Michaels at Indiana University
- A Tribute to Jean Rouch by Paul Stoller at Rouge
- Ethnographic Film (origines)
- Knowing Images: Jean Rouch's Ethnography <- Chapter from Sarah Cooper's monograph "Selfless Cinema?: Ethics and French Documentary" (Oxford: Legenda, 2006) at MAITRES-FOUS.net
- Cine-trance: a Tribute to Jean Rouch(Visual Anthropology, American Anthropologist)
- Ethnofiction and the Work of Jean Rouch, article by Reuben Ross, UK Visual Anthropology, November 9, 2010
- Videos about ethnofiction on Vimeo
- Coates, Jennifer (2 February 2019). "Blurred Boundaries: Ethnofiction and Its Impact on Postwar Japanese Cinema". Arts. 8 (1): 20. doi:10.3390/arts8010020.
- Coming of Age as Other: Indigenous People in the Ethnofiction Film 'The Dead and The Others' – article at CINEA, 14 december 2018
- Quist, Brian (2001). Jean Rouch and the genesis of ethnofiction (Thesis). Long Island University. OCLC 778067104.
- Imagining Rurality: Portuguese Documentary and Ethnographic Film in the 1960s and 1990s Archived 2012-03-19 at the Wayback Machine – Abstract for a conference by Catarina Alves Costa at Comité du Film Ethnographique
- African Filmmaker Profiles: Flora Gomes at The Woyingi Blog
- The Films of Pedro Costa at Distant Voices
- Terra Longe at South Planet (French)
- The Portuguese and the "others": dialogue of cultures and characters in oral literary tradition Archived 2012-03-19 at the Wayback Machine – Article by Maria Edite Orange and Maria Inês Pinho at Departamento de Artes e Motricidade Humana do IPP – Escola Superior de Educação (Porto)
- Silvano, Filomena (1 October 2010). "Things we see: Portuguese anthropology on material culture". Etnografica. 14 (3): 497–505. doi:10.4000/etnografica.264.
- Disquieting Objects – Article by Gabe Klinger at The Museum of Moving Image
- Terra Longe, David & Golias
- Ethnofition at The University of Manchester (watch video)
- Ethnofiction and Beyond: The Legacy of Projective Improvisation in Ethnographic Filmmaking by Johannes Sjöberg
- L'ETHNOFICTION A L'ŒUVRE: prisme et images de l'entité dogon – Article (French) by Gaetano Ciarcia at Université Montpellier III
- Rouch & Cie. – un quintette – Article (French) by Andrea Paganini at École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales
- Ethnic Portraits and Ethnofiction at Mubi
- The war of dreams: exercises in ethno-fiction by Marc Augé (google books)
- From Representation to Evocation: Tracing a Progression in Jean Rouch's Les magiciens de Wanzerbe, Les maitres fous, and Jaguar – Paper by Ted Nannicelli at University of Waikato
- Ethnofiction : drama as a creative research practice in ethnographic film at Mendley – Paper by Bloom, Elizabeth A., Ed.D., STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK AT BINGHAMTON, 2006
- Language description and "the new paradigm": What linguists may learn from ethnocinematographers – Article by Gerrit J. Dimmendaal, University of Cologne, at University of Hawai'i at Manoa