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  • Top: WDP-4 20005 in Short hood Forward mode
  • Below: WDP-4 20044 in Long hood Forward mode.
Type and origin
Power type Diesel-electric
Builder EMD & DLW
Model GT46PAC
Build date (EMD) 2001; (DLW) 2003–Present
Total produced (EMD) 10; (DLW) 80+ under license (in production)
AAR wheel arr. B1-1B (WDP-4), C-C (WDP-4B/4D)
Gauge 5 ft 6 in (1,676 mm)
Trucks HTSC
  • Bo1-1Bo (WDP-4)
  • Co-Co (WDP-4B and WDP-4D)
Fuel type Diesel fuel
Fuel capacity 1,600 US gal (1,300 imp gal; 6,100 L)
Prime mover 16-710G3B
Engine type 2-stroke V16 diesel
Aspiration turbocharged
Displacement 11,360 cu in (186.2 L)
Alternator TA-17-CA6A AC,
1 inverter per truck
Cylinders 16
Transmission Diesel electric
Performance figures
Power output
  • 4,000 hp (2,980 kW) (WDP-4)
  • 4,500 hp (3,360 kW) (WDP-4B and WDP-4D)
Locomotive brake Air
Train brakes Air
Operator(s) Indian Railways
Locale India

The EMD GT46PAC is a passenger-hauling diesel-electric locomotive with AC electric transmission designed by General Motors Electro-Motive Division and built by both GM-EMD and under license by Diesel Locomotive Works (DLW) of Varanasi, India for Indian Railways as their classes WDP-4, WDP-4B and WDP-4D.[2] The GT46PAC is a passenger version of the previous Indian Railways EMD GT46MAC freight locomotive. The locomotive has a 16-cylinder 710G3B diesel engine with a maximum speed of 904 RPM.[3]


There are three variants of this loco - the original WDP-4 which is a 4,000 hp (2,980 kW) loco, the WDP-4B which is a 4,500 hp (3,360 kW)126 t (124 long tons; 139 short tons) weighted loco with a single cab and the newest WDP-4D which is a 4,500 hp (3,360 kW) loco with dual cabs.[4]


The locomotives are numbered from Road No. 20000 upwards till 20103 and further numbering of the loco along with its WDP-4B/4D variants has started from the 40XXX series. This is due to the numbering of the 20XXX series almost breaching the start of numbering of another locomotive class, the WCG-2 which is a DC electric locomotive whose numbering started from 20105.[5]


The WDP-4 is capable of hauling 24 coach trains at 110–120 km/h (68–75 mph). It has also been used for speed trials where it has hauled 8 coach trains at 160 km/h (99 mph).[6]

The locomotives can be used in either direction, and frequently haul trains long hood forward, as in the picture. Newer editions with 4500 hp have been produced which have been named with the sub class WDP-4B /WDP-4D which have different traction control with six traction motors and are Co-Co bogie equipped (more similar to WDG-4), unlike the original which has a Bo-1-1-Bo arrangement with four traction motors. Due to some visibility hindrances faced by loco pilots in driving long hood front, the basic WDP-4B model has been modified to dual cab to eliminate any such possibility. The other features of the WDP-4B and the WDP-4D are the same. The newer cabs have slightly wider profiles to improve visibility.

Some of the WDP-4B/WDP-4D locomotives have been spotted having a provision for an inverter-driven head-end power unit which allows trains to be run without an End-on generating car (EOG) for hotel power.[7]

The loco is very fuel efficient and has minimal exhaust emissions unlike ALCO based locomotives, thanks to its 2 stroke high efficiency diesel engine.


The first set of 10 locos starting from road number 20000–20009 were manufactured by the Electro Motive Division (EMD) of (General Motors) while road numbers 20011 upwards have been manufactured by Diesel Locomotive Works (DLW) of Varanasi in collaboration with EMD and GM (General motors). Siemens too are part of this group providing a large component of the electronics on board this loco.[8]


The WDP-4B class variant of GT46PAC

The locomotive is used on the following zones of Indian Railways:


This locomotive is currently homed at seven sheds in the Indian Railways, spread across the country which are Hubli (Code:UBL) and Krishnarajapuram (Code:KJM) in the South Western Railway zone, Golden Rock(code:GOC) in the Southern Railway Zone, Siliguri (Code:SGUJ) in the Northeast Frontier Railway zone, Bhagat Ki Kothi (Code:BGKT) in the North Western Railway zone, Itarsi (Code:ET) in the West Central Railway, Tughlakabad (Code:TKD) of the Northern Railway, Gooty (Code:GY) in the South Central Railway, Pune (code:PUNE) in Central Railways and Izzatnagar (code:IZN) in the North Eastern Railway.[9]


The Hubli shed is the parent shed of all the EMD sheds in India and currently homes locos with following road numbers:

  • WDP-4: 20005–20009, 20020, 20026, 20035 and 20065.
  • WDP-4B: 40007–40009, 40046 and 40054–40057

The Krishnarajapuram diesel locomotive shed holds the largest number of WDP4/WDP4Bs currently homes these locos with the following road numbers:

  • WDP-4: 20010, 20019, 20023, 20025, 20027–20030, 20032, 20034, 20036–20046, 20053–20060, 20062, 20067 and 20068
  • WDP-4B: 40017, 40065 and 40066.
  • WDP-4D: 40226, 40228, 40236–40239
Golden Rock

Golden Rock homes the following:

  • WDP-4B: 40063,40064,40067,40068,40075,40077
  • WDP-4D: 40093,40099,40100-40103,40105,40106,40114,40115,40133

Erode.[ED]Southern railway had few WDP4d 40171,40174


Siliguri homes the following:

  • WDP-4: 20000–20004, 20011–20018, 20048–20052, 20061, 20063–20064, 20066, 20069-20073, 20074, 20076, 20079, 20081–20085, 20094
  • WDP-4B: 20047, 20075, 40022–40025, 40028, 40029, 40032, 40035, 40037, 40045
  • WDP-4D: 40089–40091,40096,40108,40120,40129,40138, 40141.
Bhagat Ki Kothi

Bhagat Ki Kothi homes

  • WDP-4: 20085–20099, 20080, 20077, 20078 which are nicknamed 'Aravali' (named after the mountain ranges).
  • WDP-4B: 40027, 40030, 40031, 40033, 40034, 40038–40040, 40043, 40044, 40060
  • WDP-4D: 40086,40088,40092,40094,40095,40116,40127,40128

The Tughlakabad (Code: TKD) homes

  • WDP-4B: 40001, 40003–40006, 40011–40013, 40019–40021, 40049–40051, 40058, 40059
  • WDP-4D-40014,40026,40086,40087,40109,40110, 40122,40124,40125,40139

Itarsi (Code: ET) shed homes:

  • WDP-4B: 40041, 40042, 40047, 40048 and 40052, 40053, 40061 and 40062.

Gooty (Code:GY) shed homes:

  • WDP-4D: 40104,40111,40112,40113,40117,40118,40119,40121,40130,40135,40142,40148,40150,40152,40185,40188

Pune (code:PUNE) shed homes:

  • WDP-4D:40143,40144,40153

In the near future, most Diesel Locomotive sheds of the Indian Railways are expected to home the WDP-4D class locos.Two WDP-4Ds were allotted to Ratlam shed of Western railways but were transferred to Gooty due to some unknown reasons.It is not known if Ratlam will see any WDP-4D allotment in future as there are nearby sheds already having them or are stronger contenders.


The use of the locomotives "long hood forward" has been criticised because the driver might have difficulty in seeing signals. This criticism has been rejected by Indian Railways.[10] But the solution to this problem is to upgrade all WDP-4 and WDP-4B models from single cabins to WDP-4D models of dual cabins.

Older locomotives of Indian Railways like the WDM-2 models have been upgraded from WDM-2 series to WDM-3 and WDM-3A series, to enhance other shortcomings in design of WDM-2 series.

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