List of ethnic slurs

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The following is a list of ethnic slurs or ethnophaulisms or ethnic epithets that are, or have been, used as insinuations or allegations about members of a given ethnicity or racial group or to refer to them in a derogatory, pejorative, or otherwise insulting manner.

Some of the terms listed below (such as "gringo", "yank", etc.) can be used in casual speech without any intention of causing offense. The connotation of a term and prevalence of its use as a pejorative or neutral descriptor varies over time and by geography.

For the purposes of this list, an ethnic slur is a term designed to insult others on the basis of race, ethnicity, or nationality. Each term is listed followed by its country or region of usage, a definition, and a reference to that term.

Ethnic slurs may also be produced as a racial epithet by combining a general-purpose insult with the name of ethnicity, such as "dirty Jew", "Russian pig", etc. Other common insulting modifiers include "dog", "filthy", etc. However, such terms are not included in this list.


Term Location or origin Targets Meaning, origin and notes References
Abbie, Abe, Abie United States, Canada Jewish men Originated before the 1950s. From the proper name Abraham. [1]
ABC East Asia American-born Chinese, Han or other Chinese (including Taiwanese) born and raised in the United States. The term implies an otherness or lack of connection to their Chinese identity and (usually) Chinese language; however, it has been reappropriated by many Chinese Americans and used to convey positive connotations. [2]
ABCD South Asians in the US American-Born Confused Desi, Indian Americans or other South Asian Americans, (desi) who were born in the United States. Used chiefly by South Asian immigrants to imply confusion about cultural identity [3][4][5]
Abid/Abeed (plural) Middle East and North Africa Black people Arabic for slave, associated with the Arab slave trade [6][7][8][9]
Abo/Abbo Australia Australian Aboriginal person Originally, this was simply an informal term for Aborigine, and was in fact used by Aboriginal people themselves (such as in the Aboriginal-run newspaper Abo Call) until it started to be considered offensive in the 1950s. Although Abo is still considered quite offensive by many, the pejorative boong is now more commonly used when the intent is deliberately to offend, as that word's status as an insult is unequivocal. [10]
Afro engineering, African engineering or nigger rigging United States African Americans Shoddy, second-rate or unconventional, makeshift workmanship. Indirectly refers to black American people as worse or lower-valued than white American people when associating anything bad with them. [11][12]
Ah Chah Hong Kong South Asian people From 阿差; Cantonese Yale: achā; from "acchā" meaning "good" or "OK" in Hindi. [13]
Ali Baba United States Iraqi people An Iraqi suspected of criminal activity. [14]
Alligator bait, 'gator bait United States (chiefly southern U.S.) Black and Cape Coloured or Coloured people, especially black and Cape Coloured or Coloured children Dates from early 20th century or before; implies that African Americans are good for nothing except being used to bait alligators [15][16][8][9]
Alpine Serb Serbo-Croatian: Alpski Srbin (ex-Yugoslavia) People of Slovenian origin. [17]
AmaLawu, AmaQheya South Africa Khoisans and Cape Coloureds or Coloureds Xhosa words for Hottentot [18]
Ang mo Malaysia, Singapore European people, especially the Dutch Hokkien for "red hair" referring to Dutch people from the 17th century and expanded to encompass other Europeans by the 19th century. It has become a neutral term, though is sometimes seen as derogatory. [19]
Ann United States, Canada White women, "white-acting" black women While Miss Ann, also just plain Ann, is a derisive reference to white women, it is also applied to any black woman who is deemed to be acting as though she is white. [20][21]
Annamite, mites French, English Vietnamese people [22][23][24]
Ape United States Black and Cape Coloured or Coloured people Referring to outdated theories ascribing cultural differences between racial groups as being linked to their evolutionary distance from chimpanzees, with which humans share common ancestry. [25][26][8][9]
Apple United States, Canada Native Americans First used in the 1970s. Someone who is "red on the outside, white on the inside". Used primarily by other Native Americans to indicate someone who has lost touch with their cultural identity. [27]
Arabush / Aravush (ערבוש) Israel Arabs Arabs, derived from Hebrew "Aravi" (Arab). [28]
Argie/Argies (plural) United Kingdom Argentine people Extensively used by the British soldiers during the Falklands War in 1982. [29]
Armo United States Armenian/Armenian American Especially used in Southern California. [30][31]
Asing, Aseng Indonesia Non-Indonesian people, especially Chinese people Insult to non-Indonesian citizen, from "[orang] asing" (foreigner) that rhymed with "Aseng" (Chinese name). This word is often directed at Chinese people due to Indonesia's relationship with the PRC. [32]
Ashke-Nazi (אשכנאצי) Israel Ashkenazi Jews Pronounced like "AshkeNatzi". Used mostly by Mizrachi Jews. [33][34][35]
Aunt Jemima/Aunt Jane/Aunt Mary/Aunt Sally United States Black and Cape Coloured or Coloured women A black and Cape Coloured or Coloured woman who "kisses up" to whites, a "sellout", female counterpart of Uncle Tom. [36][8][9]


Term Location or origin Targets Meaning, origin and notes References
Bachicha Chile Italian people Possibly derived from the Italian word Baciccia, a nickname for Giambattista. [37]
Baiano Brazil Northeastern Brazilian people A person born in Bahia, one of the 9 states in the Northeast Region of Brazil. As a slur, it refers generically to any Northeastern person. Used mainly in São Paulo, the term is related to the Northeastern immigration of the second half of the 20th century. [38]
Bamboula France Black and Cape Coloured or Coloured people [39][8][9]
Banaan Suriname Black people and Cape Coloureds or Coloureds, people of African descent Dutch: Banana. A slur that is used to refer to black people and Cape Coloureds or Coloureds, people of African heritage. It derives from the colour of a banana's skin, which is yellow or brown, and is therefore seen as an offensive way to describe black and coloured people's skin colour. [40][8][9]
Balija Turkey, the Balkans Bosnian people An ethnic Bosniak or a member of the Bosnian diaspora. [41][42]
Banana United States, Canada East or Southeast Asian people "Yellow on the outside, white on the inside". Used primarily by East or Southeast Asians for other East- or Southeast Asians or Asian American who are perceived as assimilated into mainstream American culture. Similar to Apple. [43][44]
Banderite Poland Ukrainians The term Banderite was originally used to refer to the ultra-nationalist wing of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists. In Poland, the term "banderowiec" is used in connection with the massacres of Poles in Volhynia by the UPA. The term became a crucial element of the Soviet propaganda discourse and was used as a pejorative description of Ukrainians. Today the term is used by as a slur against anyone identifying as or speaking Ukrainian. [45][46][47][48][49][50]
Barbarian Greece Non-Greek people Someone who is perceived to be either uncivilized or primitive. βάρβαρος (barbaros pl. βάρβαροι barbaroi). In Ancient Greece, the Greeks used the term towards those who did not speak Greek and follow classical Greek customs. [51]
Beaner / Beaney United States Hispanic or Latino people, especially Mexicans The term originates from the use of frijoles pintos and other beans that can be generally found in Mexican food or other Hispanic and Latino foods. [52][53][54]
Black buck, black brute, brown buck or brown brute United States Black and Cape Coloured or Coloured men Originating in the post-Reconstruction United States, it was used to describe black men who absolutely refused to bend to the law of white authority and were seen as irredeemably violent, rude, and lecherous. Brown buck or brown brute is an ethnic slur used against Cape Coloured or Coloured people. The word "brown" refers to the skin colour of Cape Coloureds or Coloured people, while "buck" or "brute" implies a savage or primitive nature. [55][8][9]
Bluegum United States African Americans An African American perceived as being lazy and unwilling to work. [56]
Boche / bosche / bosch France; United States; United Kingdom German people Shortened from the French term caboche dure, meaning "hard head" or "stubborn"). [57]
Boeotian Athenians Boeotian Greek people Referring to the supposed stupidity of the inhabitants of the neighboring Boeotia region of Greece. [58]
Boerehater / Boer-hater / Boer hater South Africa; United Kingdom British people Refers to a person who hates, prejudices, or criticizes the Boers, or Afrikaners – historically applied to British people who held anti-Boers sentiments. [59][60][61]
Bog / Bogtrotter / Bog-trotter United Kingdom, Ireland, United States Irish people A person of common or low-class Irish ancestry. [62][63]
Bogate Chile Yugoslav people The expression is said to come from the Yugoslav interjection Hasti boga! [64]
Bohunk United States, Canada Bohemian people A lower-class immigrant of Central, Eastern, or Southeastern European descent. Originally referred to those of Bohemian (now Czech Republic) descent. It was commonly used toward Central European immigrants during the early 20th century. Probably from Bohemian + a distortion of Hungarian. See also hunky. [65]
Bong India Bengali people [66]
Boong / bong / bung Australia Australian Aboriginals [First used in 1847 by JD Lang, Cooksland, 430]. Boong, pronounced with ʊ (like the vowel in bull), is related to the Australian English slang word bung, meaning "dead", "infected", or "dysfunctional". From bung, to go bung "Originally to die, then to break down, go bankrupt, cease to function [Ab. bong dead]". The (Oxford) Australian National Dictionary gives its origin in the Wemba word for "man" or "human being". [67][68][69][70]
Boonga / boong / bunga / boonie New Zealand Pacific Islanders Likely derived from the similar Australian slur. [71][72]
Bootlip United States African American [73]
Bougnoule France Arabian people [74]
Bounty bar United Kingdom Black and Cape Coloured or Coloured people A black and Cape Coloured or Coloured person who is considered to be behaving like a white person (i.e. dark on the outside, white on the inside). [75][8][9]
Bozgor Romania Hungarian people Used especially on ones born in Romania. Possibly derived from the Moldavian Csángó dialect pronunciation of bocskor meaning Opanak, a type of rustic footwear. [76]
Brillo Pad United Kingdom and United States Black and Cape Coloured or Coloured people Used to refer to the hair of a black and Cape Coloured or Coloured person [77][8][9]
Brownie United States, New Zealand, and Australia Brown-skinned people, an Asian Used in the 1850s–1960s; in Australia it was used for an Aboriginal Australian or someone Japanese; in New Zealand, a Māori [78]
Buckwheat United States Black and Cape Coloured or Coloured people The name of a black character that appeared in the Our Gang (Little Rascals) short films. Today it is used to refer to the curly hair of a black and Cape Coloured or Coloured person. [79][80][8][9]
Buddhahead United States Asian people Also used by mainland Japanese Americans to refer to Hawaiian Japanese Americans since World War II. [81][82]
Buckra, Bakra United States, West Indies White people from Sub-Saharan African languages [83]
Bulbash Russia, Ukraine Belarusians Derived from Belarusian word "bulba" (potatoes), based on the fact that potatoes are a very common ingredient in Belarusian cuisine. [84][85]
Bule Indonesia White people or foreigner Derived from an archaic Indonesian word for albino. [86]
Bumbay Philippines People from India From Bombay [87]
Burrhead / Burr-head / Burr head United States Black and Cape Coloured or Coloured people Referencing Afro-textured hair. [88][8][9]
Bushy (s.) / Bushies, Amadushie (p.) South Africa Khoisans Historically used against the Khoisan people in Southern Africa, referring to their nomadic lifestyle and reliance on the bush for survival. [89]


Term Location or origin Targets Meaning, origin and notes References
Cabbage Eater German and Russian people [90][91]
Canaca Chile Chinese and Japanese people Canaca is a slur originating in Oceania. [64]
Camel jockey / camel dung-shoveler Middle Eastern people [92][93][94]
Carcamano Brazil Italian people Used during the early 20th century, during the Second wave of Italian immigration to Brazil. [95]
Chankoro Japan Chinese people Japanese: チャンコロ, a Japanese reference to a Chinese person. [96]
Charlie United States White Americans Used in the 1960s–1970s. White people as a reified collective oppressor group, similar to The Man or The System. [97]
United States Vietnamese people Vietnam War Slang term used by American troops as a shorthand term for Vietnamese guerrillas, derived from the verbal shorthand for "Victor Charlie", the NATO phonetic alphabet for VC, the abbreviation for Viet Cong. The (regular) North Vietnamese Army was referred to as "Mr. Charles". [98][99][100]
China Swede United States Finns Derogatory term for Finnish immigrants to the United States, particularly in Minnesota and Michigan. [101][102]
Chee-chee, Chi-chi South Asia Eurasian Mixed-race people, especially Anglo-Indians Probably derived from Hindi chi-chi fie!, literally, dirt. [103]
Cheese-eating surrender monkeys United Kingdom, United States French people From the defeat of the French by the Germans in 1940, and the huge variety of cheeses originating from France. Gained popularity after the term was used on an episode of The Simpsons. [104]
Chefur (čefur) Slovenia Non-Slovenian people of former Yugoslavia (Serbs, Croats, Bosniaks, Montenegrins, Macedonians) [105]
Tsekwa / Chekwa Philippines Chinese Filipino people Used in Filipino/Tagalog and other Philippine languages, which derived it from the late 19th century Cebuano Bisaya street children's limerick, Cebuano: Intsik, wákang, káun, kalibang!, lit.'Chinese (laborer), I work, eat, and shit!', where "Intsik"/"Insik" is derived from the Philippine Hokkien term, Chinese: 𪜶 ; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: in chek; lit. 'his/her/their uncle', while "wakang"/"gwakang" is derived from the Philippine Hokkien term, Chinese: ; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: góa kang; lit. 'I work', while "kaon"/"kaun" is from the Cebuano Bisaya term, Cebuano: kaon, lit.'to eat', while "kalibang" is from the Cebuano Bisaya term, Cebuano: kalibang, lit.'to defecate'. [106][107]
Chernozhopy Russia Indigenous people from the Caucasus, e.g. from Chechnya or Azerbaijan. черножопый, or chornaya zhopa, meaning "black-arse" in Russian. [108][109][110]
Chilote Argentina Chilean people [111]
Chinaman United States, Canada Chinese people A calque of the Chinese 中國人. It was used in the gold rush and railway-construction eras in western United States when discrimination against the Chinese was common. [112]
Ching chong United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, India, Philippines Chinese people Mocking the language of or a person of perceived Chinese descent. [113]
Chink United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Ireland, New Zealand, Australia, India Chinese people [114]
Chinky Mainland India Northeast Indian people The sound "chin" refers to China. The slur refers to the shared facial features of Northeast Indians and ethnically Chinese peoples. [115][116]
Chonky Asian people Refers to a person of Asian heritage with "white attributes", in either personality or appearance. [117]
Christ-killer Jewish people An allusion to Jewish deicide. [118][119]
Choc-ice Black people and Cape Coloureds or Coloureds A person who is figuratively "black or coloured on the outside, white on the inside". [120][121][8][9]
Cholo Latin America, Southwestern United States Indigenous or Mestizo people It may be derogatory depending on circumstances. [122][123][124][125]
Chile Bolivian people, Peruvian people [64][126]
Chug Canada Canadian aboriginal people See Chugach for the native people. [127]
Chukhna Russia Finnic people [128][129]
Churka (Russian: Чурка Russia Western and Central Asians чурка slur for Central Asians and indigenous people of Caucasus. [109]
Ciapaty, ciapak Poland Middle Eastern, North African, South Asian, and Caucasian people. Derived from chapati. [130][131]
Cigányforma Hungary Persons with the combination of black hair with brown eyes, regardless of ethnicity Used in 17th century Hungary; literal meaning is "gypsy form" [132]
Cigány népek Hungary Ethnic groups or nations where the combination of black hair with brown eyes are dominant Used in 17th century Hungary; literal meaning is "gypsy folks" [133]
Cioară Romania Romani people, Black people and Cape Coloureds or Coloureds Means crow [134]
Cina / Cokin Indonesia Chinese people Use in media has been banned since 2014 under Keppres no. 12/2014, replaced by Tiongkok (from Zhongguo 中国) or Tionghoa (from Zhonghua 中华). The President Decision (Keppres) even bans use of "China" in media and formal use. [135][136]
Coconut United States, United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia Hispanics/Latinos, South/Southeast Asians Named after the coconut, in the American sense, it derives from the fact that a coconut is brown on the outside and white on the inside. A person of Hispanic/Latino or South/Southeast Asian descent who is seen as being assimilated into white American culture. [43][137][44]
South Asians A brown person of South Asian descent is perceived as fully assimilated into Western culture. [138][139][140]
Pacific Islander [141]
Coño Chile Spanish people Used in to refer to Spanish people given the perception that they recurrently use of the vulgar interjection coño (lit. "cunt"). [37]
Coolie United States, Canada Asian people, usually Chinese, and Indo-Caribbean people Unskilled Asian laborer (originally used in the 19th century for Chinese railroad laborers). Possibly from Mandarin "苦力" ku li or Hindi kuli, "day laborer." Also racial epithet for Indo-Caribbean people, especially in Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago and South African Indians. [142][143]
Coon United States, Commonwealth Black people and Cape Coloureds or Coloureds Slur popularized by Coon songs played at Minstrel show. Originally associated in the 1830s with the U.S. Whig Party who used a raccoon as their emblem. The Whigs were more tolerant towards blacks and coloureds than other main parties. After the party folded the term "coon" evolved from political slang into a racial slur. Within African American communities, the word has been used to refer to a black person who is allegedly a "sellout". Also used to slur Cape Coloureds or Coloureds in South Africa. The association of the term "coon" with the coloured group expresses ambivalent feelings about their mixed-race ancestral background, and signifies self-depreciation, subordination, and marginalization of the underprivileged.[144] [145][146][147][148][8][9][149]
Australia Aboriginal Australian [150]
New Zealand Pacific Islander [150]
Coonass, Coon-ass United States Cajun people Not to be confused with the French connasse, meaning cunt. [151]
Coreano Chile Chinese and Japanese people [64]
Cotton picker United States Individuals of African descent, including African-Americans and Cape Coloureds or Coloureds Historically referred to someone who harvested cotton by hand, often used in the context of American slavery when enslaved black people were forced to pick cotton on plantations. The phrase originally referred to the actual occupation of picking cotton on plantations in the American South, but that it later became a racial slur used to denigrate people of African descent, including African-Americans and Cape Coloureds or Coloureds. [152][153][154]
Cracker United States White people, especially poor Appalachian and Southern people First used in the 19th century. It is sometimes used specifically to refer to a native of Florida or Georgia. Also used in a more general sense in the United States to refer to white people disparagingly. [155][156]
Crow United States Black and Cape Coloured or Coloured people. Used against black and Cape Coloured or Coloured people. The term originated in the United States during the early 20th century and was used to describe black people with dark skin, likening them to the bird of the same name. The term was also used against coloured people, particularly in the apartheid era, as a derogatory term for people of mixed-race ancestry. [157]
Crucco (m.), crucca (f.) Italy German people The name was firstly given during the First World War to the troops of the Austro-Hungarian Army of Croatian and Slovenian ethnicity. Later the term was used to indicate the Germans. [158]
Curepí Paraguay Argentines A common term used by people from Paraguay for people from Argentina, it means "pig's skin". [159][160]
Curry-muncher Australia, Africa, New Zealand, United States, Canada South Asian People [161]
Cushi, Kushi (כושי) Israel Dark-skinned people Term originated from Kushite, referring to an individual from the Ancient Kingdom of Kush. This was also mentioned in the Hebrew Bible generally used to refer to people usually of African descent, including Cape Coloureds or Coloureds. Originally merely descriptive, in present-day Israel it increasingly assumed a pejorative connotation and is regarded as insulting by Ethiopian Israelis; and by non-Jewish, Sub-Saharan African migrant workers and asylum seekers in Israel. [162][8][9]
Czarnuch (m.), czarnucha (f.) Poland Black and Cape Coloured or Coloured people [163][8][9]


Term Location or origin Targets Meaning, origin and notes References
Dago, Dego United States, Commonwealth Italians, Spaniards, Greeks, or Portuguese people; in the United States, primarily used for Italians and people of Italian descent Possibly derived from the Spanish name "Diego" [164][165][166]
Dal Khor Urdu-speaking people Indians and Pakistanis (specifically Punjabis) The term literally translates to "dal eater", connoting the supposedly higher emphasis on pulses and vegetables in the diet of countryside Punjabis. [167]
Dalle, Batak Dalle Indonesia Batak people Dalle is a pejorative which means "Batak people who can't speak Batak" or "Batak people who don't (want to) know about Batak culture" [168][169][170]
Darky / darkey / darkie Black people According to lexicographer Richard A. Spears, the word "darkie" used to be considered mild and polite, before it took on a derogatory and provocative meaning. [171][172]
Dhoti Nepal Indian or Madheshi people As reference to their indigenous clothing Dhoti worn by people of Indian subcontinent. [173]
Dink United States Southeast Asian, particularly Vietnamese people. Origin: 1965–70, Americanism. Also used as a disparaging term for a North Vietnamese soldier or guerrilla in the Vietnam War. [174]
Dogan, dogun Canada Irish Catholics 19th century on; origin uncertain: perhaps from Dugan, an Irish surname. [175]
Dothead, Dot Hindu women In reference to the bindi. [176][177]
Dune coon United States Arabian people equivalent of sand nigger (below). [178][179]


Term Location or origin Targets Meaning, origin and notes References
Eight ball, 8ball Black people Referring to the black ball in pool. The term is used a derogatory label for black and coloured people with dark skin tones. Slang, usually used disparagingly. [180][9]
Engelsman South Africa White South Africans of British descent whose first language is English Afrikaans: Englishman. A derogatory term used to refer to white South Africans of British descent whose first language is English. This is due to historical and cultural tensions between English-speaking and Afrikaans-speaking white South Africans, which were fueled by British colonialism and apartheid policies. Some Afrikaans-speaking people view the English-speaking minority as elitist and condescending, and the use of the term "Engelsman" reflects these attitudes. [181]
Eyetie United States, United Kingdom Italian people Originated through the mispronunciation of "Italian" as "Eye-talian". Slang usually used disparagingly (especially during World War II). [182][183][184]


Term Location or origin Targets Meaning, origin and notes References
Fankui, fan-kui, fangui, gui-zi, guizi, gui Worldwide Any non-Chinese These words (and any variations of it) are extremely derogatory, since it means anyone other than Chinese have terrible attitude and uncivilised idiots. (Gui or Guizi itself means demon) [185][186][187][188]
Farang khi nok Thailand Poor white people Is slang commonly used as an insult to a person of white race, equivalent to white trash, as khi means feces and nok means bird, referring to the white color of bird-droppings. [189]
Fenian Northern Ireland, Scotland Irish Catholics Derived from the Fenian Brotherhood. [190]
Festival children (Russian: Дети фестиваля) USSR (from late 1950s) Children of mixed ancestry, usually with a father who is black or (more rarely) other non-European origins It is believed that the first noticeable appearance of black and or mixed ancestry children appeared after the 6th World Festival of Youth and Students of 1957. The term was often used ironically and sometimes in a mildly derogatory fashion.

This term is currently not used.

Feuj (verlan for juif) France Jewish people [193]
Fidschi(de) East Germany East or Southeast Asian people, particularly Vietnamese people German for Fiji, used to refer to anyone who looks East or Southeast Asian, particularly those of Vietnamese origin. [194]
Fjellabe Denmark Norwegian people Means mountain ape. Jocularly used by Danes mostly in sports. From the 1950s. Norway is mountainous while Denmark is flat without mountains. [195]
Flip United States Filipino people [196]
Franchute Chile French people [37]
Frenk Ashkenazi Jews Sephardi and Mizrahi Jews Derived from Franks (as a reference to Western Europeans), due to the fact Sephardi Jews are Judaeo-Spanish speakers. [197]
Fritz, fricc, fryc, фриц, fricis United Kingdom, France, Hungary, Poland, Russia, Latvia German people from Friedrich (Frederick). [198][199]
Frog, Froggy, Frogeater, Australia, Canada, United Kingdom, United States Dutch people (formerly)
French and French Canadian people (currently)
Before the 19th century, referred to the Dutch (as they were stereotyped as being marsh-dwellers). When France became Britain's main enemy, replacing the Dutch, the epithet was transferred to them, because of the French penchant for eating frogs' legs (see comparable French term Rosbif). Also known in Slavic countries, but only towards the (mainland) French, see Polish żabojad, Ukrainian zhaboyid (жабоїд), Russian lyagushatnik (лягушатник); as well as in Basque frantximant. [200][201][202]
Fuzzy-Wuzzy United Kingdom Hadendoa people Term used to refer to the Hadendoa warriors in the 19th century, in reference to their elaborate hairstyles. Not applicable in Australia, see Fuzzy Wuzzy Angels. [203]


Term Location or origin Targets Meaning, origin and notes References
Gabacho Spain, Chile French people From Occitan gavach meaning "one who speaks wrong." [204][37]
Mexico American people, French people Neutral or pejorative depending on context. [205]
Gabel Albania, Kosovo Romani people Expression of disdain for someone, with the setting "Maxhup" [206]
Gadjo Non-Romani people Technically a term for a person who does not possess Romanipen, it usually refers to non-Romanis and Romanis who do not live within Romani culture. [207]
Gaijin (外人) Japan People of non-East Asian origin [208]
Galla Ethiopia Oromo people or others in Ethiopia and Somalia Used since 1670 [209][210]
Gam, Gammat South Africa Cape Coloured or Coloured people It means "a person who is low or of inferior status" in Afrikaans. [211][212]
Gans (Ганс) USSR German people, or more uncommonly Latvian people The term originated among the Soviet troops in World War II, coming from Russified form of the German first name Hans. [213][214][215]
Garoi Romania Romani people It means crow. [216]
Geomdung-i (검둥이) South Korea Black people and Cape Coloureds or Coloureds Korean for coon [217]
Gexhë Kosovo Serbs of Šumadija Derogatory expression for the Serbs of southern Serbia, of Šumadija. [206]
Gin Australia Aboriginal woman Moore (2004), "gin"
Gin jockey Australia White people A white person having casual sex with an Aboriginal woman. [218]
Godon France English people An antiquated pejorative expression. Possibly a corruption of "God-damn". [219][220]
Golliwog United States, Australia, United Kingdom, New Zealand Darkskinned people, especially African-Caribbeans An expression which originally was a children's literature character and type of black doll but which eventually came to be used as a jibe against people with dark skin. [221]
Gook, Gook-eye, Gooky United States East and Southeast Asians, but particularly Koreans The earliest recorded example is dated 1920. Used especially for enemy soldiers. Its use has been traced to United States Marines serving in the Philippines in the early 20th century. It gained widespread notice as a result of the Korean and Vietnam wars. [222][223][224]
Goombah United States Italian people, Italian-Americans Initially applied to Italian or Italian-American men in general, it now also specifically carries connotations of stereotypical vulgar machismo and Italian Mafia or Italian-American Mafia involvement among ethnic Italians and Italian-Americans. However, "goombah" is also used among Italian-Americans themselves to refer to a friend or comrade; the word becomes pejorative mostly when used by a non-Italian to refer to an ethnic Italian or Italian-American in a derogatory or patronizing way rather than as a friendly term of address among Italian-Americans. Originates from the Southern Italian word cumpa or cumpari and the Standard Italian equivalent, compare, meaning "godfather". [225]
Gora India Europeans and other light-skinned people The word “gora” simply means a person of European descent or other light skinned person in Hindi and other Indo-Aryan languages. However, it is often used as an insult to white people, with “gori” being used to refer to a white woman. [226]
Goy, Goyim, Goyum Hebrew Non-Jewish people A Hebrew biblical term for "Nation" or "People". By Roman times it had also acquired the meaning of "non-Jew". In English, use may be benign, to refer to anyone who isn't Jewish, or controversial, as it can have pejorative connotations. [227][228]
Grago, Gragok (shrimp) Eurasians, Kristang people A term for Eurasians, and specifically for the Kristang people of Malaysia, many of whom were traditionally engaged in shrimp fishing. It often has pejorative connotations, especially when used by outsiders, though in recent generations members of the community have to some degree tried to reclaim the term. [229]
Greaseball, Greaser United States Mediterranean/Southern European and Hispanic people, and especially Italian people. Greaseball often generally refers to Italians or a person of Italian descent. Meanwhile, though it may be used as a shortening of greaseball to refer to Italians, greaser has been more often applied to Hispanic Americans or Mexican Americans. However, greaseball (and to a lesser extent, greaser) can also refer to any person of Mediterranean/Southern European descent or Hispanic descent, including Greeks, Spaniards, and the Portuguese, as well as Latin Americans.[230][231] Greaser also refer to members of a 1950-1960s subculture which Italian Americans and Hispanic Americans were stereotyped to be a part of. "Greaser" in reference to the subculture has taken on a less derogatory connotation since the 1950s. [232]
Greenhorn United States, New England region, especially Massachusetts. Portuguese people Can also be used in a non-derogatory context when not referring to the Portuguese to mean anyone inexperienced at something. [233]
Gringo Spanish speakers, mostly Latin America English speakers Sometimes used by Latino Americans. In Mexico, the term means an American. Likely from the Spanish word "griego", meaning Greek (similar to the English expression "It's all Greek to me"). [234][235][236][237]
Brazil Foreigners A colloquial neutral term for any foreigner, regardless of race, ethnicity or origin (including Portuguese people), or for a person whose native language is not Portuguese (including people whose native language is Spanish). [238][239][240][241]
Groid United States Black people Derived from "negroid". [242][9]
Gryzun (Грызун) Russia Georgian people Meaning "rodent", a word very similar to the Russian word for Georgian, "Gruzin" (Грузин). [243]
Gub, Gubba Australia White people Aboriginal term for white people [244]
Guizi (鬼子) Mainland China Non-Chinese Basically the same meaning as the term gweilo used in Hong Kong. More often used when referring foreigners as military enemies, such as riben guizi (日本鬼子, Japanese devils, because of Second Sino-Japanese War), meiguo guizi (美国鬼子, American devils, because of Korean War). [245][246][citation needed]
Guido, Guidette United States Italian Americans Derives from the Italian given name, Guido. Guidette is the female counterpart. Used mostly in the Northeastern United States as a stereotype for working-class urban Italian Americans. [247][248]
Guinea, Ginzo Italian people Most likely derived from "Guinea Negro", implying that Italians are dark or swarthy-skinned like the natives of Guinea. The diminutive "Ginzo" probably dates back to World War II and is derived from Australian slang picked up by United States servicemen in the Pacific Theater. [249]
Gummihals Switzerland German people Literally "rubber neck" [250]
Gusano Cuba Cuban exiles after the revolution Literally "worm" [251][252][253]
Gweilo, gwailo, kwai lo (鬼佬) Southern Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau White men Loosely translated as "foreign devil"; more literally, might be "ghost dude/bloke/guy/etc". Gwei means "ghost". The color white is associated with ghosts in China. A lo is a regular guy (i.e. a fellow, a chap, or a bloke). Once a mark of xenophobia, the word is now in general, informal use. [254]
Gwer North Africa White people [255]
Gyp/Gip Romani people Shortened version of "gypsy" [256]
Gyopo, Kyopo (교포) Korea Estranged Korean people Literally "sojourner". A Korean who was born or raised overseas, particularly the United States. (see also banana in this page) [257]
Gypsy, Gyppo, gippo, gypo, gyppie, gyppy, gipp United Kingdom, Australia Egyptian people and Romani people Derived from "Egyptian", Egypt being mistakenly considered these people's origin. [258]


Term Location or origin Targets Meaning, origin and notes References
Hairyback South Africa Afrikaners [259]
Hajji, Hadji, Haji United States Military Iraqi people May also be used to describe anyone from a predominantly Muslim country. Derived from the honorific Al-Hajji, the title given to a Muslim who has completed the Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca). [260][261][262]
Half-breed Multi-ethnic people Métis is a French term, also used in Canadian English, for a half-breed, and mestizo is the equivalent in Spanish, although these are not offensive per se. [263][264][citation needed]
Half-caste England, Australia Mixed race (usually between Australian Aboriginal and white people in Australian parlance) Originally used as a legal and social term. [265][266]
Haole United States, Hawaiian Non-Hawaiian people, almost always white people. Can be used neutrally, dependent on context. [267]
Heeb, Hebe United States Jewish people Derived from the word "Hebrew." [268][269]
Heukhyeong (흑형) South Korea Black people Korean: Black brother. A Korean ethnic slur sometimes for black people. [270]
Hike United States Italian immigrants Sometimes used with or to distinguish from "Hunk" ("Hunky"). [271][272]
Hillbilly United States Appalachian or Ozark Americans [273]
Honky, honkey, honkie United States White people Derived from an African American pronunciation of "hunky," the disparaging term for a Hungarian laborer. The first record of its use as an insulting term for a white person dates from the 1950s. [274][unreliable source?]
New Zealand European New Zealanders Used by Māori to refer to New Zealanders of European descent. [275]
Hori New Zealand Māori From the formerly common Maorified version of the English name George. [276]
Hottentot, Hotnot South Africa Khoisans and Cape Coloureds or Coloureds A derogatory term historically used to refer to the Khoisan people of Southern Africa and their descendants, coloureds. It originated from the Dutch settlers who arrived in the region in the 17th century. [277][278]
Houtkop South Africa Black and Cape Coloured or Coloured people Literally "wooden head" [279]
Huan-a, Huana Worldwide Any non-Chinese This word is derogatory because huan-a means "foreigner" which portrays non-Chinese as not a human [280]
Huinca Argentina, Chile Non-Mapuche Chileans, non-Mapuche Argentines Mapuche term dating back at least to the Conquest of Chile. [281][282]
Hun United States, United Kingdom German people (United States, United Kingdom) Germans, especially German soldiers; popular during World War I. Derived from a speech given by Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany to the German contingent sent to China during the Boxer Rebellion in which he exhorted them to "be like Huns" (i.e., savage and ruthless) to their Chinese enemy. [283]
Ireland Protestants and British soldiers A Protestant in Northern Ireland or historically, a member of the British military in Ireland ("Britannia's huns"). [284][285]
Hunky, Hunk United States Central European laborers. It originated in the coal regions of Pennsylvania and West Virginia, where Poles and other immigrants from Central Europe (Hungarians (Magyar), Rusyns, Slovaks) came to perform hard manual labor in the mines. [286][272]
Hymie United States Jewish people Derived from the personal name Hyman (from the Hebrew name Chayyim). Jesse Jackson provoked controversy when he referred to New York City as "Hymietown" in 1984. Has also been spelled "Heimie", as a reflection of popular Jewish last names ending in -heim. [287]


Term Location or origin Targets Meaning, origin and notes References
Ikey / ike / iky: a Jew [from Isaac] Jewish people Derived from the name Isaac, an important figure in Hebrew culture. [288]
Ikey-mo / ikeymo Jewish people Derived from the names Isaac and Moses, two important figures in Hebrew culture. [289]
Indon Malaysia, Singapore Indonesian people Clipping of Indonesia, Pontianak Malay for "whore". [290][291][292]
Indognesial / Indonesial Malaysia Indonesian people Which similar to "Indon" term mixed with "Dog" and "Sial" (Malay word for "Damn"). [293]
Intsik Philippines Chinese Filipino people Used in Filipino/Tagalog and other Philippine languages. Based on the Philippine Hokkien term, Chinese: 𪜶 ; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: in chek; lit. 'his/her/their uncle'. [106]
Inyenzi Rwanda Tutsi people A person of the Tutsi ethnic group in Africa. Literally means "Cockroach" and reportedly derives from how Tutsi rebels would attack at night and retreat, being hard to kill, like a cockroach. Most notably came to worldwide prominence around the time of the Rwanda genocide, as it was used by the RTLM in order to incite genocide. [294][295][296]
Injun United States Native Americans Corruption of "Indian" [297]


Term Location or origin Targets Meaning, origin and notes References
Jakun Malaysia Unsophisticated people, from the Malay name of an indigenous ethnic group. [298]
Jamet, Jamet kuproy Indonesia Javanese people Jamet stands for Jawa metal (a metalhead Javanese), while kuproy stands for kuli proyek (construction workers). [299]
Japa Brazil Japanese people Usually an affectionate way of referring to Japanese people (or, more generally, East Asian people), although it may be considered a slur. This term is never censored (as a slur typically would be) when it appears in mass media. [300]
Jap United States Japanese people Mostly found use during World War II, post-WWII. [301]
Jewish women Usually written in all capital letters as an acronym for "Jewish-American princess," a stereotype of certain Jewish American females as materialistic or pampered. [302]
Japie, yarpie White, rural South Africans Derived from plaasjapie, "farm boy". [303]
Jerry Commonwealth German people, especially soldiers Probably an alteration of "German". Origin of Jerry can. Used especially during World War I and World War II. [304]
Jewboy United States, United Kingdom Jewish boys Originally directed at young Jewish boys who sold counterfeit coins in 18th century London. [305][306]
Jigaboo, jiggabo, jigarooni, jijjiboo, zigabo, jig, jigg, jigger United States Black people with stereotypical black features (e.g., dark skin, wide nose, and big lips). From a Bantu verb tshikabo, meaning "they bow the head docilely," indicating meek or servile individuals. [307][308][309][9]
Jidan Romania Jewish person. [310]
Jim Crow United States Black people [311][9]
Jjokbari Korea Japanese people [312]
Jock, jocky, jockie United Kingdom Scottish people Scots language nickname for the personal name John, cognate to the English, Jack. Occasionally used as an insult, but also in respectful reference to elite Scottish, particularly Highland troops, e.g., the 9th (Scottish) Division. Same vein as the English insult for the French, as Frogs. In Ian Rankin's detective novel Tooth and Nail the protagonist – a Scottish detective loaned to the London police – suffers from prejudice by English colleagues who frequently use "Jock" and "Jockland" (Scotland) as terms of insult; the book was based on the author's own experience as a Scot living in London. [313]
Jungle bunny United States, Commonwealth Black people [314][9]


Term Location or origin Targets Meaning, origin and notes References
Kaew (แกว) Northeastern Thailand Vietnamese people [315][316]
Kaffir, kaffer, kaffir, kafir, kaffre, kuffar Arabian Peninsula Non-Muslims (regardless of race). Also caffer or caffre. from Arabic kafir meaning "disbeliever". [317][318]
South Africa Black and Cape Coloured or Coloured people [319][320]
Members of a people inhabiting the Hindu Kush mountains of north-east Afghanistan [321]
Kaffir boetie South Africa Black and Cape Coloured or Coloured sympathizers during apartheid Meaning "Kaffir brothers", it is analogous to "negro lover" in English. The term is outdated and no longer used. [citation needed]
Kalar Burmese Muslim citizens who are "black-skinned" or "undesirable aliens." [322]
Kalia, Kalu, Kallu Hindi Darkskinned people Literally means blackie generally used for black-skinned people in India, can also have racist overtone when referring to Africans, including Cape Coloureds or Coloured people. [323][324][9]
Katwa, Katwe Hindi Muslim males Word used to describe Muslim males for having a circumicised penis as mentioned in the Khitan of Islam. [325][326]
Kanaka Australia Pacific Islanders [327][328]
Kanake German Turkish people, foreigners in general Originally used to refer to Native Polynesians. To some extent re-appropriated. [329]
Kano Philippines White Americans Usually used in Filipino (Tagalog) or other Philippine languages. Shortened from the Filipino word "Amerikano". It usually refers to Americans, especially a stereotypical male white American, which may extend to western foreigners that may fit the stereotype which the speaker is not familiar with, especially those from Europe, Australia, New Zealand, etc. [330]
Kaouiche, Kawish Canadian French Native Americans [331][332]
Katsap, kacap, kacapas Ukraine, Belarus, Poland, Lithuania, Russia Russian people Ukrainian: кацап, Lithuanian: kacapas; self-deprecating usage by Russians. [citation needed]
Kebab Muslims, usually of Arabian or Turkic descent. Its origin is a Serbian music video that was recorded in 1993 during the Yugoslav Wars but the phrase has spread globally amongst far-right groups and the alt-right as a meme between 2006 and 2008. Famously Turkish internet user parodied the sentiment of Serbian nationalists online, with a satirical incoherent rant that ended with the phrase "remove kebab" being repeated. Although the meme initially intended to parody racism, this meaning behind the meme was lost once it became common in alt-right discourse. [333]
Keko Turkey Kurdish men Originally neutral Kurdish word meaning man, pal, or friend, but became derogatory among Turkish speakers. [334]
Keling India Malaysians, Singaporeans and Indonesians In Indonesian, the term can be applied to any person with dark complexion, not only of Indian descent, but also to native Indonesians with darker complexion and Africans. The term is derived from the ancient Indian region of Kalinga, where many immigrants to countries further east originated. [335]
Kemosabe/Kemosahbee United States Native Americans The term used by the fictional Native American sidekick Tonto as the "Native American" name for the Lone Ranger in the American television and radio programs The Lone Ranger. [336][337]
Khach (Russian: Хач), Khachik (Russian: Хачик) Russia Peoples of the Caucasus, particularly North Caucasus and Armenians From Armenian խաչ khach, meaning cross (cf. khachkar). Khatchik is also an Armenian given name coming from the same root. Khachik is considered milder and happens to be used in neutral contexts. [338][339]
Kharkhuwa India Assamese people [citation needed]
Khokhol (Russian: Хохол) Russia Ukrainian people Derived from a term for a traditional Cossack-style haircut. [340]
Khuli (s.) / Amakhula (p.) South Africa A person or people Indian heritage. [341]
Kike or kyke United States Ashkenazi Jewish people Possibly from kikel, Yiddish for "circle". Immigrant Jews who couldn't read English often signed legal documents with an "O" (similar to an "X", to which Jews objected because "X" also symbolizes a cross). [342]
Kimchi Korean people [343]
Kıro Turkey Kurdish men A word used to describe rude and hairy men, pejoratively refers to the Kurds. [344]
Knacker Ireland Irish Travelers [345][346]
Kolorad Ukraine Pro-Russian separatists and Russian invaders In reference to Russian St. George ribbon whose coloration resembles the stripes of the Colorado beetle. [347][348]
Krankie England Scottish people [349]
Krakkemut Denmark Arabs, Middle Easterns While originally being used against greenlanders, it is now mostly used against Middel Easterns and Arabs. The word comes from the greenlandic word "Qaqqamut" meaning "to the mountain, up the mountain", however, the danish people began to pick up the word as an aggressive slur, and used it against the greenlanders, and slowly, it became a slur against the more frequent Arab and Middle Eastern immigrants in Denmark. [350]
Kraut United States, Canada, Commonwealth German people Derived from sauerkraut, used most specifically during World War II. [351]
Kuronbō (黒ん坊) Japan Black people A derogatory that literally means "darkie" or "nigga" in Japanese. The term has been used as a racial slur against black people, particularly during Japan's colonial era. [352]
Kkamdungi (깜둥이) South Korea Black people Korean for nigga or nigger. [353][9]


Term Location or origin Targets Meaning, origin and notes References
Labus Russia Latvian and Lithuanian people Derived from greetings: Latvian labrīt/labdien/labvakar and Lithuanian labas rytas/laba diena/labas vakaras, meaning "good morning/day/evening". [354][355]
Laowai China Foreigners Literally means "old foreign". [356]
Land thief South Africa White South Africans The term implies that white people stole land from black people during the Apartheid era, and are therefore responsible for the current economic and social inequalities in the country. [341]
Lapp Scandinavia Sámi people Used mainly by Norwegians and Swedes. The word itself means "patch." Also used is "Lapland", considered non-offensive, to refer to Sámi territory known as "Sápmi" or when referring to the actual name of Finland's northernmost county. [357]
Latinx Latin America Latin Americans Used mainly by people in the United States. [358]
Lebo, Leb Australia A Lebanese person, usually a Lebanese Australian. [359]
Leupe lonko Chile German people Used by some Huilliche people of southern Chile. Means "toasted heads" in reference to the fair hair of many Germans. Originated during the German colonization of Valdivia, Osorno and Llanquihue in the mid 19th-century. [360]
Limey United States British people Comes from the historical British naval practice of giving sailors limes to stave off scurvy. [361][362]
Locust (蝗蟲) Hong Kong Mainland Chinese people [363]
Londo Indonesia White people Commonly used by Javanese people. Derived from "Belanda" (Netherlands). [364]
Lubra Australian Aboriginal Women [365]
Lugan Lithuanian people [366][367]
Lach/lyakh (Ukrainian: лях) Ukraine, Russia Polish people Lach is a term that originally referred to a representative of Slav tribes living roughly in what is today eastern Poland and western Ukraine, more commonly known today as Lendians, but later became associated with all Polish tribes. In other languages, Lach and derived expressions are neutral. [368][369]


Term Location or origin Targets Meaning, origin and notes References
Mabuno/Mahbuno Zimbabwe Local European people held in contempt, commonly white Africans of European ancestry. [370]
Malau South Africa Khoisans and Cape Coloureds or Coloureds A derogatory Afrikaans slang word derived from Xhosa, used to insult coloured people and Khoisans by suggesting they lack cultural and racial roots and are therefore uncivilized. Its origin can be traced back to the Xhosa word "amalawu" or "ilawu", meaning "Hottentot". [371]
Macaronar Romania Italian people Roughly means "macaroni eater/maker". [372]
Mayonnaise Monkey United States White people A term commonly used by black people. A person with a "mayonnaise"-like complexion. [373]
Macaca Europe African people Originally used by francophone colonists in North Africa, also used in Europe against Immigrants from Africa. [374][375][9]
Majus (مجوس) Arabian Peninsula Persian people A term meaning Zoroastrian, Magi, fire worshipper. [citation needed]
Makaak Belgium Black people Dutch for macaca. [9]
Malakh-khor (ملخ خور) Persia Arabian people Meaning "locust eater," referring to the eating of locusts in Arab cuisine. [376][377][378][379][380][381]
Malaun Bangladesh Hindus "Malaun" is derived from Bengali মালাউন (maalaaun), which in turn was derived from Arabic "ملعون" (mal'un), which means "cursed" or deprived of God's mercy. [382]
Malon Indonesia Malaysian people Used as the reply to Indon word. Malon is (mostly) a short for "Malaysia Bloon" (dumb Malaysians). [383]
Malingsia / Malingsial / Malingsialan Indonesia Malaysian people Means "Malaysian thief/damned thief," is a slang for Malaysians. Originally combined from 2 words, "maling" (Javanese, meaning "thief") and "Malaysia." The Indonesian people used it because of the continuous claims of Indonesian cultures by Malaysia. [384]
Mangal / Mango / Mangasar / Mangusta Bulgaria Romani people From Bulgarian "мангал" (mangal) – a type of pot. Some variants are derived from the similar-sounding loanwords "манго" (mango) – mango and "мангуста" (mangusta) – mongoose. [385][386][387]
Marokaki (מרוקקי) Israel Moroccan Jewish people Derived from "Maroko" (Hebrew pronunciation for "Morocco") + "Kaki" (which means "shit", "crap" in Hebrew slang). [388]
Mau-Mau United States Black and Cape Coloured or Coloured people derived from Kenyans of the Kikuyu tribe involved in the Mau Mau Rebellion in the 1950s. [389][9]
Mayate/Mayatero Black people Literally the Spanish colloquial name of the Figeater beetle. [390][9]
Meleis Malaysia Malay people [391]
Mick Irish people [392]
Mocro Dutch Dutch-Moroccan people [393]
Mof (singular)
Moffen (plural)
Dutch German people [394]
Momo/Momos India Northeast Indians Used on those that imply they are Chinese foreigners. [115]
Monkey Europe Any dark-skinned people (usually towards Africans, Cape Coloureds or Coloureds, black Americans, South Asians, and Papuans) A universal slur, means it has same meaning in different languages. [395][396][397][9]
Moskal, Ukrainian: москаль, Polish: moskal, Russian: москаль, German: moskowiter Ukraine, Belarus Russians Historically a neutral designation for a person from Muscovy, currently refers to Russians. [398]
Mountain Turk Turkey Kurdish people Former Turkish governments denied the Kurds their own ethnicity, calling them Mountain Turks (dağ Türkleri). Germans also used this word to describe Albanians, now it refers to the earlier. [399][400]
Mulignan/Mulignon/Moolinyan United States Black people Used by Italian-Americans. Deriving from "mulignana" the word for eggplant in some South Italian linguistic variants.[401] Also called a mouli. [402][403][404][9]
Munt Rhodesia, originally military Black people, usually men [405][9]
Mustalainen Finland Romani people Literally "blackling," "blackie," "the black people", when "romani" is the neutral term. [406]
Maxhup Kosovo Romani people Expression of contempt for someone, usually Romani people. [206]
Mzungu Eastern and Southern Africa, Democratic Republic of the Congo White people May be both pejorative and affectionate, depending on usage. [citation needed]


Term Location or origin Targets Meaning, origin and notes References
Nawar Arabian Peninsula Romani people Arab term for Romani people and other groups sharing an itinerant lifestyle. [citation needed]
Neftenya / Neftegna / Naftenya / Naftegna Ethiopia/Amharic Amhara people Literally means "rifle-bearer", relates to 19th century Ethiopian history. Since 1975, used as inflammatory term by Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF, governing party) officials against Amharas; continued inflammatory/derogatory usage in 2020 online media two years after EPRDF loss of political power. [407][408][409]
Němčour, nimchura (німчура), nemchura (немчура) Slavic languages German people [410]
Nere Bengali Hindus Muslims [411]
Niakoué France East or Southeast Asian people A corrupted Vietnamese word with similar to "yokel", "country bumpkin", etc. [412]
Niglet / Negrito Black children [413][9]
Nig-nog or Nignog Commonwealth Black and Cape Coloured or Coloured people Originally used to refer to a novice – a foolish or naive person – before being associated with black or coloured people. [414][415]
Nigger / neeger (Estonia) / neekeri (Suomi) / niger / nig / nigor / nigra / nigre (Caribbean) / nigar / niggur / nigga / niggah / niggar / nigguh / niggress / nigette / negro / neger (Dutch & Afrikaans) International/Worldwide Black people, especially African-Americans From the Spanish and Portuguese word negro ("black"), derived from the Latin niger. The Spanish or Portuguese term, or other such languages deriving the term from it such as Filipino, may vary in its connotation per country, where some countries, the connotation may range from either positive, neutral, or negative, depending on context. For example, in Spanish and Portuguese, it may simply refer to the color black. Among Spanish dialects in different countries, it may have either positive or negative connotations, such as describing someone similarly to my darling or my honey in Argentina, or describing someone to be angry in Spain. [citation needed][9]
Niggeritis / Negroitis Black and Cape Coloured or Coloured people To feel sleepy after eating is referred to in and around the Caribbean as having "niggeritis", a direct allusion to the laziness of black Africans. [416]
Nigger toe / Negro toe United States Black people A slur that is actually referring to a Brazil nut. [417][9]
Nip United States, Australia, New Zealand, United Kingdom Japanese people Someone of Japanese descent (shortened version of Nipponese, from Japanese name for Japan, Nippon). [418]
Nitchie / neche / neechee / neejee / nichi / nichiwa / nidge / nitchee / nitchy Canada Native Canadians A Native American (from the Algonquian word for "friend"). [419]
Non-Pri, Non-Pribumi Indonesia Indonesians of foreign descent, especially Chinese Indonesians The term pribumi was coined after Indonesian independence to replace the derogatory Dutch term Inlander ("native"). "Non-pribumi," often simply "non-pri," was then used to refer to Indonesians of foreign descent and was generally considered to suggest that they were not full citizens. Use of both "pribumi" and "non-pribumi" by government departments was banned by President B.J. Habibie in 1998 according to Inpres (Instruksi Presiden, lit. President's Instruction) 26/1998, along with instruction to stop discrimination by race in government. [420]
Northern Monkey United Kingdom Northern English people Used in the south of England, relating to the supposed stupidity and lack of sophistication of those in the north of the country. See also Southern Faerie. In some cases, this has been adopted in the north of England, with a pub in Leeds even taking the name "The Northern Monkey". [421][422]
Nusayri Syria and the Levant Members of the Alawite sect of Shi'a Islam. Once a common and neutral term derived from the name of Ibn Nusayr, the sect's founder, it fell out of favour within the community in the early decades of the 20th century due to the perception that it implied a heretical separateness from mainstream Islam. Resurgent in the context of the ongoing Syrian civil war, the term is now often employed by Sunni fundamentalist enemies of the government of Bashar al-Assad, an Alawite, to suggest that the faith is a human invention lacking divine legitimacy. [423][424]


Term Location or origin Targets Meaning, origin and notes References
Ofay African American Vernacular White people First recorded in the late 19th century. Origin unknown. Suggestions include Yoruba ófé, "to disappear"; pig Latin for "foe"; and French au fait, "socially proper". According to academic Geneva Smitherman, no longer derogatory. [425][426][427]
Oláh Hungarian-speaking territories Romanian people Evolved to a pejorative term, originates from the historical designation of Romanians earlier the 19th century. [428]
Oreo United States Black people Used as early as the 1960s. Refers to a black person who is perceived as acting white, and therefore black on the outside and white on the inside like an Oreo cookie. [429][430][431][9]
Oven Dodger Jewish people Implying that one or one's ancestors avoided dying in the Holocaust and so avoid the crematorium ovens. [432]
Overner United Kingdom, Isle of Wight Mainland United Kingdom Residents A term used by residents of the Isle of Wight, sometimes pejoratively, to refer to people from the mainland United Kingdom. [433]


Term Location or origin Targets Meaning, origin and notes References
Paddy / Paddy wagons United Kingdom Irish people Derived from Pádraig/Patrick. Often derogatory; however, Lord Edward FitzGerald, a major leader of the United Irishmen of 1798, was proclaimed by his Sister proudly "a Paddy and no more" and stated that "he desired no other title than this". [434][435][436]
Pajeet United States Indian people An American term for an Indian man. Used as a derogatory and disparaging term in reference to racial stereotyping towards Indians. The implication makes fun of a typical Indian male's name. Originated around late 2014 and early 2015. [437]
Paki, Pakkis United Kingdom, Ireland, Canada, Norway Pakistanis, other South Asians, and sometimes Middle Eastern people Shortened from "Pakistani". [438][439][440]
Palagi Pacific Islands White people A Samoan term for a white person, found throughout the Pacific islands. Not usually derogatory unless used in reference to a local to imply they have assimilated into Western culture. [441]
Paleface Native Americans White people [442]
Pancake Face, Pancake Asian people [443]
Papoose United States, Canada Native American children [444]
Paraíba Brazil Northeastern Brazilian people One of the 9 states in the Northeast Region of Brazil. As a slur, it refers generically to any Northeastern person. Used mainly in Rio de Janeiro, the term is related to the Northeastern immigration of the second half of the 20th century. [38]
Parsubang Indonesia (North Sumatra) Batak people or non-Batak people an euphemism of "Dalle", parsubang means Batak people (or non-Batak people) who don't eat pork, canine meat, blood, and drinking alcoholic beverage [170][445]
Pastel de flango Brazil East Asian people Used mostly to refer to people of Chinese and Japanese origin. Pastel is Portuguese for any pastry and so is used for wonton in Brazil. Flango is eye dialect of frango (Portuguese for chicken) ridiculing Asian pronunciation. [446][447][448]
Peckerwood Southern African American people and Upper-class White people Poor, rural White people [449][450]
Peenoise English-speaking Southeast Asia Filipinos Usually used in English or sometimes in Filipino (Tagalog) and other Philippine languages. Compound of pee + noise, likened to Pinoy, the colloquial diminutive demonym for Filipinos. The implication makes fun of their high-pitched voice and tendency to scream when speaking online, especially in online gaming and esports. [451]
Perker Denmark Middle Eastern or Arab Portmanteau of "perser" (Persian) and "tyrker" (Turk). [452][453]
Pepper or Pepsi Canada French Canadians or Québécois. [454][455]
Pickaninny African American or West Indies child [456][457]
Piefke Austria Prussians and Germans [citation needed]
Pikey / piky / piker United Kingdom Irish Travellers, Romani people, and vagrant lower-class/poor people 19th century on; derived from "turnpike". [458]
Pindos / Pendos (Russian: Пиндос) Russia Americans Universal disparaging term to refer to all Americans. Related slur terms can refer to the United States ─ such as Pindosiya, Pindostan (Russian: Пиндосия, Пиндостан) and United States of Pindosiya. [459][460]
Pink pig South Africa White people [341]
Plastic Paddy Ireland Estranged Irish People Someone who knows little of Irish culture, but asserts their 'Irish' identity. Can refer to foreign nationals who claim Irishness based solely on having Irish relatives. Often used in the same sense as poseur and wannabe. [461][462]
Plouc France Bretons Used to mean Breton immigrants that came to Paris and extended to mean hillbillies. The term comes from the prefix "plou" found in many Breton city names and toponyms. [463]
Pocho / pocha Southwest United States, Mexico Adjective for a person of Mexican heritage who is partially or fully assimilated into United States culture (literally, "diluted, watered down (drink); undersized (clothing)"). See also "Chicano". [464]
Pocahontas United States Native Americans Refers to a distorted narrative of Pocahontas, a Native American woman, in which the 17th-century daughter of Powhatan who negotiated with the English at Jamestown, married an English colonist and converted to Christianity. [465][466][467]
Polack, Polak, Polock Polish or Slavic people From the Polish endonym, Polak (see Name of Poland). Note: the proper Swedish demonym for Polish people is polack, and the Norwegian equivalent is polakk. [468][469][470][471]
Polaco Spain Catalan people [citation needed]
Polaca Brazil Prostitute In Brazilian Portuguese the word (meaning "Polish woman") became synonymous to "prostitute". [472]
Polentone Italy Northern Italians Referring to them as a "polenta eater". [473]
Pom, Pohm, Pommy, Pommie, Pommie Grant Australia, New Zealand, South Africa British [474]
Porridge wog Scots [475]
Portagee United States Portuguese people and Portuguese Americans Slur for Portuguese Americans immigrants. [476]
Potet Norway Ethnic Norwegians Means "potato" in Norwegian and is mostly used negatively among non-Western immigrants when talking about or trying to offend ethnic Norwegians. Means "light skin like a potato". [477]
Prairie nigger Native American [478]
Prod Northern Ireland Northern Irish Protestants [479]
Pshek Russian Polish males [citation needed]


Term Location or origin Targets Meaning, origin and notes References
Quashie Caribbean Black people Often used on those who were often gullible or unsophisticated. From the West African name Kwazi, often given to a child born on a Sunday. [480][481][482][483][9]


Term Location or origin Targets Meaning, origin and notes References
Raghead Arabs, Indian Sikhs, etc. Derived from those people wearing traditional headdress such as turbans or keffiyehs. See towel head. Sometimes used generically for all Islamic nations. [484][485]
Ramasamy British-ruled Southern Africa Indians, Ramasamy is a common name used mostly by Tamil people. The racially-divided southern Africa was inhabited by a large number of indentured labourers from India of whom Tamils were the majority. [486][487]
Rastus United States African Americans A stereotypical term. [488]
Razakars Bengali Akin to the western term Judas. [489]
Redlegs Barbados White people Used to refer to the islands' laborer-class, given how pale skin tends to burn easily. [490]
Redskin Native Americans Often used in the names of sports teams. See Native American name controversy. [citation needed]
Risorse boldriniane Italy Maghrebi Arabs Literally "Boldrini's resources". Used for the first time in 2015 by Matteo Salvini, as a slur for North-African immigrants, who had been unironically called "resources" by Laura Boldrini. [491]
Rootless cosmopolitan
(Russian: безродный космополит)
Russia Jews Soviet epithet, originated in the official parlance, as an accusation of lack of full allegiance to the Soviet Union. [492]
Rosuke, Roske Japanese Russians "suke/ske" is a Japanese general-purpose derogatory suffix. [493][494]
Rooinek South Africa British people Slang for a person of British descent. [495]
Roto Peru, Bolivia Chilean people Used to refer disdainfully. The term roto ("tattered") was first applied to Spanish conquerors in Chile, who were badly dressed and preferred military strength over intellect. [496]
Roundeye English-speaking Asians Non-Asians, especially White people [497]
Russki, ruski (in Poland) United States
Russians From the Russian word Русский Russkiy, meaning "Russian". [498]


Term Location or origin Targets Meaning, origin and notes References
Safavid Iraq Feyli Kurds Mainly used by higher class Sunni Arabs during Ba'athist Iraq to insult Feyli Kurds for their belief in Shia Islam. [499]
Sambo United States African Americans or black people in general [500][9]
Sand nigger United States Arabs Mainly used due to the desert environment of most Arab countries. Equivalent of dune coon (above). [501][502][179]
Sarong Party Girl Singapore Asian women Used to ridicule Asian women who exclusively dates, marries, or socializes with White man for ulterior motives (especially for sexual, social status, and monetary purpose). [503][504][505]
Sassenach Scottish, Gaelic English people [506]
Sawney England Scottish people Archaic term. Local variant of Sandy, short for "Alasdair". [507]
Scandihoovian Scandinavian people living in the United States Somewhat pejorative term for people of Scandinavian descent living in the United States, now often embraced by Scandinavian descendants. [508][509][510][511]
Seppo, Septic Australia, New Zealand, United Kingdom American people Cockney rhyming slang: Septic tankYank. [512]
Schvartse, Schwartze Yiddish or German speakers African people, including Cape Coloureds or Coloureds (in the United States)
Mizrahi Jews (in Israel)
Literally translates to "black". [513]
Schwartze Khayeh Ashkenazi Jews Mizrahi Jews Literally translates to "black animal". [514]
Sheboon United States Black women [515][9]
Sheeny United States Jewish people A 19th-century term for an "untrustworthy Jew". [516]
Sheepshagger Australia,
United Kingdom
New Zealanders (in Australia)
Welsh people (in the UK)
Shelta Ireland Irish Travellers Derived from siúilta, which means "The Walkers" in Irish. [citation needed]
Shiksa (female), Shegetz (male) Yiddish speakers Non-Jewish children [519][520]
Shina (支那) Japan, Hong Kong Chinese people [521]
Shine United States Black people Derived from shoeshiner, a lowly job many black people had to take. [522][9]
Shiptar Former Yugoslavia Albanian people From misspelled Albanian endonym "Shqiptar". [523]
Shka i Velikës Gheg Albanians Montenegrins from Velika Derogatory terms for Montenegrins named after the place Velika in Montenegro. [206]
Shkije Gheg Albanians Serbs, Macedonians, Montenegrins, Bosniaks Derived from the Latin word "Sclavus" or from the Venetian word "Schiavone", which means Slav. [524]
Shkinulkë Gheg Albanians Serbs, Macedonians, Montenegrins, Bosniaks Same as Shkije but targeted towards women. [206]
Shkutzim (Yiddish, plural) Yiddish speakers (plural) Non-Jewish men Used especially on those perceived to be anti-Semitic. Cf. Shegetz, Shiksa. [525]
Croatian: Škutor
Croatia West-Herzegovinan Croatian people Primarily used to refer to ethnic Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as to majority of Croats who are not natives of the modern-day Croatia (i.e. Croats of Hungary, Croats of Vojvodina etc.). [526][527]
Shylock Jewish people perceived as greedy or usurious From the antagonistic character of Shylock, a Jewish money-lender, in William Shakespeare's play The Merchant of Venice. [528]
Siamtue (Thai: เซียมตือ, Min Nan Chinese: 暹豬) Bangkoker (Thai Chinese) Central Thai people (usually include Mons) Literally Siamese pig; "low and vile like pigs, easy to fatten and slaughter, easy money"; mostly refers to Central Thais who migrated to Bangkok. [529][failed verification]
Sideways vagina/pussy/cooter Asian women, particularly Chinese women. [530]
Skinny United States Somali people A term most commonly used for Somali militia fighters. [531]
Skopianoi Greece Ethnic Macedonians Derived from Skopje, the capital city of North Macedonia. [532][533]
Skip, Skippy Australia An Australian, especially one of British descent Derived from the children's television series Skippy the Bush Kangaroo. [534]
Skævøjet Denmark East Asian people Skævøjet, literally meaning "with crooked eyes", is a reference to their appearance. [535]
Slant, slant–eye East Asian people In reference to the appearance of the eyes. [536]
Slope, slopehead, slopy, slopey, sloper Australia, United Kingdom, and United States Asian people (especially Vietnamese in Australia; especially Chinese in America) Also slant, slant-eye. [537][538][539]
Snowflake United States White people Mostly used in this context in the 19th and 20th centuries. [540]
Smoked Irish/Smoked Irishman United States Black people A 19th-century term intended to insult both blacks and Irish but used primarily for black people. [480][9]
Somdeang (โสมแดง) Thailand North Koreans Literally "red ginseng" (see also Somkhao). [541][542][failed verification]
Somkhao (โสมขาว) Thailand South Koreans Literally "white ginseng" (see also Somdeang). [542][failed verification]
Soosmar-khor: (سوسمار خور) Persia Arabian people Persian for "lizard eater," referring to the eating of lizards in Arab cuisine. [543][544][545]
Sooty United States Black people Originated in the 1950s. [546][9]
Southern Faerie, Southern Fairy United Kingdom Southern English people Used in the North of England to refer to someone from the South, alluding to their supposed mollycoddled ways. (see also Northern Monkey.) [547]
Soutpiel South Africa White English speakers An Afrikaans term abbreviated as "Soutie" and translates as "Salt-penis," it derives from the Boer Wars where it was said that British soldiers had one foot in the United Kingdom, one foot in South Africa, and their penis dangled in the Atlantic Ocean (filled with saltwater). [548]
Spade Black people Recorded since 1928 (OED), from the playing cards suit. [549][9]
Spearchucker African Americans or people of African descent in general Derived from the idea that people of African descent were primitive. [550][9]
Spic, spick, spik, spig, or spigotty United States Hispanic people First recorded use in 1915. Believed to be a play on a Spanish-accented pronunciation of the English word speak. May apply to Spanish speakers in general. [551][552][553][554][555]
Spook Black people Attested from the 1940s. [556][557][9]
Squarehead Nordic people, such as Scandinavians or Germans. Refers to either the stereotyped shape of their heads, or to the shape of the Stahlhelm M1916 steel helmet, or to its owner's stubbornness (like a block of wood). [558]
Squaw United States and Canada Native American women Derived from lower East Coast Algonquian (Massachusett: ussqua), which originally meant "young woman". [559][560]
Swamp Guinea Italian people [561]
Szkop, skopčák Poland, Czech Republic German people The Polish term was particularly often used for Wehrmacht soldiers during World War II. [562]
Szwab Poland German people Derived from Swabia. See also: Fritz. [563]


Term Location or origin Targets Meaning, origin and notes References
Tacohead United States Mexican people This phrase is uttered by Willem Dafoe's character (Charlie) in the film Born on the Fourth of July (1989). [564]
Taffy or Taff United Kingdom Welsh people First used ca. 17th century. From the River Taff or the Welsh pronunciation of the name David (in Welsh, Dafydd). [565]
Taig (also Teague, Teg and Teig) United Kingdom (primarily Northern Ireland) Irish nationalists Used by loyalists in Northern Ireland for members of the nationalist/Catholic/Gaelic community. Derived from the Irish name Tadhg, often mistransliterated as Timothy. [566][567]
Tanka China Tanka people A name for a distinct ethnic group traditionally living in boats off the shore of South China. Originally descriptive ("Tan"/"Tang" is a Cantonese term for boat or junk and "ka" means family or peoples, Chinese: 蜑家; Cantonese Yale: Daahn gā / Dahng gā), the term Tanka is now considered derogatory and no longer in common use. The people concerned prefer to call themselves by other names, such as 'Nam Hoi Yan' (Chinese: 南海人; Cantonese Yale: Nàamhóiyàn; lit. 'People of The Southern Sea') or 'Sui Seung Yan' (Chinese: 水上人; pinyin: shuǐshàng rén; Cantonese Yale: Séuiseuhngyàn; lit. 'People Born on The Waters'), and other more polite terms. [568][569][570][571][572][573][574][575][576]
Tar-Baby United States Black children Also used to refer without regard to race to a situation from which it is difficult to extricate oneself. See tar baby. [577][9]
Teabag South Africa Black and Cape Coloured or Coloured individuals who have a light skin [341]
Teapot Black people Originates from the 19th century. [578][480][9]
Terrone Italy Southern Italian people. [579][580]
Teuchter Southern Scotland Northern Scottish people Used to refer to somebody from the north of Scotland or rural Scottish areas. [581]
Thicklips United Kingdom Black people [480][9]
Tibla Estonia Russian or Soviet people In widespread use by the Estonian War of Independence, this word was forbidden under the Soviet occupation of Estonia. It may be a shortened corruption of Vitebski, workers from the Vitebsk Governorate during World War I who were seen as dumb. It may also come from the Russian profane addressing "ty, blyad," "ты, блядь" ("you bitch", and the like [a]) or, truncated, "ty, blya," "ты, бля. [582][583]
Tiko Indonesia Native Indonesian people Tiko stands for Tikus kotor (Dirty rat). [584]
Timber nigger Native Americans Refers to the Native Americans on the East coast living in areas that were heavily forested. [585]
Timur Syrian people from Damascus Refers to the children born of the mass rapes that the Turco-Mongol Tatar soldiers of Timur committed against the Syrian women of Damascus in the Siege of Damascus (1400). [586]
Ting tong United Kingdom Chinese people or East Asians. [587]
Tinker / tynekere / tinkere / tynkere, -are / tynker / tenker / tinkar / tyncar / tinkard / tynkard / tincker Britain and Ireland Lower-class people An inconsequential person (typically lower-class) (note that in Britain, the term "Irish Tinker" may be used, giving it the same meaning as example as directly below). [citation needed]
Scotland and Ireland Romani people Origin unknown – possibly relating to one of the "traditional" occupations of Romanis as traveling "tinkerers" or repairers of common household objects. [588]
Scotland Native Scottish people A member of the native community; previously itinerant (but mainly now settled); who were reputed for their production of domestic implements from basic materials and for repair of the same items, being also known in the past as "travelling tinsmiths", possibly derived from a reputation for rowdy and alcoholic recreation. Often confused with Romani people. [citation needed]
Toad United States Black people Prison slang. [589][9]
Tonto United States Native Americans Native American character in the American television and radio programs The Lone Ranger. Spanish for "Idiot". [590][336]
Touch of the tar brush Commonwealth White people with suspected non-white ancestry Phrase for a person of predominantly Caucasian ancestry with real or suspected African or Asian distant ancestry. [when defined as?][591]
Towel head Turban wearers Often refers specifically to Sikhs, or Arabs and Muslims—based on the traditional keffiyeh headdress. However, in British English, the term is only used to refer to Arabs. Americans use the term 'rag-head' to apply to wearers of turbans as well, because the cloth that makes a turban could be described as a rag, but in British English the term towel-head solely refers to Arabs because the traditional, Middle Eastern keffiyeh, such as the red and white Saudi one or the black and white Palestinian keffiyeh worn by Yasser Arrafat, resemble the most common styles of British tea-towels – dishcloth in American – while Sikh turbans do not. [592][593][594][595]
Turco-Albanian Western Europe, Balkans Muslim Albanians Historically used in Western Europe and still in use within the Balkans to refer to Muslim Albanians. In the Greek language, the expression is rendered as Turkalvanoi. [596]
Turco Argentina, Brazil, Chile Syrians, Palestinians, Lebanese, Jews, Armenians Meaning "Turk" in Portuguese and Spanish. The term originated in the late 19th century to refer those who came to Brazil, Argentina and Chile from the Ottoman Empire. Since Jews (both Sephardic and Ashkenazi) frequently occupied the same roles as peddlers as Syrians and Lebanese (who were the majority of those with Ottoman passports in Brazil), they were also called "turcos" in Brazil. Ironically, there was no relevant immigration of ethnic Turks to Brazil. [597][598][599]
Turk South Wales Llanelli residents The origin of this term is uncertain; some theories suggest it due to Llanelli's popularity with Turkish sailors in the late 19th to early 20th century or possibly when Turkish migrants heading for the United States stopped in Llanelli and decided to settle due to there being jobs available. However, most likely it's due to the fact that during World War One there was a trade embargo in place during Gallipoli, but Llanelli continued to trade tin with the Turkish; this led to people from neighbouring Swansea and other surrounding areas referring to them as Turks. [600]
Turko Sephardic Jews Ashkenazi Jews Ladino word meaning "Turk". The exact history of the term is uncertain, but possibly refers to the Khazar hypothesis of Ashkenazi ancestry. [601]
Twinkie: United States European Americans, Asian Americans European Americans with few or no social or genealogical links to an indigenous tribe, who claims to be Native American, particularly a New Age practitioner purporting to be a spiritual leader, healer, or medicine man/woman (see also Plastic shaman). Also an Asian American who has become assimilated into mainstream American culture (See Banana, Coconut, and Twinkie).[44] [602][603][604]


Term Location or origin Targets Meaning, origin and notes References
Ukrop Russians Ukrainians A disparaging term which means "dill" in Russian and Ukrainian, itself derived from "Ukrainian"<->Ukrop. [605][347]
Uncle Tom United States Black people Refers to black people perceived as behaving in a subservient manner to white authority figures. In South Africa, the term "Uncle Tom" has been used as a derogatory slur against coloreds who were perceived as collaborating with the apartheid regime or being subservient to white people. In South Africa, the use of the term "Uncle Tom" by black people against coloureds or vice versa is considered racist and discriminatory according to the Promotion of Equality and Prevention of Unfair Discrimination Act. [606][9][607]
UPAina/ UPAińcy / UPAiniec, UPAinka Poland Ukrainians Portmanteau word Ukraine + UPA (Ukrayins'ka Povstans'ka Armiia) responsible for Volhynia genocide. [608][609]
Uppity Black people Refers to black people who are perceived as being insolent. [256][610][9]


Term Location or origin Targets Meaning, origin and notes References
Veneco South America Venezuelans [611]
Vrindavan, Prindapan Indonesia Indian people Indonesian version of pajeet. Originated from Little Krishna animated series. [612]
Vuzvuz Sephardi and Mizrahi Jews Ashkenazi Jews Onomatopoeia of the Yiddish word for "What", which Judaeo-Spanish speaking Sephardi Jews and Judaeo-Arabic speaking Mizrahi Jews did not understand. [613]


Term Location or origin Targets Meaning, origin and notes References
Wagon burner Native American people A reference to when Native American tribes would attack wagon trains during the wars in the eastern American frontier. [614]
Wasi'chu, Wasichu Lakota people, Dakota people Non-Native white people Word for a non-Native white person, meaning "the one who takes the best meat for himself". [615]
West Brit Ireland Irish people Directed at Irish people perceived as being insufficiently Irish or too Anglophilic. [616][617]
Wetback United States Undocumented immigrants Refers to undocumented immigrants residing in the United States. Originally applied specifically to undocumented Mexican migrant workers who had crossed the United States border via the Rio Grande river to find work in the United States, its meaning has since broadened to any undocumented person who enters the United States through its southern border. [618]
White ears Nauru White people [619]
White interloper White people Refers to a white person who becomes involved in a place or situation where they are not wanted or are considered not to belong. [620]
Wigger / Whigger / Wigga (meaning white nigger) United States Irish people Used in 19th-century United States to refer to the Irish. Sometimes used today in reference to white people in a manner similar to white trash or redneck. Also refers to white youth that imitate urban black youth by means of clothing style, mannerisms, and slang speech. Also used by radical Québécois in self-reference, as in the seminal 1968 book White Niggers of America. [621]
White nigger, Nigger wop United States Southern Italians From the 1800s, inferring such Italians were not "white" enough to be allowed citizenship. [622][623]
White trash United States Poor white people Common usage from the 1830s by black house slaves against white servants. [624]
Whitey White people [625]
Wog Commonwealth Dark-skinned foreigners Any swarthy or dark-skinned foreigner. Possibly derived from "golliwogg." In Western nations, it usually refers to dark-skinned people from Asia or Africa, though some use the term to refer to anyone outside the borders of their own country. [626][9]
Australia Southern Europeans, Mediterraneans Usually used to refer to Southern Europeans and Mediterraneans (Italians, Croatians, Greeks, Albanians, Spaniards, Lebanese, and others, including to a lesser extent those from former Yugoslavia). It has become reappropriated by the cultures that it is commonly used to describe, but may be considered by some as controversial. [627]
Wop United States, Canada, United Kingdom Italian people Derived from the Italian dialectism, "guappo", close to "dude, swaggerer" and other informal appellations, a greeting among male Neapolitans. [628][629]


Term Location or origin Targets Meaning, origin and notes References
Xiao Riben China Japanese people [citation needed]
Xing Ling Brazil Chinese people Chinese products or low-quality products in general. Sometimes used to refer to Chinese people as well. Etymologically, this term is said to be derived from Mandarin 星零 xing ling ("zero stars"). [630]


Term Location or origin Targets Meaning, origin and notes References
Yam yam United Kingdom Black Country residents Term used by people from Birmingham. [631]
Yanacona Chile Mapuche people Term used by modern Mapuche as an insult for Mapuches considered to be subservient to non-indigenous Chileans, "sellout." Use of the word "yanacona" to describe people have led legal action in Chile. [632]
Yank British English speakers Americans A contraction of "Yankee" below, first recorded in 1778 and employed internationally by speakers of British English in informal reference to all Americans generally. [633]
Yankee Dutch speakers Americans Possibly from Janke ("Johnny") or a dialectical variant of Jan Kaas ("John Cheese"). First applied by the Dutch colonists of New Amsterdam to Connecticuters and then to other residents of New England, "Yankee" remains in use in the American South in reference to Northerners, often in a mildly pejorative sense. Outside the US, especially in Spain and South America, used to describe all citizens of the US, regardless of which part of the US they come from. [633]
Yellow Asian people An East or southeast Asian person, in reference to those who have a yellowish skin color. [634]
Mixed Ethnic people Anyone of mixed heritage, especially black or white people; a light-skinned black person, or a dark-skinned white person. [634]
Yellow bone United States A light-skin black person [341]
Yid Jewish people Derived from its use as an endonym among Yiddish-speaking Jews. In the United Kingdom, "yid" is also used to refer to supporters of the Tottenham Hotspur football club, whose fans refer to themselves and players as "yids" (or the derivative form "yiddo"), regardless of whether or not they are Jewish, as part of a reclamation attempt centered around the club's significant historic Jewish following. The latter sense is common and well-established enough to be found under the word's Oxford English Dictionary entry, though its use has become controversial and a matter of debate in the 21st century, with opinions from both Jews and non-Jews, Tottenham fans and non-fans, running the gamut. [635][636]
Yuon Cambodia Vietnamese people The Cambodian word "Yuon" (yuôn) យួន /juən/ is derived from the Indian word for Greek, Yavana". It can also be spelled as "Youn". [637][638]


Term Location or origin Targets Meaning, origin and notes References
Zip, Zipperhead United States Asian people Used by American military personnel during the Korean War and Vietnam War. Also used in the films Apocalypse Now (1979), Platoon (1986), Full Metal Jacket (1987), Romeo Must Die (2000), Gran Torino (2008), and Premium Rush (2012). [639][640][641]
Zuca, Brazuca Portugal Brazilians Short for Brazuca, derived from "Brasil", used by Portuguese people to refer to Brazilians living in Portugal. [642][643]
Zhyd, zhid, zhydovka, zhidovka East Slavic language speakers Jewish people Originally neutral (as in other Slavic languages), but became pejorative as debate over the Jewish question and the antisemitism in the Russian Empire intensified in the end of the 19th century. While still in official use during the Ukrainian War of Independence and the short-lived Belarusian Democratic Republic, its use was banned by the Soviet authorities, which had previously been campaigning against its usage, in the 1930s. The usage of the word "żyd" in Polish depends on capitalisation and grammatical form: upper-case Żyd is neutral and denotes Jews in general or Jews as a nationality; the lower-case form (żyd, plural: żydzi) denotes a follower of Judaism and, while neutral, is discouraged as it may be confused with the insult "żyd" (plural: żydy), referring to Jews themselves or to greedy people, or both. [644][645]

See also


  1. ^ Spears (2001), p. 1.
  2. ^ Woo, Emma (2008). Chinese American Names: Tradition and Transition. McFarland. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-7864-3877-8. Retrieved 15 July 2013. [Translated Electronically] Not surprisingly, Chinese Americans who do not speak Chinese may be told that they are 'not really Chinese'. This message is found in the term ABC which stands for 'American-born Chinese'. It implies that the native-born who cannot speak Chinese has either rejected or lost his Chinese heritage. Yet many native-born Chinese Americans cheerfully use for themselves.
  3. ^ Radhakrishnan, Rajagopalan (24 February 2006). "Diaspora, Hybridity, Pedagogy". In Ghosh-Schellhorn, Martina; Alexander, Vera (eds.). Peripheral Centres, Central Peripheries: India and Its Diaspora(s). LIT Verlag Münster. p. 116. ISBN 978-3-8258-9210-4. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
  4. ^ Kanigel, Rachele (14 January 2019). The Diversity Style Guide. John Wiley & Sons. p. 305. ISBN 978-1-119-05515-0.
  5. ^ Mathison, Ymitri (20 November 2017). Growing Up Asian American in Young Adult Fiction. University Press of Mississippi. p. 156. ISBN 978-1-4968-1507-1.
  6. ^ Deng, Francis. War of Visions: Conflict of Identities in the Sudan. p. 409.
  7. ^ Zia, Helen (2001). Asian American Dreams: The Emergence of an American People. Macmillan. p. 212. ISBN 978-0-374-52736-5. Retrieved 7 November 2018.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "The Cape Coloureds are a mix of everything". Discover Magazine. Retrieved 2 March 2023.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw Christopher, A. J. (2002). "'To Define the Indefinable': Population Classification and the Census in South Africa". Area. 34 (4): 401–408. doi:10.1111/1475-4762.00097. ISSN 0004-0894. JSTOR 20004271.
  10. ^ Moore (2004), p. 3, "abo"
  11. ^ Green (2005), p. 10, 1003
  12. ^ Poteet, Jim; Poteet, Lewis (1992). Car & Motorcycle Slang. p. 14, Afro engineering. ISBN 978-0-595-01080-6.
  13. ^ "Where do you stand in racist Hong Kong? Here's something to chew over". South China Morning Post. 15 January 2018.
  14. ^ Tripp, Elise Forbes. Surviving Iraq: Soldiers' Stories. Interlink Publishing. p. 22.
  15. ^ Spears (2001), p. 6.
  16. ^ Herbst (1997), p. 8.
  17. ^ "Kako naživcirati Europljane? Hrvate će naljutiti izjava da su južni Srbi, a Srbe da je Tesla Hrvat"
    "How to annoy Europeans? Croats will be angered by the statement that they are southern Serbs, and Serbs that Tesla is a Croat". 20 February 2020 – via Google Translate.
  18. ^ Dikeni, Sandile (6 November 2019). "HOW THE WEST WAS LOST". Chimurenga.
  19. ^ Khambhaita, Priya; Willis, Rosalind (2018). "British-born Indian second-generation 'return' to India". In Leonard, Pauline; Walsh, Katie (eds.). British Migration: Privilege, Diversity and Vulnerability. Routledge. doi:10.4324/9781315537016-7. ISBN 978-1-134-99255-3. S2CID 199289305.
  20. ^ Rawson (1989), p. 19
  21. ^ Smitherman, Geneva (1986). Talkin and Testifyin: The Language of Black America. Wayne State University Press. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-8143-1805-8. Retrieved 15 July 2018.
  22. ^ Sue Peabody (30 June 2003). The Color of Liberty: Histories of Race in France. Duke University Press. pp. 188–. ISBN 978-0-8223-3117-9.
  23. ^ Martin Scott Catino (May 2010). The Aggressors: Ho Chi Minh, North Vietnam, and the Communist Bloc. Dog Ear Publishing. pp. 7–. ISBN 978-1-60844-530-1.
  24. ^ Baker, Katie (24 September 2013). "Searching for Madame Nhu". The Daily Beast.
  25. ^ Bradley, James (30 May 2013). "The ape insult: a short history of a racist idea". The Conversation. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
  26. ^ Spears (2001), p. 10.
  27. ^ Green (2005), p. 29
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Further reading

  • Adhikari, Mohamed, editor. Burdened by Race: Coloured Identities in Southern Africa. UCT Press, 2013, pp. 69, 124, 203 ISBN 978-1-92051-660-4
  • Burchfield, Robert. "Dictionaries and Ethnic Sensibilities." In The State of the Language, ed. Leonard Michaels and Christopher Ricks, University of California Press, 1980, pp. 15–23.
  • Croom, Adam M. "Racial Epithets: What We Say and Mean by Them". Dialogue 51 (1):34–45 (2008)
  • Henderson, Anita. "What's in a Slur?" American Speech, Volume 78, Number 1, Spring 2003, pp. 52–74 in Project MUSE
  • Kennedy, Randall. Nigger: The Strange Career of a Troublesome Word (Pantheon, 2002)
  • Mencken, H. L. "Designations for Colored Folk." American Speech, 1944. 19: 161–74.
  • Mathabane, M. (1986). Kaffir Boy: The True Story of a Black Youth's Coming of Age in Apartheid South Africa. Simon & Schuster. (Chapter 2)
  • Wachal, Robert S. "Taboo and Not Taboo: That Is the Question." American Speech, 2002. vol. 77: 195–206.


  • Erin McKean, ed. The New Oxford American Dictionary, second edition. (Oxford University Press, 2005)
  • Eric Partridge, A Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English (2002)
  • John A. Simpson, Oxford English Dictionary Additions Series. ISBN 0-19-861299-0
  • Catherine Soanes and Angus Stevenson, ed. The Concise Oxford English Dictionary. (Oxford University Press, 2004)