Electricity sector in Germany

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Germany: Electricity sector
Flag of Germany.svg
Data
Continuity of supply 0,2815 hrs (16,89 min) interruption per subscriber per year
Installed capacity 171.566 GW[1]
Share of fossil energy 74.6% (2013) [2]
Share of renewable energy 25.4% (2013) [2]
GHG emissions from electricity generation (2013) 363.7 Mt CO2 [631.4 TWh * 576g/kWh]
Average industrial tariff
(US$/kW·h, 2013)
medium: 20.60[3]
Electricity by source in 2014
Nuclear Brown Coal Hard Coal Natural Gas Wind Solar Biogas HydroCircle frame.svg
  •   Nuclear: 91.8 TWh (17.2%)
  •   Brown Coal: 140.7 TWh (26.4%)
  •   Hard Coal: 110.1 TWh (20.7%)
  •   Natural Gas: 33.9 TWh (6.4%)
  •   Wind: 51.4 TWh (9.7%)
  •   Solar: 32.8 TWh (6.2%)
  •   Biomass: 53 TWh (10.0%)
  •   Hydro: 18.5 TWh (3.5%)
Net generated electricity in 2014[4]
German electricity production from 1980–2011, including former East Germany. Source EIA[5]

In 2014, the electricity sector in Germany was composed of 53% fossil, 17% nuclear and 30% renewable energy sources. Renewables increased their production by 6 terawatt-hours (TWh) or 4% compared to 2013, and accounted for a total of 156 TWh or about 30% of net-generated electricity, despite the fact that hydroelectricity recorded a decrease in production due to unfavorable weather conditions.[4]

While nuclear's power production decreased only slightly when comparing 2014 to 2013, electricity generated from brown coal, hard coal and gas-fired power plants significantly decreased by 3%, 9.5% and 13.8%, respectively.[4]

Germany has defined a planned policy of phasing-out nuclear power by 2022.

Consumption[edit]

Germany produced power per person in 2008 equal to EU15 average (EU15: 7,409 kWh/person) and 77% of the OECD average (8,991 kWh/person).[6]

Electricity trade in Germany[edit]

Germany, the largest exporter of electricity with 10% of the overall exports, reinforced its position as a net exporter by 20% during the year 2010[7]

Electricity per person and by power source[edit]

As of November 2014 Swedish authorities have not published "Electricity production by power source in different countries" after year 2009.

According to the Guardian there were days in summer 2014 when Germany generated 75% of its power from the wind and the sun.[8]

Electricity per person in Germany* (kWh/inhabitant)[6][9]
Use Production Export Exp. % Fossil Nuclear Nuc. % Other RE* Bio+waste Wind Non RE use* RE %
2004 7,445 7,476 32 0.4% 4,603 2,025 27.2% 654 194 6,597 11.4%
2005 7,468 7,523 55 0.7% 4,674 1,977 26.5% 670 201 6,597 11.7%
2006 7,528 7,727 199 2.6% 4,796 1,706 22.7% 856 369 6,303 16.3%
2008 7,450 7,693 243 3.3% 4,635 1,804 24.2% 873 381 6,196 16.8%
2009 7,051 7,200 149 2.1% 4,314 1,644 23.3% 288* 491 461* 5,811 17.6%
* This data for Germany is extracted from the international column of a Swedish report
* Other RE is waterpower, solar and geothermal electricity and wind power until 2008
* Non RE use = use – production of renewable electricity
* RE % = (production of RE / use) * 100% Note: European Union calculates the share of renewable energies in gross electrical consumption.

Mode of production[edit]

Gas power station Nossener Brücke in Dresden

According to the IEA the gross production of electricity was 631 TWh in 2008 which gave the 7 th position among the world top producers in 2010. The top seven countries produced 59% of electricity in 2008. The top producers were the United States (21.5%), China (17.1%), Japan (5.3%), Russia (5.1%), India (4.1%), Canada (3.2%) and Germany (3.1%).[10]

In 2015, Germany generated electricity from the following sources:[11]

  • 24.0% Lignite
  • 18.2% Hard Coal
  • 14.1% Nuclear
  • 12.0% Wind (Onshore)
  • 8.8% Natural gas
  • 6.8% Biomass
  • 5.9% Solar
  • 3.0% Hydro
  • 1.3% Wind (Offshore)
  • 0.9% Waste
  • 0.8% Oil
  • 4.0% Other

Coal[edit]

In 2008, power generation from coal contributed 291 terawatt-hours (TWh) or 46% to the overall production of 631 TWh. Germany remains one of the world's largest power producer from coal besides China (2,733 TWh), USA (2,133 TWh) and India (569 TWh).[10]

Nuclear power[edit]

Germany has defined a firm active phase-out policy of nuclear power. Eight nuclear power plants were shut down after the Fukushima accident for ever. All nuclear power plants will be phased out by the end of 2022. According to BMU this is an opportunity for future generations.[12]

Siemens is the only significant nuclear constructor in Germany and nuclears share was 3% of their business in 2000.[13] In 2006 the large international bribes of Siemens in the energy and telecommunication business were revealed. The case was investigated e.g. in Nigeria, the United States, Greece and South Korea.[14]

The installed nuclear power capacity in Germany was 20 GW in 2008 and 21 GW in 2004. The production of nuclear power was 148 TWh in 2008 (6 th top by 5.4% of world total) and 167 TWh in 2004 (4 th top by 6.1% of world total).[10][15]

In 2009 compared to 2004 the nuclear power was produced 19% less and its share had declined smoothly with time from 27% units to 23% units. The share of renewable electricity increased substituting the nuclear power.[6]

Renewable electricity[edit]

Wind turbines in Baltic Sea in 2013.

Germany's renewable energy sector is among the most innovative and successful worldwide. Net-generation from renewable energy sources in the German electricity sector has increased from 6.3% in 2000 to about 30% in 2014.[4] For the first time ever, wind, biogas, and solar combined accounted for a larger portion of net electricity production than brown coal in the first half of 2014.[16] While peak-generation from combined wind and solar reached a new all-time high of 74% in April 2014,[17] wind power saw its best day ever on December 12, 2014, generating 562 GWh.[18] Germany has been called "the world's first major renewable energy economy".[19][20]

Grid[edit]

Grid owners included in 2008 RWE, EnBW, Vattenfall and E.ON. According to the European Commission the electricity producers should not own the electricity grid to ensure free electricity competition. The European Commission accused E.ON of the misuse of markets in February 2008. Consequently, E.ON sold its share of the grid network.[21]

In Germany, there exist also a single-phase AC grid operated with 16.7 Hz for power supply of railway lines, see List of installations for 15kV AC railway electrification in Germany, Austria and Switzerland.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.ise.fraunhofer.de/de/downloads/pdf-files/data-nivc-/stromproduktion-aus-solar-und-windenergie-2014.pdf
  2. ^ a b http://www.bmwi-energiewende.de/EWD/Redaktion/Newsletter/2014/20/Meldung/infografik-aufwind-fuer-strom-aus-erneuerbaren.html
  3. ^ http://www.bdew.de/internet.nsf/id/17DF3FA36BF264EBC1257B0A003EE8B8/$file/Foliensatz_Energie-Info-EE-und-das-EEG2013_31.01.2013.pdf
  4. ^ a b c d "Electricity production from solar and wind in Germany in 2014 (German version)" (pdf). Fraunhofer Institute, Germany. 5 January 2015. pp. 2,3. Retrieved 5 January 2015. 
  5. ^ U.S. Energy Information Administration International Energy Statistics - Electricity Generation, 2011
  6. ^ a b c German numbers extracted from Energy in Sweden, Facts and figures, The Swedish Energy Agency, (in Swedish: Energiläget i siffror), Table: Specific electricity production per inhabitant with breakdown by power source (kWh/person), Source: IEA/OECD 2006 T23, 2007 T25, 2008 T26, 2009 T25 and 2010 T49.
  7. ^ .Germany Power Market, Enerdata Yearbook Publication 2011
  8. ^ The IPCC is stern on climate change – but it still underestimates the situation The Guardian, Sunday 2 November 2014
  9. ^ Energy in Sweden - facts and figures 2012 - Figures for 2009 Table 53: Electricity production by power source, 2009, in kWh/capita, page 59, 2012
  10. ^ a b c IEA Key stats 2010 pages electricity 27 gas 13,25 fossil 25 nuclear 17
  11. ^ "Germany is 20 years away from 100 percent renewable power – not!". 
  12. ^ The path to the energy of the future - safe, affordable and environmentally sound June 2011 BMU Germany
  13. ^ Climate Change and Nuclear Power WWF pages 21, 22
  14. ^ [Siemensin lahjusskandaali paisuu edelleen] yle 23.11.2006
  15. ^ IEA Key energy statistics 2006
  16. ^ "Bye-bye brown coal: Germany's new renewables mark - Business Spectator, July 10, 2014". 
  17. ^ thinkprogress.org, Sets New Record, Generating 74 Percent Of Power Needs From Renewable Energy, 13 May 2014
  18. ^ RenewEconomy.com.au, Craig Morris, New wind power generation record in Germany, 16 December 2014
  19. ^ Germany: The World's First Major Renewable Energy Economy
  20. ^ Fraunhofer ISE, Electricity production from solar and wind in Germany – New record in wind power production, p.2, 15 December 2014
  21. ^ Lehmänkaupat hämmentävät EU:n energianeuvotteluja, Helsingin Sanomat 1.3.2008 B11