Lattice tower

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The Eiffel Tower, measuring 1,063 feet from base to tip, is perhaps the most famous example of a lattice tower. It was built in 1889, and was the tallest man-made structure in the world until 1930.

A lattice tower or truss tower is a freestanding vertical framework tower. This construction is widely used in transmission towers carrying high voltage electric power lines, in radio masts and towers (a self-radiating tower or as a support for aerials) and in observation towers. Its advantage is good shear strength at a much lower weight than a tower of solid construction would have as well as lower wind resistance. In structural engineering the term lattice tower is used for a freestanding structure, while a lattice mast is a guyed mast supported by guy lines. Lattices of triangular (3-sided) cross-section are most common, particularly in North America. Square (4-sided) lattices are also widely used and are most common in Eurasia. Lattice towers are often designed as either a space frame or a hyperboloid structure.

Before 1940, they were used as radio transmission towers especially for short and medium wave, occasionally lattice towers consisting of wood were utilized. The tallest wooden lattice tower was at Mühlacker, Germany. It had a height of 190 metres (620 ft) and was built in 1934 and demolished in 1945. Most wood lattice towers were demolished before 1960. In Germany, the last big radio towers consisting of wood were the transmission towers of the Golm transmitter and the transmitter Ismaning. They were demolished in 1979 and 1983 respectively.

The tallest free standing lattice tower is the Tokyo Skytree, with a height of 634 metres (2,080 ft). The Petronius Compliant Tower is the tallest supported lattice tower at 640 metres (2,100 ft) being partially submerged. The city most renowned for lattice towers is Cincinnati, Ohio, which features four towers above 900 feet in height, Tokyo is the only other city in the world that has more than one above that height.

The majority of the tallest steel lattice towers in the world are actually built in water and used as oil platforms. These structures are usually built in large pieces on land most commonly in Texas or Louisiana and then moved by barge to their final resting place. Since a large portion of these towers are underwater the official height of such structures is often held in dispute. The steel lattice truss for these structures, known as jackets in the oil industry, are typically far more robust and reinforced than their land-based counterparts sometimes weighing more than 50,000 tons as is the case for the Bullwinkle and Baldpate platforms, whereas tall (above 1,000 feet) land-based lattice towers range from a high of 10,000 tons as is the case in the Eiffel Tower to as low as a few hundred tons. They are built to a higher standard to support the weight of the oil platforms built on top of them and because of the forces to which they are subjected. As a result, the cost to build these structures can run into the hundreds of millions. These costs are justified due to the resulting oil and gas revenues, whereas land-based towers have a much lower stream of revenue and therefore the capital costs of towers are typically much less.

Tokyo Skytree, the tallest lattice tower in the world since its completion in 2012
The Tokyo Tower was the tallest lattice tower in the world for 16 years, from 1957 to 1973 and remains the tallest 4-sided lattice tower
The WITI TV Tower is the tallest lattice tower in the United States and the tallest 3-sided lattice tower in the world
Dragon Tower, the tallest observation & radio lattice tower in China features a solid core, the most common design for tall lattice towers built in China
An 800 foot long fixed steel jacket (lattice) oil platform
A 250 m (820 ft)-long section of the Benguela-Belize Lobito-Tomboco Platform, which accounts for only about half the overall height of the structure

Timeline of world's tallest lattice tower[edit]

Since end of the 19th century, tall lattice towers were built. Lattice towers have even held the absolute height record and they are among the tallest free-standing architectural structures and also hold national records such as the tallest free-standing or even overall tallest structure of a country.

Land record, iron and steel towers[edit]

Held record Name Location Completed Height (m) Height (ft) Notes
From To
1852 1881 Carysfort Reef Light Key Largo, Florida 1852 36.6 120
1881 1889 San Jose electric light tower San Jose, California 1881 72 237 Collapsed in a storm in December 1915
1889 1956 Eiffel Tower Paris, France 1889 312.3 1,025 When built held the absolute height record for tallest structure of any type in the world until 1930
1956 1957 KCTV Broadcast Tower Kansas City, Missouri 1956 317.6 1,042
1957 1958 Eiffel Tower Paris, France 1889 321 1,053
1958 1973 Tokyo Tower Tokyo, Japan 1957 333 1,093
1973 2012 Kyiv TV Tower Kyiv, Ukraine 1973 385 1,263
2012 current Tokyo Skytree Tokyo, Japan 2012 634 2,080

Land record, wood towers[edit]

Held record Name Location Completed Height (m) Height (ft) Notes
From To
1853 1856 Latting Observatory New York City, United States 1853 96 315 Burned down in 1856
1899 1902 Wardenclyffe Tower Shoreham, United States 1899 57 187
1902 1926 Towers of South Wellfleet Marconi Wireless Station South Wellfleet, United States 1902 64 210 4 towers
1926 1928 Stadelheim Transmitter Munich-Stadelheim, Germany 1926 75 246
1928 1930 Flensburg Radio Tower Flensburg, Germany 1928 90 295
1930 1932 Transmitter Heilsberg Lidzbark Warmiński, Poland 1930 102 335
1932 1933 Sendeturm Ismaning Ismaning, Germany 1932 163 534
1933 1934 Transmitter Berlin-Tegel Berlin, Germany 1933 165 541
1934 1945 Transmission Tower Mühlacker Mühlacker, Germany 1934 190 623 Demolished on April 6, 1945
1945 1948 Transmitter Berlin-Tegel Berlin, Germany 1933 165 541 Demolished on December 16, 1948
1948 1983 Sendeturm Ismaning Ismaning, Germany 1932 163 534 Demolished on March 16, 1983
1983 1990 Transmitter Żórawina Żórawina, Poland 1932 140 459 Demolished during Fall 1990
1990 current Radio Tower Gliwice Gliwice, Poland 1935 118 387

Land & water record, overall[edit]

Held record Name Location Completed Height (m) Height (ft) Notes
From To
1852 1853 Carysfort Reef Light Key Largo, Florida 1852 36.6 120
1853 1856 Latting Observatory New York City, United States 1853 96 315 Burned down in 1856, structure was an inspiration for the Eiffel Tower
1856 1889 Carysfort Reef Light Key Largo, Florida 1852 36.6 120
1881 1889 San Jose electric light tower San Jose, California 1881 72 237 Built using an unusual design featuring circular cross-beams
1889 1956 Eiffel Tower Paris, France 1889 312.3 1,025 Weight of iron framework 7,300 tons total weight of the tower 10,100 tons
1956 1957 KCTV Broadcast Tower Kansas City, Missouri 1956 317.6 1,042 Weight; 600 tons
1957 1958 Eiffel Tower Paris, France 1889 321 1,053
1958 1973 Tokyo Tower Tokyo, Japan 1957 333 1,093 Weight; 4,000 tons
1973 1977 Kyiv TV Tower Kyiv, Ukraine 1973 385 1,263 Weight; 3,000 tons
1977 1989 Cognac Platform Gulf of Mexico 1977 385.5 1,265 Weight; 45,000 tons[1] or 59,000 tons[2]
1989 1998 Bullwinkle Platform Gulf of Mexico 1989 529 1,736 Weight of the steel jacket 49,375 tons, total weight of the platform 72,000 tons
1998 2000 Baldpate Compliant Tower Gulf of Mexico 1998 581.5 1,908 Weight of the steel jacket 28,900 tons, total weight of the platform 38,700 tons
2000 current Petronius Compliant Tower Gulf of Mexico 2012 640 2,100 Weight of the steel jacket 43,000 tons, total weight of the platform 50,500 tons. When built held the absolute height record for tallest structure of any type in the world until 2010.

Steel lattice towers[edit]

Tallest lattice towers, all types[edit]

List of all supertall lattice tower structures in the world.

Rank Name Type Year Built in City/location Height m Height ft Cost Weight Remarks
1 Petronius Compliant Tower Oil Platform, Compliant tower 2000 USA Gulf of Mexico 640 2,100 $500 million 50,500[3] Tallest lattice tower of any type. Supported by water
2 Tokyo Skytree Lattice tower 2012 Japan Sumida, Tokyo 634 2,080 $806 million[4] 36,000 tons[5] Tallest free standing lattice tower
3 Baldpate Compliant Tower Oil Platform, Compliant tower 1998 USA Gulf of Mexico 581.5 1,908 $300 million 38,700 tons Tallest structure in the world 1998–2000
4 Bullwinkle Platform Oil Platform, Steel Truss 1989 USA Gulf of Mexico 529 1,736 $500 million 72,000 tons Tallest fixed/rigged structure built in water
5 Benguela-Belize Lobito-Tomboco Platform[6] Oil Platform, Compliant tower 2008 USA Congo basin 512 1,680 $820 million[7] 69,500 tons
6 Pompano Platform Oil Platform, Steel Truss 1994 USA Gulf of Mexico 477 1,565 39,890 tons (not including platform)[8]
7 Tombua Landana platform[9] Oil Platform, Compliant tower 2009 USA Congo basin 474 1,554 $200 million[10] 81,500 tons[10][11]
8 Harmony Platform[12] Oil Platform, Steel Truss 1992 South Korea[13] California 366 1,200 44,100 (not including platform)[13] height listed is only to water level, likely to be 1,500 ft or more in total height
9 Virgo Platform[12] Oil Platform, Steel Truss 1999 USA Gulf of Mexico 344 1,130 height listed is only to water level, likely to be 1,400 ft (430 m) or more in total height
10 Coelacanth Platform[14] Oil Platform, Steel Truss 2016 USA Gulf of Mexico 400 1,312
11 Heritage Platform[12] Oil Platform, Steel Truss 1992 South Korea[13] California 326 1,070 35,500 (not including platform)[13] height listed is only to water level, likely to be 1,300 ft (400 m) or more in total height
12 Cognac Platform[15] Oil Platform, Steel Truss 1977 USA Gulf of Mexico 385.5 1,265 $100 million[1] or $265 million[2] 59,000 tons
13 Kyiv TV Tower Lattice tower 1973 Ukraine Kyiv 385 1,263 $12 million
14 tie Jintang and Cezi islands Overhead Powerline Tie, East Tower[16] Hydro Pylon 2019 China Jintang Island 380 1,247 $67 million[17] Tallest pylons in the world
14 tie Jintang and Cezi islands Overhead Powerline Tie, West Tower Hydro Pylon 2019 China Jintang Island 380 1,247 $67 million Tallest pylons in the world
16 Tashkent Tower Lattice tower/Steel tower 1985 Uzbekistan Tashkent 374.9 1,230 6,000 tons[18] may be categorized as a steel tower rather than a lattice tower
17 tie Zhoushan Island Overhead Powerline Tie, North tower Hydro Pylon 2009 China Damao Island 370 1,214
17 tie Zhoushan Island Overhead Powerline Tie, South tower Hydro Pylon 2009 China Damao Island 370 1,214
19 Amberjack Platform[12] Oil Platform, Steel Truss 1991 USA Gulf of Mexico 314 1,030 height listed is only to water level, likely to be 1,200 ft (370 m) or more in total height
20 Hondo Platform Oil Platform, Steel Truss 1976 USA Gulf of Mexico 354.5 1,163 $70 million[19]
21 tie Yangtze River Crossing Jiangyin, North tower Hydro Pylon 2003 China Jiangyin 346.5 1,137 4,000 tons[20]
21 tie Yangtze River Crossing Jiangyin, South tower Hydro Pylon 2003 China Jiangyin 346.5 1,137 4,000 tons
23 Dragon Tower Lattice tower 2000 China Harbin 336 1,102
24 Tokyo Tower Lattice tower 1957 Japan Tokyo 333 1,093 $8.4 million 4,000 tons
25 WITI TV Tower Lattice tower 1962 USA Shorewood, Wisconsin 329.4 1,081
26 Cerveza Platform[21] Oil Platform, Steel Truss 1981 USA Gulf of Mexico 327 1,073 $90 million[22]
27 Cerveza Light Platform[21] Oil Platform, Steel Truss 1981 USA Gulf of Mexico 327 1,073 $60 million[22]
28 St. Petersburg TV Tower Lattice tower 1962 Russia Saint Petersburg 326 1,070
29 Eiffel Tower Lattice tower 1889 France Paris 324 1,063 $1.5 million 10,100 tons
30 WHDH-TV Tower Lattice tower 1960 USA Newton, Massachusetts 323.8 1,062
31 KCTV Broadcast Tower Lattice tower 1956 USA Kansas City, Missouri 317.6 1,042 $0.42 million 600 tons[23]
32 Turner Broadcasting Tower Lattice tower 1967 USA Atlanta, Georgia 314.3 1,031 disassembled in 2010
33 Yerevan TV Tower Lattice tower 1977 Armenia Yerevan 311.7 1,023 tallest structure in Armenia
34 Fazilka TV Tower Lattice tower 2007 India Fazilka 304.8 1,000 tallest lattice tower in India
35 Mumbai Television Tower Lattice tower 1972 India Mumbai 300 984

Lattice towers with observation decks[edit]

  indicates a structure that is no longer standing.

Tower Year Country Town Height m Height ft Remarks
Tokyo Skytree 2012 Japan Sumida, Tokyo 634 m 2080 ft Tallest Lattice tower in the world
Tashkent Tower 1985 Uzbekistan Tashkent 374.9 m 1230 ft
Dragon Tower 2000 China Harbin 336 m 1102 ft
Tokyo Tower 1957 Japan Tokyo 333 m 1093 ft
Eiffel Tower 1889 France Paris 324 m 1063 ft
Zhuzhou Television Tower 1999 China Shijiazhuang 293 m 961 ft
Shijiazhuang TV-tower 1998 China Shijiazhuang 280 m 919 ft
Kaifeng TV Tower 1995 China Kaifeng 268 m 879 ft
Daqing Radio and Television Tower 1989 China Daqing 260 m 853 ft
Foshan TV Tower[24] ? China Foshan 238 m 781 ft
Qingdao TV Tower 1994 China Qingdao 232 m 761 ft
Hongguangshan TV Tower ? China Ürümqi 230 m[25] 754 ft
Brasília TV Tower 1967 Brazil Brasília 224 m[26] 735 ft formerly the tallest structure in Brazil 1967-2004
Changchun Radio and Television Tower 1997 China Qingdao 218 m[27] 715 ft
Guangzhou TV Tower 1991 China Guangzhou 217 m 712 ft
Guangdong TV Tower[28] 1965 China Guangdong 200 m 656 ft
Dalian Radio & TV Tower[29] 1990 China Dalian 191 m 627 ft Has a thick solid concrete core with an exterior steel lattice, it is unknown which provides most of the structural support but the steel lattice is a very prominent feature of the tower
Nagoya TV Tower 1954 Japan Nagoya 180 m 590 ft
Odinstårnet 1935 Denmark Odense 175 m 574 ft demolished on December 14, 1944
New Brighton Tower 1900 UK Liverpool 172.8 m 567 ft dismantled from 1919 to 1921
Las Vegas Eiffel Tower 1999 United States Las Vegas 165 m 541 ft 1:2 scale replica of Eiffel Tower
Osaka ABC Tower 1966 Japan Osaka 160 m 525 ft demolished in September 2009[30]
The Parisian Macao 2016 China Macau 160 m 525 ft 1:2 scale replica of Eiffel Tower
Blackpool Tower 1894 United Kingdom Blackpool 158 m 518 ft
Funkturm Berlin 1926 Germany Berlin 150 m 492 ft Only observation tower standing on insulators
Sapporo TV Tower 1957 Japan Sapporo 147.2 m 483 ft
Vasco-da-Gama-Tower 1998 Portugal Lisbon 145 m 476 ft
Alphabetic Tower 2012 Georgia Batumi 130 m 427 ft
Gettysburg National Tower 1974 USA Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 120 m 394 ft demolished on July 3, 2000 Hyperboloid structure
Observation tower of la Cité de l'Énergie 1997 Canada Shawinigan, Quebec 115 m 377 ft
Torre Branca 1933 Italy Milan 108.6 m 356 ft
Kobe Port Tower 1963 Japan Kobe 108 m 354 ft
Eiffel Tower of Window of the World 1993 China Shenzhen 108 m 354 ft 1:3 scale replica of Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower of Tiandu City Community 2007 China Macau 108 m 354 ft 1:3 scale replica of Eiffel Tower
Marine Tower Yokohama 1961 Japan Yokohama 106 m 348 ft
Tsutenkaku 1956 Japan Osaka 103 m 338 ft
Hakata Port Tower 1964 Japan Fukuoka 103 m 338 ft
Total Tower[31] 1994 United States Denver 100.6 m 330 ft
Beppu Tower 1957 Japan Beppu 100 m 328 ft
Eiffel Tower of Kings Island 1972 USA Mason, Ohio 96 m 315 ft 1:3.5 scale replica of Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower of Kings Dominion 1975 USA Doswell, Virginia 96 m 315 ft 1:3.5 scale replica of Eiffel Tower
Cholfirst Radio Tower 1973 Switzerland Flurlingen 96 m 315 ft
Tour métallique de Fourvière 1894 France Lyon 85.9 m 282 ft Not used as observation tower since 1953
Sunsphere 1982 United States Knoxville 81.07 m 266 ft
Eiffel Tower replica in Bahria Town 2014 Pakistan Bahria 80 m 262 ft 1:4 scale replica of Eiffel Tower
Torre Sant Sebastia 1931 Spain Barcelona 78 m 256 ft Harbour terminal aerial tramway
Hiratsuka TV Tower 1972 Japan Hiratsuka 70 m 256 ft
Facility 4101, Tower 93 1975 Germany Hürth 74.84 m 246 ft Electricity pylon, which carried from 1977 to 2010 in a height of 27 metres (89 ft) an observation deck
Morecambe Tower 1898 UK Morecambe 71 m 232 ft dismantled during the first world war,[32] built on top of a theatre
Hot Springs Mountain Tower 1983 United States Hot Springs Mountain 65.8 m 216 ft
Petřínská rozhledna 1891 Czech Prague 60 m 197 ft
Bachtel Tower 1986 Switzerland Hinwil 60 m 197 ft
Green Tower 1998 Japan Sanbu 60 m 197 ft
Gross Reken Melchenberg Radio Tower 2002 Germany Reken 60 m 197 ft
Schomberg Observation Tower 2006 Germany Sundern 60 m 197 ft
Aalborgtårnet 1933 Denmark Aalborg 54.9 m 180 ft
Observation Tower Ahlbeck 1998 Germany Ahlbeck 50 m 164 ft
Watkins' Tower 1891 UK London 47 m 154 ft never completed & dismantled in 1907 was to be 358 m / 1175 ft in height
Morsbach Observation Tower 1962 Germany Morsbach 45 m 148 ft
Joseph's Cross 1896 Germany Stolberg 38 m 124 ft
Poppenberg Observation Tower 1897 Germany Ilfeld 33 m 108 ft
Lemberg Tower 1899 Germany Lemberg Mountain 33 m 108 ft
Wanne Observation Tower 1888 Germany Villingen-Schwenningen 30 m 98 ft
Gehrenberg Tower 1903 Germany Markdorf 30 m 98 ft
Tower of Unity 1962 Germany Heldrastein 30 m 98 ft Former additionally guyed lattice tower, which was transformed into observation tower
Gustav-Vietor-Tower 1882 Germany Hohe Wurzel (Taunus) 25 m 82 ft demolished in 2006
Observation Tower at Goetzinger's Height 1883 Germany Neustadt/Saxony 25 m 82 ft
Hochfirst Tower 1890 Germany Titisee-Neustadt 25 m 82 ft Additionally guyed
Büchenbronn Observation Tower 1883 Germany Büchenbronn 24.75 m 81 ft Additionally guyed
Tour du Belvédère 1898 France Mulhouse-Belvédère 20 m 65 ft
Salzgitter Bismarck Tower 1900 Germany Salzgitter 17 m 56 ft
Gillerberg Observation Tower 1892 Germany Hilchenbach 15 m 49 ft

Radio tower carrying aerials[edit]

List of radio tower above 150 m / 500 ft in height.

  indicates a structure that is no longer standing.
  indicates a structure that has had a change in height or has been rebuilt.

Zhuzhou Television Tower, example of a lattice tower with a solid core, nearly a dozen of which were built in China throughout the 90's
Sutro Tower, a well-known San Francisco landmark featuring an uncommon 3-legged design
Wavre Transmitter features an unusual design that uses a guyed upper section to hold the transmitter in place
example of a 3803 KM tower, a very common 4-sided lattice tower design developed in the Soviet Union. About 80 of these were built in nearly every large city from 1956 to 1967
example of a Annapolis type military-use lattice tower, the US Navy built over 40 of these from 1914 to 1922 and 1936-1938
example of a typical commercial-use 3-sided lattice tower, thousands of which have been built throughout North America, over a 100 of which are on the list. Many different truss patterns are used but the general design is largely similar
Tower Year Country Town Height m Height ft Design type Notable for
Tokyo Skytree 2012 Japan Tokyo 634 m 2080 ft solid reinforced concrete core[33] supported by cylindrical lattice frame the tallest tower of any type in the world and the tallest land-based lattice tower, tallest structure in Japan
Kyiv TV Tower 1973 Ukraine Kyiv 385 m 1263 ft solid steel core supported by a 6-sided lattice frame with 4 legs tallest land based lattice tower from 1973 to 2012, tallest structure in Ukraine
Tashkent Tower 1985 Uzbekistan Tashkent 374.9 m 1230 ft solid steel core supported by cylindrical lattice frame with 3 steel legs more likely to be categorized as a steel tower than a lattice tower, tallest structure in Uzbekistan
Dragon Tower 2000 China Harbin 336 m 1102 ft solid core supported by 6-sided lattice frame, 4-sided upper portion
Tokyo Tower 1957 Japan Tokyo 333 m 1093 ft 4-sided, 4 legged tallest lattice tower in the world from 1957 to 1973
WITI TV Tower 1962 USA Shorewood, Wisconsin 329.4 m 1081 ft 3-sided tallest land based lattice tower in the United States, second tallest in the world when completed in 1962
St. Petersburg TV Tower 1962 Russia Saint Petersburg 326 m 1070 ft solid(steel) central core supported by 6-sided lattice frame tallest lattice tower in Russia, height increase of 53 ft (16 m) in 2011
Eiffel Tower 1889 France Paris 324 m 1063 ft 4-sided, 4 legged tallest lattice tower in the world from 1889 to 1956, has undergone multiple height changes,[34] original height of 1,024 ft (312 m) to tip of flagpole[35]
WHDH-TV Tower 1960 USA Newton, Massachusetts 323.8 m 1062 ft 3-sided
KCTV Broadcast Tower 1956 USA Kansas City, Missouri 317.6 m 1042 ft 4-sided, pyramid type briefly became the tallest lattice tower in the world when completed in 1956 surpassing the Eiffel Tower's original height by 17 feet[34] weight; 600 tons
Turner Broadcasting Tower 1967 USA Atlanta, Georgia 314.3 m 1031 ft 3-sided disassembled in 2010
Yerevan TV Tower 1977 Armenia Yerevan 311.7 m 1023 ft solid steel core supported by 3-sided lattice frame[36] tallest structure in Armenia
Fazilka TV Tower 2007 India Fazilka 304.8 m 1000 ft 4-sided tallest lattice tower in India
Mumbai Television Tower 1972 India Mumbai 300 m 984 ft 4-sided
Sutro Tower 1973 USA San Francisco, California 297.8 m 977 ft 3 legged guyed upper section and candelabra top
WKRQ Tower 1960's USA Cincinnati, Ohio 294.6 m 967 ft 3-sided
Zhuzhou Television Tower 1999 China Zhuzhou 293 m 961 ft solid core supported by 6-sided lattice frame
Star Tower 1991 USA Cincinnati, Ohio 290.8 m 954 ft Landmark tower design Last lattice tower above 700 feet built in the United States
WLWT TV Tower 1978 USA Cincinnati, Ohio 289.6 m 950 ft 3-sided
Dudelange Radio Tower 1957 Luxembourg Dudelange 285 m 935 ft 3-sided tallest structure in Luxembourg, rebuilt in 1981
Shijiazhuang TV-tower 1998 China Shijiazhuang 280 m 919 ft solid core supported by 8-sided lattice frame with 4 legs
AIR Tower 2013 India Amritsar 280 m 919 ft 4-sided originally intended to be 300 m (980 ft) tall.[37] The tower's height reached a peak of 280 m (920 ft) with plans in place to further reduce its height to 100 m (330 ft)[38] due to a tilt in the tower's angle.[39] To date no work has been done to either rectify the issue or to reduce the towers height.[40][41]
Net 25 Tower 1990 Philippines Quezon City 276.4 m 907 ft 3-sided tallest structure in the Philippines
WCPO TV Tower 1965 USA Cincinnati, Ohio 276 m 905 ft 3-sided
Perm TV tower[42] 2016 Russia Perm 275 m 902 ft Hyperboloid structure weight; 657 tons[42]
Tbilisi TV Broadcasting Tower 1972 Georgia Tbilisi 274.5 m 901 ft solid steel core supported by 3-sided lattice frame with 2 legs more likely to be categorized as a steel tower than a lattice tower, tallest structure in Georgia
RCTI TV Tower[43][44] ? Indonesia Jakarta 274 m 900 ft 3-sided tallest lattice tower in Indonesia
Kaifeng TV Tower 1989 China Kaifeng 268 m 879 ft solid core supported by 8-sided lattice frame with 4 legs
Daqing Radio and Television Tower 1989 China Daqing 260 m 853 ft solid core supported by 6-sided lattice frame, 4-sided upper portion
Moscow Octod Tower 2006 Russia Moscow 258 m 846 ft Hyperboloid structure
WTVR TV Tower 1953 USA Richmond, Virginia 257 m 843 ft 4-sided, pyramid type second tallest lattice tower in the world when completed in 1953
WBNS TV Tower 1948 USA Columbus, Ohio 255.8 m 839 ft 3-sided originally 181.3 m 595 ft additional structural members were added 1955 to reach its current height
Grodno TV Tower 1984 Belarus Grodno 254 m 833 ft 4-sided, Top guyed lattice tower, featuring a guyed upper section with four horizontal crossbars tallest freestanding structure in Belarus
Lafayette transmitter, Tower 1 1918 France Marcheprime 250 m 820 ft 3-sided, Annapolis type military use six of the eight towers were built by 1918, the last two were completed in 1920. The retreating German army demolished all but one of the towers in 1944[45]
Lafayette transmitter, Tower 2 1918 France Marcheprime 250 m 820 ft 3-sided, Annapolis type military use demolished in 1944
Lafayette transmitter, Tower 3 1918 France Marcheprime 250 m 820 ft 3-sided, Annapolis type military use demolished in 1944
Lafayette transmitter, Tower 4 1918 France Marcheprime 250 m 820 ft 3-sided, Annapolis type military use demolished in 1944
Lafayette transmitter, Tower 5 1918 France Marcheprime 250 m 820 ft 3-sided, Annapolis type military use demolished in 1944
Lafayette transmitter, Tower 6 1920 France Marcheprime 250 m 820 ft 3-sided, Annapolis type military use demolished in 1944
Lafayette transmitter, Tower 7 1918 or 1920 France Marcheprime 250 m 820 ft 3-sided, Annapolis type military use demolished in 1944
Lafayette transmitter, Tower 8 1918 or 1920 France Marcheprime 250 m 820 ft 3-sided, Annapolis type military use the final tower was deconstructed in 1953
Longwave transmitter Junglinster, Tower 1 1932 Luxembourg Junglinster 250 m 820 ft 3-sided, insulated against ground The 2nd & 3rd towers were built at a later date, all three towers were reduced in height in 1983[46][47] to 216 m (709 ft)
Longwave transmitter Junglinster, Tower 2 1954 Luxembourg Junglinster 250 m 820 ft 3-sided, insulated against ground height since 1983; 216 m (709 ft)
Longwave transmitter Junglinster, Tower 3 1959 Luxembourg Junglinster 250 m 820 ft 3-sided, insulated against ground height since 1983; 216 m (709 ft)
Novodnistrovsk TV Tower[48] 1987 Ukraine Dunaivtsi 250 m 820 ft 4-sided
Hanoi TV Tower[49] 2013 Vietnam Hanoi 250 m 820 ft 4-sided, 4 legged tallest lattice tower in Vietnam
River Road Tower[50][51] 1965 USA Washington, DC 246.6 m 809 ft 3-sided candelabra top
Seto Digital Tower 2011 Japan Seto 244.7 m 803 ft central lattice mast supported by 6 exterior legs
Vitebsk TV Tower 1983 Belarus Vitebsk 244 m 801 ft 4-sided, Top guyed lattice tower, featuring a guyed upper section with four horizontal crossbars
Astara TV Tower 1981 Republic of Azerbaijan Astara 243.84 m 800 ft 4-sided, Top guyed lattice tower, featuring a guyed upper section with four horizontal crossbars
Central tower (Königs Wusterhausen) 1925 Germany Koenigs Wusterhausen 243 m 797 ft 3-sided collapsed during storm on November 15, 1972
Yakutsk TV Tower 1982 Russia Yakutsk 241.71 m 793 ft 4-sided antenna; 241.7 metres 793 ft, roof; 225.7 m 740 ft[52]
Birobidzhan TV Tower[53] 1972 Russia Birobidzhan 241 m 791 ft 4-sided
Kharkiv TV Tower 1981 Ukraine Kharkiv 240.7 m 790 ft solid steel core supported by 6-sided lattice frame with 3 legs
Foshan TV Tower[24] ? China Foshan 238 m 781 ft solid core supported by 8-sided lattice frame with 4 legs, 4-sided upper portion[54]
Tower of Power 1988 Philippines Quezon City 236.8 m 777 ft 4-sided
Channel 9 TV Tower[55] 1965 Australia Sydney 233 m 764 ft 4-sided tallest lattice tower in Australia
Wavre Transmitter 1983 Belgium Wavre 232 m 761 ft 4-sided, Top guyed lattice tower, featuring a guyed upper section with four horizontal crossbars tallest lattice tower in Belgium
Hughes Memorial Tower 1989 USA Washington, DC 232 m 761 ft Landmark tower design
Qingdao TV Tower 1994 China Qingdao 232 m 761 ft solid central core supported by 6-sided lattice frame, 4-sided upper portion
WOR TV Tower 1949 USA North Bergen, New Jersey 231.65 m 760 ft 4-sided dismantled after being struck by an aircraft in 1956
Hongguangshan TV Tower[25] ? China Ürümqi 230 m 754 ft solid central core supported by 6-sided lattice frame, 4-sided upper portion
KQTV Tower 1953 USA St. Joseph, Missouri 229 m 750 ft 4-sided, pyramid type height since 2009; 587 ft (179 m)
WIVB TV Tower[56] 1948 USA Buffalo, New York 226.2 m 742 ft 3-sided
TV5 Tower[57] ? Bangkok Thailand 225 m 740 ft 3-sided tallest lattice tower in Thailand
WTRF-TV Tower[58] 1962 USA Bridgeport, Ohio 225 m 738 ft 3-sided
Brasília TV Tower 1967 Brazil Brasília 224 m 735 ft 6-sided
Millennium Transmitter 1969 Philippines Quezon City 219.5 m 720 ft 4-sided
Sahiwal TV Tower[59] 1970's Pakistan Sahiwal 219.5 m 720 ft 4-sided tallest structure in Pakistan
Crystal Palace Transmitter 1950 UK London 219 m 719 ft 4-sided tallest lattice tower in England
Changchun Radio and Television Tower[27] 1997 China Qingdao 218 m 715 ft solid core supported by 6-sided lattice frame, 4-sided upper portion
Mediacorp TV tower 2006 Singapore Bukit Batok 217 m 712 ft 4-sided, (1°21'5.29"N 103°45'59.11"E) built on a hill, height from lowest leg is 746 ft (227 m)
Guangzhou TV Tower 1991 China Guangzhou 217 m 712 ft 4-sided, 4 legged
Blosenbergturm 1937 Switzerland Beromünster 216 m 709 ft 4-sided selfradiating tower insulated against ground
Deyang TV Tower[60] 1991 China Deyang 216 m 709 ft 12-sided, 4 legged
Channel 7/10 TV Tower[61] 1965 Australia Sydney 216 m 708 ft 4-sided
WBIR TV Tower[62] 1956 USA Knoxville, Tennessee 215.5 m 707 ft 3-sided
WTTG TV Tower[63] 1963 USA Washington, DC 214.8 705 ft 3-sided
Mariupol TV Tower[64] 1981 Ukraine Mariupol 214 m 702 ft 4-sided
Zlatoust TV Tower[65] 1983 Russia Zlatoust 213 m 699 ft 4-sided
Torre TV Bandeirantes 1997 Brazil São Paulo 212 m 696 ft 4-sided non-tapering, weight; 650 tons
WJLA TV Tower[66] 1972 USA Washington, DC 210.9 692 ft 3-sided
TV Tower Bol d'Air-Ougrée[67] ? Belgium Bol d'Air-Ougrée 210 m 689 ft 4-sided
Cherepovets TV Tower[68] 1969 Russia Cherepovets 208.5 m 684 ft 4-sided
KTWB-TV Tower[69] 1979 USA Seattle, Washington 208 m 682 ft 3-sided
Khmelnytsky TV Tower[70] 1980 Ukraine Khmelnytskyi 208 m 682 ft 4-sided
Arkhangelsk TV Tower[71] 2004 Russia Arkhangelsk 208 m 682 ft 4-sided
Cimişlia TV Tower[72] ? Moldova Cimişlia 208 m 682 ft 4-sided
Novosemeykino Longwave Transmission, Tower 1[73] 1943 Russia Novosemeykino 205 m 673 ft 3-sided, military use demolished in 2010,[74] selfradiating insulated against ground
Novosemeykino Longwave Transmission, Tower 2[73] 1943 Russia Novosemeykino 205 m 673 ft 3-sided, military use demolished in 2010,[74] selfradiating insulated against ground
Novosemeykino Longwave Transmission, Tower 3[73] 1943 Russia Novosemeykino 205 m 673 ft 3-sided, military use demolished in 2010,[74] selfradiating insulated against ground
Novosemeykino Longwave Transmission, Tower 4[73] 1943 Russia Novosemeykino 205 m 673 ft 3-sided, military use demolished in 2010,[74] selfradiating insulated against ground
Cesvaine TV Tower[75] ? Latvia Cesvaine 204 m 669 ft 4-sided
Edineţ TV Tower[76] ? Moldova Edineţ 204 m 669 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Rezeknes TV Tower[77] ? Latvia Rezeknes 204 m 669 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Valmieras TV Tower[77] ? Latvia Valmieras 204 m 669 ft 4-sided
Antananarivo TV Tower[78] ? Madagascar Antananarivo 203 m 665 ft
Klaipeda Radio and Television Station[79] 1960 Lithuania Klaipeda 202 m 663 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Daugavpils TV Tower[80] 1956 Latvia Daugavpils 202 m 663 ft 4-sided height increased in 1989
WRC TV Tower[81] 1989? USA Washington, DC 201.8 m 662 ft 3-sided
Brisbane Channel 10 TV Tower[82] ? Australia Brisbane 201.8 m 662 ft 4-sided
Orion Tower[83][84] 2001 Russia Samara 201 m 660 ft Hyperboloid structure
WKBN TV Tower[85] 1976 USA Youngstown, Ohio 200.3 m 657 ft 3-sided
Gomel TV Tower[86] 1957 Belarus Homel 200 m 656 ft 4-sided
Kirovohrad TV Tower[87] 1964 Ukraine Kropyvnytskyi 200 m 656 ft 4-sided
Guangdong TV Tower[28] 1965 China Guangdong 200 m 656 ft 8-sided
WMBC TV Tower[88] 1965 USA Montclair, New Jersey 200 m 656 ft 3-sided
TV Tower on Mount Papula[89] 1966 Russia Vyborg 200 m 656 ft 4-sided
Khust TV Tower[90] 1975 Ukraine Khust 200 m 656 ft 4-sided
Olevsk Communication Tower[91] 1989 Ukraine Olevsk 200 m 656 ft 4-sided
VRT Zendmast Genk[92] ? Belgium Genk 200 m 656 ft 4-sided
Ciurel Telecommunications Tower[93] ? Romania Bucharest 200 m 656 ft 4-sided
TV5 Transmitter Tower[94] ? Philippines Quezon City 200 m 656 ft 4-sided
St. Petersburg American Tower[95] 1985 USA St. Petersburg 199.6 m 655 ft 3-sided
New Krasnoyarsk TV Tower[96][97] 2013 Russia Krasnoyarsk 199.4 m 654 ft 4-sided
Odessa TV Tower[98] 1958 Ukraine Odessa 199 m 653 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM single platform
Kherson TV Tower 1994 Ukraine Kherson 199 m 653 ft 4-sided
Novosibirsk TV Tower[99] 1957 Russia Novosibirsk 198 m 650 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Voronezh TV Tower[100] 1958 Russia Voronezh 198 m 650 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Rádio Transamérica[101] ? Brazil São Paulo 198 m 650 ft 3-sided
Krasnodar TV Tower[102] 1959 Russia Krasnodar 197 m 646 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Old Yerevan TV Tower[103] 1956 Armenia Yerevan 196 m 643 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM demolition date unknown
Chelyabinsk TV Tower[104] 1958 Russia Chelyabinsk 196 m 643 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Penza Television Centre Transmitter[105] 1958 Russia Penza 196 m 643 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Rostov TV Tower[106] 1958 Russia Rostov 196 m 643 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM single platform[107]
Omsk TV Tower[108] 1959 Kazakhstan Omsk 196 m 643 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Pärnu TV Tower[109] 1963 Estonia Pärnu 196 m 643 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Cherkaska TV Tower[110] 1964 Ukraine Cherkaska 196 m 643 ft 4-sided
Bilopillia TV Tower[111] 1966 Ukraine Bilopillia 196 m 643 ft 4-sided
Trostianets TV Tower[112] 1985 Ukraine Trostianets 196 m 643 ft 4-sided
Ivano-Frankivsk TV Tower[113] 1965 Ukraine Ivano-Frankivsk 195 m 640 ft 4-sided
Sky Tower West Tokyo[114] 1980 Japan Tokyo 195 m 640 ft 8-sided non-tapering
Mulhouse-Belvédère Transmission Tower[114] 1997 France Mulhouse 195 m 640 ft 3-sided
Tower at 3710 Marquis St[115] 1992 USA Garland, Texas 194.2 m 637 ft 3-sided
Bryansk TV Tower[116] 1958 Russia Bryansk 194 m 637 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Dnipropetrovsk TV Tower[117] 1958 Ukraine Dnipropetrovsk 194 m 637 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM single platform
Lugansk TV Tower[118] 1958 Ukraine Lugansk 194 m 637 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM single platform
Kamenske TV Tower 1965 Ukraine Kamenske 194 m 637 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM[119]
KSTW-TV Tower[69] 1979 USA Seattle, Washington 194 m 636 ft 3-sided
Karaganda TV Tower[120] 19 Kazakhstan Qaragandy 194 m 635 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Mykolaiv TV Tower[121] 1958 Ukraine Mykolaiv 193 m 633 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM single platform
Bishkek TV Tower[122] 1958 Kyrgyzstan Bishkek 193 m 633 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Ulaanbaatar Radio Station Tower[123][124][circular reference] 1967 Mongolia Ulaanbaatar 193 m 633 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
KEZK-FM Tower[125] 1981 USA St. Louis, Missouri 192.3 m 631 ft 3-sided
Yekaterinburg TV Tower (Old)[126] 1955 Russia Yekaterinburg 192 m 630 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Donetsk TV Tower 1[127] 1956 Ukraine Donetsk 192 m 630 ft 4-sided
Baku Communication Tower[128] 1956 Azerbaijan Baku 192 m 630 ft 4-sided demolished in 2008
Irkutsk TV Tower[129] 1957 Russia Irkutsk 192 m 630 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Murmansk TV Tower[130] 1957 Russia Murmansk 192 m 630 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Lviv TV Tower[131] 1957 Ukraine Lviv 192 m 630 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM single platform
Simferopol TV Tower[132] 1958 Russia Simferopol 192 m 630 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM single platform
Ulyanovsk TV Tower[133] 1959 Russia Ulyanovsk 192 m 630 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Zaporizhzhya TV Tower 1959 Ukraine Zaporizhzhya 192 m 630 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM[134] single platform
Lipetsk TV Tower[135] 1960 Russia Lipetsk 192 m 630 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Annunciation TV Tower[136] 1964 Russia Blagoveshchensk 192 m 630 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Abakan TV Tower[137] 1965 Russia Abakan 192 m 630 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Almaty Old TV tower[138] ? Kazakhstan Almaty 192 m 630 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Pavlodar TV Tower[139] ? Kazakhstan Pavlodar 192 m 630 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Tomsk TV Tower[140] ? Russia Tomsk 192 m 630 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Orissaare TV Tower[141] 1965 Estonia Orissaare 191 m 627 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Leipzig Radio Tower[142] 2015 Germany Leipzig 191 m 627 ft 4-sided
LORAN-C transmitter Carolina Beach 1952[143] USA Carolina Beach, North Carolina 190.5 m 625 ft collapsed caused by Hurricane Helene September 26, 1958
Stonehenge Tower[144] 1990 USA Portland, Oregon 190.5 m 625 ft solid steel core supported by 3 legs more likely to be categorized as a steel tower than a lattice tower
Transmitter Sottens, old transmission tower 1948 Switzerland Sottens 190 m 623 ft 4-sided demolished in 1989, mediumwave selfradiating tower insulated against ground
Bratsk TV Tower[145] 1963 Russia Bratsk 190 m 623 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
ATV10 Tower[146][147] 1964 Australia Melbourne 190 m 623 ft 4-sided height increase of 10 m (33 ft) in 2001
Cayey Naval Station, Tower 1[148] 1919 USA Cayey, Puerto Rico 189 m 620 ft 3-sided, Annapolis type military use demolished in 1938
Cayey Naval Station, Tower 2 1919 USA Cayey, Puerto Rico 189 m 620 ft 3-sided, Annapolis type military use demolished in 1938
Cayey Naval Station, Tower 3 1919 USA Cayey, Puerto Rico 189 m 620 ft 3-sided, Annapolis type military use demolished in 1938
Cambridge Bay LORAN Tower 1948 Canada Cambridge Bay 189 m 620 ft 4-sided demolished in August 2014[149]
Sottens Radio Tower 1989 Switzerland Sottens 188 m 617 ft 4-sided mediumwave, selfradiating tower insulated against ground
Soinaste Telemast[150] 1957 Estonia Tartu 186 m 610 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Chisinau TV Tower[151] 1958 Moldova Chisinau 186 m 610 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Petrozavodsk TV Tower[152] 1959 Russia Petrozavodsk 186 m 610 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
KIRO TV Tower[69] 1958 USA Seattle, Washington 186 m 609 ft 3-sided
Santa Palomba transmitter, Main Tower ? Italy Santa Palomba 186 m 609 ft 4-sided equipped with cage antenna for mediumwave broadcasting
Ovce Pole Radio Tower[153] ? Macedonia Lozovo 185 m 608 ft 4-sided
Semipalatinsk TV Tower[154] ? Kazakhstan Semey 185 m 608 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Ekibastuz TV Tower[155] 1967 Kazakhstan Ekibastuz 185 m 607 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Vlessart TV Tower[156] ? Belgium Rue Vlessart Airmont Léglise 185 m 607 ft 4-sided, horizontal bars of frame are fixed at the centre column
Anderlues TV Tower[157] ? Belgium Anderlues 185 m 607 ft 4-sided
Tower at 4800 Reagan Drive[158] 2004 USA Charlotte, North Carolina 184.4 m 605 ft 3-sided
Brisbane ABQ TV Tower[159] 1959 Australia Brisbane 184.3 m 605 ft 4-sided 27°27′52″S 152°56′51″E
KWEX TV Tower[160] 1998 USA San Antonio, Texas 184.1 m 604 ft 3-sided
NAA (Arlington, Virginia), Tower 1[161] 1913 USA Arlington, Virginia 183 m 600 ft 4-sided, military use dismantled in 1941,[162] was the first of many US Naval radio transmitting station,[163] it was the tallest lattice tower in the United States when built and second tallest in the world after the Eiffel Tower the site also featured two 450-foot tall lattice towers which were possibly the 3rd and 4th tallest in the world at that time
US Naval Communications Station Balboa - Panama, Tower 1[164] 1914 USA (Now Panama) Balboa 183 m 600 ft 3-sided, Annapolis type military use 6 towers on site built by the US Navy, began operations in 1912, tower possibly demolished in 1993, site returned to Panama in 1996[165] and station decommissioned by 1999[166]
US Naval Communications Station Balboa - Panama, Tower 2 1914 USA (Now Panama) Balboa 183 m 600 ft 3-sided, Annapolis type military use demolished by 1999
US Naval Communications Station Balboa - Panama, Tower 3 1914 USA (Now Panama) Balboa 183 m 600 ft 3-sided, Annapolis type military use demolished by 1999
US Naval Communications Station Balboa - Panama, Tower 4 1914 USA (Now Panama) Balboa 183 m 600 ft 3-sided, Annapolis type military use demolished by 1999
US Naval Communications Station Balboa - Panama, Tower 5 1914 USA (Now Panama) Balboa 183 m 600 ft 3-sided, Annapolis type military use demolished by 1999
US Naval Communications Station Balboa - Panama, Tower 6 1914 USA (Now Panama) Balboa 183 m 600 ft 3-sided, Annapolis type military use demolished by 1999
Naval Station Sangley Point, Tower 1[167] 1915 USA (Now Philippines) Cavite 183 m 600 ft 3-sided, Annapolis type military use demolished in 1971, 3 towers on site built by the US Navy
Naval Station Sangley Point, Tower 2 1915 USA (Now Philippines) Cavite 183 m 600 ft 3-sided, Annapolis type military use demolished in 1971
Naval Station Sangley Point, Tower 3 1915 USA (Now Philippines) Cavite 183 m 600 ft 3-sided, Annapolis type military use demolished in 1971
Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Tower 1[168] 1917 USA San Diego 183 m 600 ft 3-sided, Annapolis type military use demolished in 1995, 3 towers on site built by the US Navy
Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Tower 2 1917 USA San Diego 183 m 600 ft 3-sided, Annapolis type military use demolished in 1995
Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Tower 3 1917 USA San Diego 183 m 600 ft 3-sided, Annapolis type military use demolished in 1995
US Naval Radio Station Pearl Harbor, Tower 1[169] 1917 USA Pearl Harbor 183 m 600 ft 3-sided, Annapolis type military use dismantled in 1936, the transmitters were later used at Lualualei Naval Radio Transmitting Facility[170]
US Naval Radio Station Pearl Harbor, Tower 2 1917 USA Pearl Harbor 183 m 600 ft 3-sided, Annapolis type military use dismantled in 1936
US Naval Radio Station Pearl Harbor, Tower 3 1917 USA Pearl Harbor 183 m 600 ft 3-sided, Annapolis type military use dismantled in 1936
NSS Annapolis, Tower 1 1918 USA Annapolis 183 m 600 ft 3-sided, Annapolis type military use demolished in 1969. The site originally had a total of 9 self-supporting 600-foot tall the most lattice towers of that height ever built in a single location. Four were built in 1918, two more in 1922 and the final three in 1938. The 6 towers built in 1918 & 1922 were demolished in 1969 while the 3 towers built in 1938 remain today.[171] Tied for tallest lattice towers in the United States from 1918 to 1949
NSS Annapolis, Tower 2 1918 USA Annapolis 183 m 600 ft 3-sided, Annapolis type military use demolished in 1969
NSS Annapolis, Tower 3 1918 USA Annapolis 183 m 600 ft 3-sided, Annapolis type military use demolished in 1969
NSS Annapolis, Tower 4 1918 USA Annapolis 183 m 600 ft 3-sided, Annapolis type military use demolished in 1969
NSS Annapolis, Tower 5 1922 USA Annapolis 183 m 600 ft 3-sided, Annapolis type military use demolished in 1969
NSS Annapolis, Tower 6 1922 USA Annapolis 183 m 600 ft 3-sided, Annapolis type military use demolished in 1969
NSS Annapolis, Tower 7[171] 1938 USA Annapolis 183 m 600 ft 3-sided Annapolis type 3 towers remaining, site previously had a total of 9 towers
NSS Annapolis, Tower 8[171] 1938 USA Annapolis 183 m 600 ft 3-sided Annapolis type
NSS Annapolis, Tower 9[171] 1938 USA Annapolis 183 m 600 ft 3-sided Annapolis type
Lualualei Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Tower 1 1936 USA Lualualei 183 m 600 ft 3-sided, Annapolis type military use demolished in 1972, 7 possibly 8 towers[172][173] on site built by the US Navy, these were later replaced in 1972 with two 1,500-foot tall guyed masts[173]
Lualualei Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Tower 2 1936 USA Lualualei 183 m 600 ft 3-sided, Annapolis type military use demolished in 1972
Lualualei Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Tower 3 1936 USA Lualualei 183 m 600 ft 3-sided, Annapolis type military use demolished in 1972
Lualualei Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Tower 4 1936 USA Lualualei 183 m 600 ft 3-sided, Annapolis type military use demolished in 1972
Lualualei Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Tower 5 1936 USA Lualualei 183 m 600 ft 3-sided, Annapolis type military use demolished in 1972
Lualualei Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Tower 6 1936 USA Lualualei 183 m 600 ft 3-sided, Annapolis type military use demolished in 1972
Lualualei Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Tower 7 1936 USA Lualualei 183 m 600 ft 3-sided, Annapolis type military use demolished in 1972
Criggion VLF transmitter, Tower 1 1941 UK Criggion, Powys 182.9 m 600 ft 4-sided, military use demolished in 2003
Criggion VLF transmitter, Tower 2 1941 UK Criggion, Powys 182.9 m 600 ft 4-sided, military use demolished in 2003
Criggion VLF transmitter, Tower 3 1941 UK Criggion, Powys 182.9 m 600 ft 4-sided, military use demolished in 2003
Mulhouse-Belvédère Transmission, Old Tower[174] 1955 France Mulhouse 182.9 m 600 ft 3-sided demolished in 1998
TV Tower RTPTS Berezniki[175] 1961 Russia Berezniki 183 m 600 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Tower at 503 Mcarthur Drive[176] 2016 USA New Bedford, Massachusetts 182.9 m 600 ft 3-sided
Ryazan TV Tower[177] 1956 Russia Ryazan 182.5 m 599 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Nizhny Novgorod TV Tower[178] 1957 Russia Nizhny Novgorod 182 m 597 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Old Ufa TV Tower[179] 1958 Russia Ufa 182 m 597 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Old Perm TV Tower[42] 1958 Russia Perm 182 m 597 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Kazan TV Tower[180] 1959 Russia Kazan 182 m 597 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
KSTP TV Tower[181] 1948 USA Saint Paul, Minnesota 181.1 m 594 ft 3-sided
Old WSTM-TV Tower[182] 1953 USA Syracuse, New York 181.0 m 594 ft 4-sided demolished in 2003
WQED TV Tower[183] 1954 USA Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 181.1 m 594 ft 3-sided candelabra top
KCTS TV Tower Tower[69][184] 1965 USA Seattle, Washington 181.1 m 594 ft 3-sided
Tower on Mamayev Kurgan[185] 1956 Russia Volgograd 180 m 591 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Vladimirskaya TV Tower[186] 1956 Russia Vladimirskaya 180 m 591 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Old Krasnoyarsk TV Tower[97] 1957 Russia Krasnoyarsk 180 m 591 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Samara TV Tower[187] 1957 Russia Samara 180 m 591 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Kemerovo TV Tower[188] 1958 Russia Kemerovo 180 m 591 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Sochi TV Tower[189] 1958 Russia Sochi 180 m 591 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
KRTPTS Eagle's Nest[190] 1959 Russia Vladivostok 180 m 591 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Arzamas TV Tower[191] 1960 Russia Arzamas 180 m 591 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Tambov TV Tower[192] 1960 Russia Tambov 180 m 591 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Yoshkar-Ola TV Tower[193] 1960 Russia Yoshkar-Ola 180 m 591 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Astrakhan TV Tower[194] 1961 Russia Astrakhan 180 m 591 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Cheboksary TV Tower[195] 1961 Russia Cheboksary 180 m 591 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Kurgan TV Tower[196] 1961 Russia Kurgan 180 m 591 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Leninsk-Kuznetsky TV Tower[197] 1962 Russia Leninsk-Kuznetsky 180 m 591 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Magnitogorsk TV Tower[198] 1962 Russia Magnitogorsk 180 m 591 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Novokuznetsk TV Tower[199] 1962 Russia Novokuznetsk 180 m 591 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Tula TV Tower[200][201] 1963 Russia Tula 180 m 591 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Khabarovsk TV Tower[202] 1964 Russia Khabarovsk 180 m 591 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Syktyvkar TV Tower[203] 1964 Russia Syktyvkar 180 m 591 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Donetsk TV Tower 2[204] 1964 Ukraine Donetsk 180 m 591 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Yarok TV and Radio Tower 1964 Ukraine Yarok 180 m 591 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM[205]
Kokshetau TV Tower[206] 1965 Kazakhstan Kokshetau 180 m 591 ft 4-sided with lateral supports added in 2002 for vertical stability after washout[207]
Nalchik TV Tower[208] 1967 Russia Nalchik 180 m 591 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Andriivka TV Tower[209] 1969 Ukraine Andriivka 180 m 591 ft 4-sided
Kotovsk Communication Tower[210] 1972 Ukraine Vesternychany 180 m 591 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Mezhdurechenskaya TV tower[211] 1972 Russia Mezhdurechensk 180 m 591 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Chongqing Radio & TV Tower[212] 1973 China Yuzhong, Chongqing CQ 180 m 591 ft 4-sided
Kuldiga TV Tower[213] ? Latvia Kuldiga 180 m 591 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Uralsvyazinform tower[42][214] 2003 Russia Perm 180 m 591 ft Hyperboloid structure
Aktobe TV Tower[215] ? Kazakhstan Aktobe 180 m 591 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Ust-Kamenogorsk TV Tower[216] ? Kazakhstan Oskemen 180 m 591 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Petropavlovsk TV Tower[217] ? Kazakhstan Oskemen 180 m 591 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Makhachkala TV Tower[218] ? Russia Makhachkala 180 m 591 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM[219]
Tobolsk TV Tower[220] ? Russia Tobolsk 180 m 591 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Tyumen TV Tower[221] ? Russia Tyumen 180 m 591 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Tashkent Old TV Tower[222] ? Uzbekistan Tashkent 180 m 591 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Gyumri TV Tower[223] ? Armenia Gyumri 180 m 591 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
Nagoya TV Tower 1954 Japan Nagoya 180 m 590 ft 4-sided
Smolensk TV Tower[224] 1957 Russia Smolensk 180 m 590 ft
Funabashi Miyama Broadcasting Station A Radio Tower[225] 1970 Japan Tokyo 180 m 590 ft 4-sided
KDFW TV Tower[226] 1949 USA Dallas, Texas 179 m 587 ft 4-sided current height 149.8 m (491 ft)
WTOB Radio Tower[227][228] 1953 USA Winston-Salem, North Carolina 178.61 m 586 ft 3-sided demolition date unknown
1230 East Mermaid Lane Tower[229] 1957 USA Wyndmoor, Pennsylvania 178 m 585 ft 3-sided
WTNV Tower[230] 1947 USA Jackson, Tennessee 176.8 m 580 ft 4-sided collapsed caused by tornado on May 4, 2003
KGO-TV Tower[231] 1949 USA San Francisco, California 176.8 m 580 ft 3-sided demolished in 1972 to make way for the Sutro Tower
Ministry of Defense Building B[232] 1996 Japan Tokyo 177 m 580 ft 12-sided, built on top of a building total height including building is 722 ft (220 m)
Balashikha Tower[233] ? Russia Balashikha 176 m 577 ft 4-sided non-tapering
Old WLWT TV Tower[234][235] 1948 USA Cincinnati 173.7 m 570 ft 4-sided dismantled in 2005, replaced by the WLWT TV Tower
KING TV Tower[69] 1952 USA Seattle, Washington 174 m 570 ft 4-sided
KGHL Tower[236][237] 1928 USA Billings 173 m 568 ft 3-sided demolished in 2020
Hirano Radio Tower[238] 1971 Japan Saitama 173 m 568 ft solid central core supported with 4 legs, central core possibly made out of concrete?
WDET Tower[69] 1996 USA Detroit, Michigan 172.5 m 566 ft 3-sided
KOMO TV Tower[69] 1952 USA Seattle, Washington 172 m 564 ft 3-sided
Yokohama Radio Tower ? Japan Yokohama 172 m 564 ft 4-sided 35°31'28.15"N 139°39'50.84"E
Original TCN TV Tower[239] 1956 Australia Sydney 171 m 561 ft 4-sided demolished in 1966
Rimavská Sobota SW Transmitter, Tower 1 1956[240] Slovakia Rimavská Sobota 171 m 561 ft 4-sided 4 identical towers[241]
Rimavská Sobota SW Transmitter, Tower 2 1956 Slovakia Rimavská Sobota 171 m 561 ft 4-sided
Rimavská Sobota SW Transmitter, Tower 3 1956 Slovakia Rimavská Sobota 171 m 561 ft 4-sided
Rimavská Sobota SW Transmitter, Tower 4 1956 Slovakia Rimavská Sobota 171 m 561 ft 4-sided
Hearst Stations Tower[242] 1957 USA Sacramento, California 170.2 m 558 ft 3-sided
Tower at 2740 South Freeway[243] 1992 USA Fort Worth, Texas 170.1 m 558 ft 4-sided
WHHL-FM Tower[244] 2008 USA St. Louis, Missouri 170.1 m 558 ft 3-sided
Rimavská Sobota SW Transmitter, Tower 5[245] 1956 Slovakia Rimavská Sobota 170 m 558 ft 4-sided
Rimavská Sobota SW Transmitter, Tower 6[245] 1956 Slovakia Rimavská Sobota 170 m 558 ft 4-sided
Gore Hill ABC TV Tower[246] 1957[247] Australia Sydney 170 m 558 ft 4-sided
VRT Zendmast Oostvleteren ? Belgium Oostvleteren 170 m 558 ft 4-sided
WTVH TV Tower[248] 1948 USA Syracuse, New York 169.5 m 556 ft 4-sided
KSAT TV Tower[249] 1957 USA San Antonio, Texas 168.9 m 554 ft 3-sided
Gaocheng TV Tower[250] ? China Gaocheng 168 m 551 ft
WWVR Tower[251] 1954 USA Terre Haute, Indiana 167.6 m 550 ft 3-sided
Yiye Avila Tower[252] 1991 USA Utuado, Puerto Rico 167 m 548 ft Landmark tower design collapsed caused by Hurricane Maria September 2017[253][254]
VRT Zendmast Schoten ? Belgium Schoten 167 m 548 ft 4-sided
KNBC Mount Wilson Tower[255] 1998 USA Mount Wilson, California 166 m 545 ft 4-sided
CBC Jarvis St. Tower 1952 Canada Toronto 164.6 m 540 ft 4-sided demolished in 2002
RTBF Profondeville ? Belgium Riviere 164 m 538 ft
KCCI TV Tower[256] 1985 USA Des Moines, Iowa 163.6 m 537 ft 3-sided
TV Tower Tournai-Froidmont 1967 Belgium Tournai-Froidmont 163 m 535 ft 4-sided
WJAR TV Tower[257] 2013 USA Rehoboth, Massachusetts 162.7 m 534 ft 4-sided
WRAT Tower[258] ? USA Lake Como, NJ 162.5 m 533 ft 3-sided
WXRT Tower[259] 1971 USA Chicago, Illinois 162.2 m 532 ft 3-sided
Higashiyama TV Tower[260] 1969 Japan Nagoya 162 m 532 ft 4-sided
WOWT TV Tower[261] 1949 USA Omaha, Nebraska 161.6 m 530 ft 3-sided
Tower at 2599 Palumbo Drive[262] 1991 USA Lexington, Kentucky 161.5 m 530 ft 3-sided, 8-sided top
Ishikawa TV Broadcasting Tower Japan Kanazawa 162 m 530 ft solid steel core supported by a 8-sided non-tapering lattice 36°35'17.37"N 136°36'21.62"E
Martina Franca Tower 1[263] ? Italy Martina Franca 161 m 528 ft 4-sided
WIZF Tower[264][265] 1976 USA Cincinnati, Ohio 160.9 m 528 ft 4-sided
KDNL TV Tower[266][267] 1947 USA Saint Louis, Missouri 160.8 m 528 ft 4-sided
Shukhov radio Tower 1922 Russia Moscow 160 m 525 ft Hyperboloid structure
Luch Tower 1[268] 1954 Ukraine Luch 160 m 525 ft 4-sided
Luch Tower 2[268] 1954 Ukraine Luch 160 m 525 ft 4-sided
Tower at 210 R.Bruxeias[269] 1983 Brazil São Paulo 160 m 525 ft 4-sided 23°32'36.94"S 46°40'58.31"W
Tverskaya TV Tower[270] 2005 Russia Tverskaya 160 m 525 ft 4-sided
Torre da TV Bahia[271] ? Brazil Salvador 160 m 525 ft 4-sided
Canal Tower 4 (Tres Cruces)[272] ? Uruguay Montevideo 160 m 525 ft 4-sided
Bell Canada Pharmacy Avenue Tower[273] 1970 Canada Toronto 160 m 524 ft 3-sided non-tapering
Ural TV Tower[274] ? Kazakhstan Uralsk 160 m 524 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM
City of Dallas Tower[275] 1983 USA Dallas, Texas 159.4 m 523 ft 4-sided
WSAV TV Tower[266][276] 1956 USA Savannah, Georgia 159.1 m 522 ft 3-sided
Chernihiv TV Tower[277] 1959 Ukraine Chernihiv 159 m 522 ft 4-sided
Telecomm Antenna[278] ? Brazil Rio de Janeiro 159 m 522 ft 4-sided
To Kannondomachi TV Tower Japan Kanazawa 159.5 m 520 ft 4-sided 36°35'22.37"N 136°36'28.83"E
WLLY Tower[279][280] 1995 USA Mangonia Park, Florida 158.2 m 519 ft Landmark tower design
Zendmast Zichtenburg[281] 2007 Netherlands The Hague 158 m 518 ft 3-sided
Skytel Tower[282][283] 2004 USA Des Moines 157.8 m 518 ft 3-sided
WHIO (AM) Tower[284] 1948 USA Dayton, Ohio 157.6 m 517 ft 4-sided demolished in 2013[285]
CFCN TV Tower 1960 Canada Calgary 157.6 m 517 ft 3-sided
RaTel Tower[286] 1950 Ukraine Kyiv 157 m 515 ft 4-sided
Tower at 47 S State Avenue[287][288] 1991 USA Indianapolis, Indiana 155.4 m 510 ft 3-sided
Tower at 1220 S Acacia Avenue[289] 1994 USA Ripon, California 155.4 m 510 ft 3-sided
Mesquite Tower 1990 USA Mesquite, Texas 155.3 m 509.5 ft Landmark tower design
KETV TV Tower[290] 1957 USA Omaha, Nebraska 155.1 m 509 ft 3-sided
RTS TV Tower 1981 Singapore Bukit Batok 155 m 509 ft 4-sided replaced the original tower built in 1963[291]
Torre da TV Cultura[292][293] 1992 Brazil São Paulo 154.8 m 508 ft 3-sided, rotating 180 degrees on its axis 3 times
Telecomm Antenna ? Brazil Rio de Janeiro 155 m 508 ft 4-sided 22°56'59.59"S 43°13'46.44"W
NOVEC Toren[294] 2005 Netherlands Zwolle 154.5 m 507 ft 3-sided
Tower at 4344 Park Heights Avenue[295] 1987 USA Baltimore, Maryland 154.5 m 507 ft 3-sided
Tower at 78 Veronica Avenue[296] 2013 USA Franklin Township, New Jersey 154.5 m 507 ft 3-sided
Washington Police Department Tower[297] ? USA Washington, DC 154.3 m 506 ft 4-sided
WSB TV Tower[298] 1975 USA Atlanta, Georgia 154.2 m 506 ft 3-sided
Tower at 1420 R.Americo Salgado ? Brazil Cuiaba 154.2 m 506 ft 4-sided 15°35'12.57"S 56° 5'36.58"W
Old KLDT TV Tower[299] 1990 USA Lewisville, Texas 153.6 m 504 ft 3-sided
WOAI TV Tower[300][301] 2010 USA San Antonio, Texas 153.3 m 503 ft 3-sided
TV Bandeirantes Antenna[302] ? Brazil Rio de Janeiro 153.3 m 503 ft 4-sided
Tower at 26501 Renaissance Parkway[303] 1990 USA Cleveland, Ohio 153 m 502 ft 3-sided
WRDW TV Tower[304] 1998 USA Augusta, Georgia 152.7 m 501 ft 3-sided
Tower at 1060 Gatewood Avenue[305] 2019 USA Greensboro, North Carolina 152.7 m 501 ft 3-sided
Original ATN TV Tower[306] 1956 Australia Sydney 152 m 500 ft 4-sided demolished in 1973
Croydon Transmitter 1962 UK London, Surrey 152 m 500 ft 4-sided
IBC Tower[307] 1978 Philippines Quezon City 152 m 500 ft 4-sided
Tower at 4802 Lookaway Drive[308] 1987 USA Cincinnati, Ohio 152.4 m 500 ft 3-sided
PTV Television Transmitter[309] 1993 Philippines Quezon City 152.4 m 500 ft 4-sided
Tower at 1350 Howell Mill Road[310] 1995 USA Atlanta, Georgia 152.4 m 500 ft 3-sided
WPTK (850 AM) Tower[311] 1996 USA Cary, North Carolina 152.4 m 500 ft 4-sided
Tower at 15 Van Dyke Avenue[312] 1999 USA New Brunswick, New Jersey 152.4 m 500 ft 3-sided
Tower at 180 Freeman Avenue[313] 2000 USA Islip, NY 152.4 m 500 ft 3-sided
Cleveland Buckeye Terminals Tower[314] 2000 USA Cleveland, Ohio 152.4 m 500 ft 3-sided
Tower at 1810 Jeffries[315] 2000 USA Dallas, Texas 152.4 m 500 ft 3-sided
Susquehanna Radio Corp Tower[316] 2001 USA Dallas, Texas 152.4 m 500 ft 3-sided
Tower at 2949 2/3 Carr Street[317] 2001 USA Houston, Texas 152.4 m 500 ft 3-sided
Tower at 5109 Carder Road[318] 2004 USA Orlando, Florida 152.4 m 500 ft 3-sided
TV Globo Digital Tower 2006 Brazil Sao Paulo 152.4 m 500 ft 3-sided, built on top of a building Height confirmed by google earth 3 dimensional building data, location; 23°34'4.36"S 46°39'1.65"W
Tower at 5320 Shepard Drive[319] 2008 USA Houston, Texas 152.4 m 500 ft 3-sided
Tower at 2500 Se Loop 820[320] 2011 USA Fort Worth, Texas 152.4 m 500 ft 4-sided
City of Conroe Fire Dept. Tower[321] 2011 USA Spring, Texas 152.4 m 500 ft 3-sided
Tower at 6922 Katy Road[322] 2012 USA Houston, Texas 152.4 m 500 ft 3-sided
San Antonio Police Department Tower[323] 2012 USA San Antonio, Texas 152.4 m 500 ft 3-sided
Indian River State College Tower[324] 2013 USA Fort Pierce, Florida 152.4 m 500 ft 3-sided
Tower at 19 Oldham Street[325] 2017 USA Nashville, TN 152.4 m 500 ft 3-sided
RKS Mělník-Chloumek ? Czech Republic Mělník 152 m 500 ft 4 sided non-tapering used for Mediumwave
RKS Dobrochov[326] ? Czech Republic Dobrochov 152 m 500 ft 4-sided non-tapering Mediumwave
Antena Califormula Broadcasting[327] ? Mexico Tijuana 152 m 500 ft 4-sided
Federal Hill Road Tower[328] 1970 USA Pompton Lakes, New Jersey 152.1 m 499 ft 3-sided
WHBF TV Tower[329] 1950 USA Rock Island, Illinois 152 m 499 ft 4-sided
WAFB TV Tower[330] 1951 USA Baton Rouge, Louisiana 152 m 499 ft 3-sided second source lists the tower as being 475 ft tall[331]
Tower at 375 Midland Avenue[332] 1981 USA Detroit, Michigan 152 m 499 ft 3-sided
WMUZ Tower[333] 1985 USA Detroit, Michigan 152 m 499 ft 3-sided
L3Harris Technologies Tower[333] 1992 USA Key Largo, Florida 152 m 499 ft 3-sided
Tower at 11149 Trinity Blvd[334] 1997 USA Fort Worth, Texas 152.2 m 499 ft 4-sided candelabra top
WQNC-FM Tower[335] 2000 USA Charlotte, North Carolina 152.2 m 499 ft 3-sided
Charlotte American Tower[336][337] 2001 USA Charlotte, North Carolina 151 m 499 ft 3-sided candelabra top
Tower at 14247 Old St. Augustine Road[338] 2002 USA Jacksonville, Florida 152 m 499 ft 3-sided
Cumulus Media Tower[339][340] 2004 USA Shreveport, Louisiana 152 m 499 ft Landmark tower design
WPEC TV Tower[341] 2008 USA West Palm Beach, Florida 152 m 499 ft 3-sided
New York AM Radio, LLC Tower 1[342] 2009 USA North Bergen, New Jersey 152.1 m 499 ft 3-sided 3 towers
New York AM Radio, LLC Tower 2[343] 2009 USA North Bergen, New Jersey 152.1 m 499 ft 3-sided
New York AM Radio, LLC Tower 3[344] 2009 USA North Bergen, New Jersey 152.1 m 499 ft 3-sided
Tower at 4098 Rolling Stone Lane[345] 2012 USA St. Louis, Missouri 152.1 m 499 ft 3-sided
Tower off Schumacher Road[346] 2013 USA St. Louis, Missouri 152.1 m 499 ft 3-sided
Tower at 1340 West Outer 21 Road[347] 2013 USA St. Louis, Missouri 152.1 m 499 ft 3-sided
AR & JR Radio Tower[348] 2017 USA Austin, Texas 152 m 499 ft 3-sided candelabra top
City of Chesapeake Tower[349][350] 2018 USA Chesapeake, Virginia 152 m 499 ft 3-sided
City of Jackson Tower[351] ? USA Jackson, Mississippi 152 m 499 ft Landmark tower design
Tower at 2060 15th Avenue South[352][353] 1999 USA Nashville, Tennessee 151.8 m 498 ft 3-sided
4 Broadcast Place Tower[354][355] 1988 USA Jacksonville, Florida 151.6 m 497 ft 3-sided
WETA TV Tower[356] ? USA Arlington, Virginia 151 m 495 ft 3-sided
Houdeng TV Tower ? Belgium Houdeng 151 m 495 ft 4-sided
Tour Dégueu[357] ? Belgium Leglise-Anlier 151 m 495 ft 4-sided, Top guyed lattice tower, featuring a guyed upper section with four horizontal crossbars
Tower at 1450 Westpark Way[358] 1996 USA Fort Worth, Texas 150.6 m 494 ft 4-sided candelabra top
Old Ust-Kamenogorsk TV Tower[216] ? Kazakhstan Oskemen 151 m 494 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM design, shortened
Tower at 67315 Kirkwood Heights Road[359] 2005 USA Brookside, Ohio 150.3 m 493 ft 3-sided
Longwave transmitter Lahti, Tower 1 1927 Finland Lahti 150 m 492 ft two towers carrying an antenna for longwave
Longwave transmitter Lahti, Tower 2 1927 Finland Lahti 150 m 492 ft
RKS Liblice 1, Tower 1 1931 Czech Republic Liblice 150 m 492 ft 4-sided, antenna for longwave demolished in 2004
RKS Liblice 1, Tower 2 1931 Czech Republic Liblice 150 m 492 ft 4-sided, antenna for longwave demolished in 2004
Mannesmann Tower (Vienna)[360] 1955 Austria Vienna 150 m 492 ft 3-sided demolished in 1987
Vorkuta TV Tower[361] 1958 Russia Vorkuta 150 m 492 ft 4-sided, 3803 KM design, shortened
Novgorod TV Tower[362] 1958 Russia Novgorod 150 m 492 ft 4-sided
Yokohama Media Tower[363] 1999 Japan Yokohama 150 m 492 ft 4-sided non-tapering, built on top of a building total height including building is 253 m (830 ft)[364]
Halle Radio Tower 2005 Germany Halle 150 m 492 ft 4-sided
WGTK-FM Tower[365] 2007 USA Greenville, South Carolina 149.9 m 492 ft 3-sided
New Ufa TV Tower[179] 2016 Russia Ufa 150 m 492 ft 4-sided
RPN Transmitter Tower[366] ? Philippines Quezon City 150 m 492 ft 4-sided
KBC tower ? Japan Fukuoka 150 m 492 ft 4-sided 33°35'45.77"N 130°23'44.05"E
NHK/Tohoku/East Japan Broadcasting Tower[367] ? Japan Sendai 150 m 492 ft 4-sided

Electrical Pylons[edit]

List of Electrical pylons above 150 m / 500 ft in height.

View of one of the Jiangyin lattice towers, the second tallest set of Electrical pylons in the world
Pylons of Messina formerly connected Europe to Africa, an underwater cable is used today
Elbe Crossing 2 the tallest Electrical pylons in Germany
Chūshi Powerline Crossing the tallest Electrical pylons in Japan
400 kV Thames Crossing the tallest Electrical pylons in the United Kingdom
Tower Year Country Town Height m Height ft Remarks
Jintang and Cezi islands Overhead Powerline Tie, East Tower[17] 2019 China Jintang Island 380 m 1247 ft Tallest pylons in the world
Zhoushan Island Overhead Powerline Tie 2009 China Damao Island 370 m 1214 ft
Yangtze River Crossing Jiangyin 2003 China Jiangyin 346.5m 1137 ft
Amazonas Crossing of Tucuruí transmission line 2012 Brazil Almeirim 295 m 968 ft Tallest electricity pylons in South America
Yangtze River crossing of Shanghai-Huainan Powerline 2013 China Gaogouzhen 269.75 885 ft
Pylons of Pearl River Crossing 1987 China Pearl River 253 m & 240 m 830 ft & 787 ft
Orinoco River Crossing ? Venezuela Caroní 240 m 787 ft
Hooghly River Crossing ? India Diamond Harbour 236 m 774 ft
Pylons of Messina 1957 Italy Messina 232 m 761 ft not used as pylons any more, 224 m not including concrete base
HVDC Yangtze River Crossing Wuhu 2003 China Wuhu 229 m 751 ft Tallest electricity pylons used for HVDC
Elbe Crossing 2 1976–1978 Germany Stade 227 m 744 ft
Chūshi Powerline Crossing 1962 Japan Takehara 226 m 742 ft Tallest electricity pylons in Japan
Daqi-Channel-Crossing 1997 Japan Takehara 223 m 732 ft
Overhead line crossing Suez Canal 1998 Egypt 221 m 725 ft
Yamen Steel Tube Tower[368][369] 2005 China Jiangmen 215 m 707 ft
Yangzi River Crossing of HVDC Xianjiaba – Shanghai[20] 2009 China ??? 202 m 663 ft
Balakovo 500 kV Wolga Crossing, Tower East ? Russia Balakovo 197 m 646 ft
LingBei-Channel-Crossing 1993 Japan Reihoku 195 m 640 ft
Doel Schelde Powerline Crossing 2 2019 Belgium Antwerpen 192 m 630 ft Second crossing of Schelde River
400 kV Thames Crossing 1965 UK West Thurrock 190 m 623 ft
Elbe Crossing 1 1958–1962 Germany Stade 189 m 620 ft
Kogushi Electric Power Transmission Tower[370] 1994 Japan Okayama 185 m 607 ft
Antwerp Deurganck dok crossing 2000 Belgium Antwerpen 178 m 584 ft Crossing for a container quay
Línea de Transmisión Carapongo – Carabayllo 2015 Perú Lima 176 m 577 ft Crossing of Rimac River
Tracy Saint Lawrence River Powerline Crossing ? Canada Tracy 174.6 m 573 ft tallest electricity pylon in Canada
Doel Schelde Powerline Crossing[371] ? Belgium Antwerp 170 m 558 ft
Sunshine Mississippi Powerline Crossing 1967 United States St. Gabriel, Louisiana 164.6 m 540 ft Tallest electricity pylons in the United States
Lekkerkerk Crossing 1 1970 Netherlands Lekkerkerk 163 m 534 ft Tallest crossing in the Netherlands
Bosporus overhead line crossing III 1999 Turkey Istanbul 160 m 525 ft
Balakovo 500 kV Wolga Crossing, Tower West ? Russia Balakovo 159 m 522 ft
Pylons of Cadiz ? Spain Cadiz 158 m 519 ft
Mississippi River Crossing at Montz[372] 1991 USA Montz 152.1 m 499 ft
Amazonas Crossing of Tucuruí transmission line at Jurupari island 2012 Brazil Almeirim 150 m 492 ft
Maracaibo Bay Powerline Crossing ? Venezuela Maracaibo 150 m 492 ft Towers on caissons

Wind turbines[edit]

Tall wind turbines supported by lattice tallest have been built almost exclusively in Germany, one of the first countries in the world to build wide spread renewable power resources. The total height includes the lattice tower and the wind turbine rotor at peak height.

List of wind turbines with a lattice tower above 150 m / 500 ft in height.

Tower Year Country Town meters feet Remarks
Nowy Tomyśl Wind Turbines 2012 Poland Nowy Tomyśl, Poland 210 m 689 ft 160 m tall tower, rotor diameter of 100 m
Fuhrländer Wind Turbine Laasow 2006 Germany Laasow, Brandenburg 205 m 673 ft 160 m tall tower, rotor diameter of 90 m
Fuhrländer Wind Turbines Spremberg 2009 Germany Spremberg, Brandenburg 191 m 627 ft 141 m tall tower, rotor diameter of 100 m, 9 units
Laubersreuth Fuhrländer Wind Turbines 2010 Germany Münchberg, Bavaria 191 m 627 ft 141 m tall tower, rotor diameter of 100 m, 2 units
Ewiger Fuhrmann Vestas V66 Wind Turbine Germany Kreuztal, North Rhine-Westphalia 150 m 492 ft 117 m tall tower, rotor diameter of 66 m
Oyten Vestas V-66 Wind Turbines 2000/2002 Germany Oyten, Lower-Saxony 150 m 492 ft 117 m tall tower, rotor diameter of 66 m, 2 units
Elspe Fuhrländer FL 77 Wind Turbine 2001 Germany Elspe, North Rhine-Westphalia 150 m 492 ft 111.5 m tall tower, rotor diameter of 77 m,
Melle Südwind S77 Wind Turbines 2001/2003 Germany Melle, Lower Saxony 150 m 492 ft 111.5 m tall tower, rotor diameter of 77 m, 6 units
Heisberg Südwind S77 Wind Turbine 2002 Germany Freudenberg, North Rhine-Westphalia 150 m 492 ft 111.5 m tall tower, rotor diameter of 77 m,
Wallmersbach Südwind S77 Wind Turbine 2002 Germany Uffenheim, Bavaria 150 m 492 ft 111.5 m tall tower, rotor diameter of 77 m,
Achim Vestas V66 Wind Turbines 2002 Germany Achim, Lower Saxony 150 m 492 ft 117 m tall tower, rotor diameter of 66 m, 3 units
Badbergen Südwind S70\1500 wind turbines 2002 Germany Badbergen, Lower-Saxony 150 m 492 ft 114.5 m tall tower, rotor diameter of 70 m 12 units
Dinklage Südwind S70\1500 Wind Turbines 2002 Germany Dinklage, Lower Saxony 150 m 492 ft 114.5 m tall tower, rotor diameter of 70 m 5 units
Beedenbostel Vestas V66 Wind Turbines 2002 Germany Beedenbostel, Lower Saxony 150 m 492 ft 117 m tall tower, rotor diameter of 66 m, 5 units
Büddenstedt Südwind S77 Wind Turbines 2002 Germany Helmstedt, Lower Saxony 150 m 492 ft 111.5 m tall tower, rotor diameter of 77 m, 2 units
Schwagstorf Südwind S70\1500 Wind Turbines 2002 Germany Ostercappeln, Lower Saxony 150 m 492 ft 114.5 m tall tower, rotor diameter of 70 m 12 units
Kamp-Lintfort Südwind S77 Wind Turbines 2003 Germany Kamp-Lintfort, North Rhine-Westphalia 150 m 492 ft 111.5 m tall tower, rotor diameter of 77 m, 2 units
Wetzdorf REpower MD77 Wind Turbines 2003 Germany Wetzdorf, Thuringia 150 m 492 ft 111.5 m tall tower, rotor diameter of 77 m, 2 units
Hilgershausen Südwind S77 Wind Turbines 2003/ 2004 Germany Felsberg, Hesse 150 m 492 ft 111.5 m tall tower, rotor diameter of 77 m, 2 units
Kirchlinteln Vestas V66 Wind Turbines 2004 Germany Kirchlinteln, Lower Saxony 150 m 492 ft 117 m tall tower, rotor diameter of 66 m, 4 units
Dretzen Fuhrländer FL 77 Wind Turbines 2005 Germany Dretzen, Brandenburg 150 m 492 ft 111.5 m tall tower, rotor diameter of 77 m, 10 units
Bad Laer Nordex N90 Wind Turbine 2005 Germany Bad Laer, Lower Saxony 150 m 492 ft 105 m tall tower, rotor diameter of 90 m
Achmer Nordex N90 wind turbines 2006 Germany Achmer, Lower-Saxony 150 m 492 ft 105 m tall tower, rotor diameter of 90 m, 9 units
Alfhausen Nordex N90 wind turbines Germany Alfhausen, Lower-Saxony 150 m 492 ft 105 m tall tower, rotor diameter of 90 m, 12 units
Nike Laakdal Wind Park 2006 Belgium Laakdal 150 m 492 ft 111.5 m tall tower, rotor diameter of 77 m, 6 units
Voltlage Nordex S77 wind turbines 2006 Germany Voltlage, Lower-Saxony 150 m 492 ft 111.5 m tall tower, rotor diameter of 77 m, 7 units
Pattensen REpower MD77 Wind Turbine 2007 Germany Pattensen, Lower Saxony 150 m 492 ft 111.5 m tall tower, rotor diameter of 77 m
Kölkebeck REpower MD77 Wind Turbines 2007 Germany Kölkebeck, North Rhine-Westphalia 150 m 492 ft 111.5 m tall tower, rotor diameter of 77 m, 2 units
Schorbus REpower MD77 Wind Turbines 2007 Germany Schorbus, Brandenburg 150 m 492 ft 111.5 m tall tower, rotor diameter of 77 m, 2 units
Illerich Fuhrländer FL 77 Wind Turbines 2005 Germany Illerich, Rheinland-Pfalz 150 m 492 ft 111.5 m tall tower, rotor diameter of 77 m, 2 units
Glandorf Fuhrländer FL 70 Wind Turbine 2003 Germany Glandorf, Lower Saxony 149.5 m 491 ft 114.5 m talltower, rotor diameter of 70 m

Chimneys/Smokestacks[edit]

Three lattice stacks located at the Kashima Power Station

The majority of tall lattice chimneys in the world are located in Japan. Unlike other modern developed countries which use reinforced concrete to build tall chimneys Japan has historically used steel until recently for chimney construction.

List of lattice stacks above 150 m /492 ft in height.
  indicates a structure that is no longer standing.

Tower Year Country Town Height m Height ft Remarks
Kashima Power Station, stack 1 1971 Japan Kashima 231 m 758 ft 35°52′47″N 140°41′22″E / 35.87972°N 140.68944°E / 35.87972; 140.68944
Hitachinaka Power Plant Chimney[373][374] 2003 Japan Hitachinaka 230 m 754 ft Hyperboloid structure
Schilling Power Plant Chimney[375] 1962 Germany Stade 220 m 722 ft Demolished in 2005
Fina Antwerp Olefins Flare 1[376] Belgium Antwerp 211 m 694 ft
Fina Antwerp Olefins Flare 2[377] Belgium Antwerp 205 m 673 ft
Fina Antwerp Olefins Flare 3[378] Belgium Antwerp 204 m 669 ft
Kashima Kyodo power station Japan Kashima 203 m 665 ft 35°56′31″N 140°41′19″E / 35.94194°N 140.68861°E / 35.94194; 140.68861
JFE East Japan Works, stack 1[379] Japan Chiba 201 m 660 ft 35°34′21″N 140°5′12″E / 35.57250°N 140.08667°E / 35.57250; 140.08667
Anegasaki Power Station, stack 1 Japan Anegasaki 200 m 656 ft 35°29′06″N 140°01′00″E / 35.48500°N 140.01667°E / 35.48500; 140.01667
Anegasaki Power Station, stack 2 Japan Anegasaki 200 m 656 ft 35°29′06″N 140°01′00″E / 35.48500°N 140.01667°E / 35.48500; 140.01667
Anegasaki Power Station, stack 3 Japan Anegasaki 200 m 656 ft 35°29′06″N 140°01′00″E / 35.48500°N 140.01667°E / 35.48500; 140.01667
West Japan Iron and Steel Works, JFE Steel Corporation[380] Japan Fukuyama 200 m 656 ft No. 5 Sintering Plant
Futtsu Power Station, stack 1 Japan Futtsu 200 m 656 ft
Futtsu Power Station, stack 2 Japan Futtsu 200 m 656 ft
Kansaidenryokuhimeji Daini Power Station Japan Himeji 200 m 656 ft 34°46′19″N 134°41′38″E / 34.77194°N 134.69389°E / 34.77194; 134.69389
Kansaidenryokuhimeji Daiichi Power Station Japan Himeji 200 m 656 ft 34°46′21″N 134°39′57″E / 34.77250°N 134.66583°E / 34.77250; 134.66583
Kashima Power Station, stack 2 1971 Japan Kashima 200 m 656 ft 35°52′47″N 140°41′22″E / 35.87972°N 140.68944°E / 35.87972; 140.68944
Kashima Power Station, stack 3 1971 Japan Kashima 200 m 656 ft 35°52′47″N 140°41′22″E / 35.87972°N 140.68944°E / 35.87972; 140.68944
Hikari Area Yamaguchi Works Japan Kashima 200 m 656 ft 35°55′34″N 140°40′40″E / 35.92611°N 140.67778°E / 35.92611; 140.67778
Kimitsu Steel Works Japan Kimitsu 200 m 656 ft
Kyushudenryoku Shinkokura Power Station[381] Japan Kitakyushu 200 m 656 ft
Tobata Co-operative Thermal Power Co., Ltd.[382] Japan Kitakyushu 200 m 656 ft
Nippon Steel Nagoya Works Japan Nagoya 200 m 656 ft 35°2′22″N 136°52′27″E / 35.03944°N 136.87417°E / 35.03944; 136.87417
Kansai Denryoku Kanagawa Power Station Japan Sennan 200 m 656 ft 34°19′24″N 135°7′48″E / 34.32333°N 135.13000°E / 34.32333; 135.13000
Sodegaura Power Station, stack 1 Japan Sodegaura 200 m 656 ft
Sodegaura Power Station, stack 2 Japan Sodegaura 200 m 656 ft
Stadtwerketurm[383] 1967 Germany Duisburg 200 m 656 ft Lattice section is only the upper 135 m / 443 ft, partially dismantled and no longer in use
Sinter Plant (Nippon Steel Sumitomo Metal Corp) Japan Kitakyushu 198 m 649 ft 33°55′30″N 130°51′3″E / 33.92500°N 130.85083°E / 33.92500; 130.85083
JFE East Japan Works, stack 2[379] Japan Chiba 190 m 630 ft 35°34′33″N 140°5′57″E / 35.57583°N 140.09917°E / 35.57583; 140.09917
JFE East Japan Works, stack 3[379] Japan Chiba 189 m 628 ft 35°34′17″N 140°5′16″E / 35.57139°N 140.08778°E / 35.57139; 140.08778
Nippon Steel Co., Ltd. Kyushu Works Steelmaking Department[384][circular reference] Japan Kitakyushu 189 m 620 ft
Fina Antwerp Olefins Flare 4[385] Belgium Antwerp 185 m 607 ft
Chiba Refinery and Petrochemical Plant, stack 1[386] Japan Ichihara 183 m 599 ft 35°29′5″N 140°2′2″E / 35.48472°N 140.03389°E / 35.48472; 140.03389
Yokkaichi Kombinato petrochemical processing facilities Japan Yokkaichi 182 m 598 ft 34°59′0″N 136°39′23″E / 34.98333°N 136.65639°E / 34.98333; 136.65639
TEPCO Goikaryoku Fuel & Power Station, stack 1 Japan Goikaryoku 181 m 593 ft 35°32′49″N 140°4′11″E / 35.54694°N 140.06972°E / 35.54694; 140.06972
Sulfuric Acid Workshop Chimney[387] 1980 Ukraine Konstantinovka 180 m 592 ft demolished in 2018
1st Chimney of SK-46[388] 1984 Ukraine Zhovti Vody 180 m 591 ft demolished in 2015
2nd Chimney of SK-46[389] 1987 Ukraine Zhovti Vody 180 m 591 ft
Nippon Steel Co., Ltd. Kyushu Works Steelmaking Department[384][circular reference] Japan Kitakyushu 180 m 591 ft
Kashima Iron Works power station Japan Kashima 180 m 591 ft 35°56′49″N 140°41′19″E / 35.947067°N 140.688737°E / 35.947067; 140.688737
Kainan (Hainan) Thermal Power Plant,[390] stack 1 Japan Kainan 180 m 590 ft
Kainan (Hainan) Thermal Power Plant, stack 2 Japan Kainan 180 m 590 ft
Sakaiko Power Station, stack 1 Japan Osaka 180 m 590 ft 34°34′8″N 135°26′27″E / 34.56889°N 135.44083°E / 34.56889; 135.44083
Sakaiko Power Station, stack 2 Japan Osaka 180 m 590 ft 34°34′8″N 135°26′27″E / 34.56889°N 135.44083°E / 34.56889; 135.44083
Dengan Kaihatsu Takasago Karyoku Power Station Japan Takasago 180 m 590 ft 34°35′13″N 134°45′55″E / 34.58694°N 134.76528°E / 34.58694; 134.76528
Yokosuka Thermal Power Station, stack 1 Japan Yokosuka City 180 m 591 ft Demolished in 2020
Yokosuka Thermal Power Station, stack 2 Japan Yokosuka City 180 m 591 ft Demolished in 2021
Yokosuka Thermal Power Station, stack 3 Japan Yokosuka City 180 m 591 ft Demolished in 2021
Onahama Smelting Co., Ltd[391] Japan Onahama 170 m 559 ft 36°56′37″N 140°52′53″E / 36.94361°N 140.88139°E / 36.94361; 140.88139
West Japan Iron and Steel Works, JFE Steel Corporation[380] Japan Fukuyama 166 m 545 ft
Chimney of UkrZinc[392] Ukraine Konstantinovka 165 m 541 ft demolished
Kimitsu Steel Works Japan Kimitsu 162 m 531 ft
Osaka Refinery, stack 1 Japan Osaka 162 m 530 ft 34°31′57″N 135°24′44″E / 34.53250°N 135.41222°E / 34.53250; 135.41222
Osaka Refinery, stack 2 Japan Osaka 162 m 530 ft 34°31′59″N 135°24′32″E / 34.53306°N 135.40889°E / 34.53306; 135.40889
Nitric Acid Shop Chimney[393] Ukraine Siverodonetsk 155 m 509 ft
JFE East Japan Works, stack 4[379] Japan Chiba 151 m 495 ft 35°34′41″N 140°5′36″E / 35.57806°N 140.09333°E / 35.57806; 140.09333
Yutaka Chemical Mizushima Plant Japan Kurashiki 151 m 495 ft 34°30′52″N 133°43′40″E / 34.51444°N 133.72778°E / 34.51444; 133.72778
Legnica Copper Smelter[394] Poland Legnica 150 m 493 ft
RK Saltivska Chimney[395] 1969 Ukraine Kharkiv 150 m 492 ft
Weak Nitric Acid Shop of Severodonetsk[396] Ukraine Siverodonetsk 150 m 492 ft
West Japan Iron and Steel Works, JFE Steel Corporation[380] Japan Fukuyama 150 m 492 ft No. 4 Sintering Plant
Setouchi Joint Thermal Power Co., Ltd.[397] Japan Fukuyama 150 m 492 ft
TEPCO Goikaryoku Fuel & Power Station, stack 2 Japan Goikaryoku 150 m 492 ft 35°32′54″N 140°4′21″E / 35.54833°N 140.07250°E / 35.54833; 140.07250
COSMO Oil refinery Japan Goikaryoku 150 m 492 ft 35°32′31″N 140°4′34″E / 35.54194°N 140.07611°E / 35.54194; 140.07611
Chiba Refinery, Kyokuto Petroleum or JXTG Nippon Oil & Energy Corporation, stack 1 Japan Ichihara 150 m 492 ft 35°30′58″N 140°2′48″E / 35.51611°N 140.04667°E / 35.51611; 140.04667
Chiba Refinery, Kyokuto Petroleum or JXTG Nippon Oil & Energy Corporation, stack 2 Japan Ichihara 150 m 492 ft 35°30′59″N 140°2′58″E / 35.51639°N 140.04944°E / 35.51639; 140.04944
Chiba Refinery and Petrochemical Plant, stack 2 Japan Ichihara 150 m 492 ft 35°29′11″N 140°2′11″E / 35.48639°N 140.03639°E / 35.48639; 140.03639
Sakaiko Power Station, stack 3 Japan Osaka 150 m 492 ft 34°34′8″N 135°26′27″E / 34.56889°N 135.44083°E / 34.56889; 135.44083
Sakaiko Power Station, stack 4 Japan Osaka 150 m 492 ft 34°34′8″N 135°26′27″E / 34.56889°N 135.44083°E / 34.56889; 135.44083
Sakaiko Power Station, stack 5 Japan Osaka 150 m 492 ft 34°34′8″N 135°26′27″E / 34.56889°N 135.44083°E / 34.56889; 135.44083
Sakaiko Power Station, stack 6 Japan Osaka 150 m 492 ft 34°34′8″N 135°26′27″E / 34.56889°N 135.44083°E / 34.56889; 135.44083
Flarestick 4 of PKN Orlen[398] 2009 Poland Plock 147 m 481 ft

Oil Platforms[edit]

List of oil platforms with a steel jacket above 300 m / 1000 ft in height.

Name Year Built in Current location Height m Height ft Type Remarks
Petronius Compliant Tower 2000 USA Gulf of Mexico 640 2,100 Compliant tower Tallest freestanding structure in the world 2000-2008
Baldpate Compliant Tower 1998 USA Gulf of Mexico 581.5 1,908 Compliant tower Tallest freestanding structure in the world 1998-2000
Bullwinkle Platform 1989 USA Gulf of Mexico 529 1,736 Truss tower Tallest fixed/rigged freestanding structure built in water
Benguela-Belize Lobito-Tomboco Platform[6] 2008 USA Congo basin 512 1,680 Compliant tower
Pompano Platform 1994 USA Gulf of Mexico 477 1,565 Truss tower
Tombua Landana platform[9] 2009 USA Congo basin 474 1,554 Compliant tower
Coelacanth Platform[14] 2016 USA Gulf of Mexico 400 1,312 Truss tower
Cognac Platform[15] 1977 USA Gulf of Mexico 385.5 1,265 Fixed truss tower
Harmony Platform[12] 1992 South Korea[13] California 366 1,200 Fixed truss tower height is only to water level likely to be as taller than the Cognac Platform
Hondo Platform[19] 1976 USA Gulf of Mexico 354.5 1,163 Truss tower
Virgo Platform[12] 1999 USA Gulf of Mexico 344 1,130 Truss tower height is only to water level likely to be as taller than the Cognac Platform
Cerveza Platform[21] 1981 USA Gulf of Mexico 327 1,073 Truss tower
Cerveza Light Platform[21] 1981 USA Gulf of Mexico 327 1,073 Truss tower
Heritage Platform[12] 1992 South Korea[13] California 326 1,070 Truss tower height is only to water level likely to be as taller than the Cognac Platform
Amberjack Platform[12] 1991 USA Gulf of Mexico 314 1,030 Truss tower height is only to water level likely to be as taller than the Cognac Platform

Jackup Rigs[edit]

List of jackup rigs above 150 m (490 ft) in height.

Name Year Country Height m Height ft Remarks
Noble Lloyd Noble[399] 214 m 702 ft
XL Enhanced (XLE), Ultra Harsh Environment jackup[400] 2016 206.8 m 678 ft 4 vessels
Cat J super-rigs[401] 198 m 650 ft

Pillars of aerial tramways[edit]

Tramway Year Country Town Height m Height ft Remarks
New Eibsee Aerial Tramway Pylon[402] 2017 Germany Grainau 127.1 m 417 ft
Glacial Aerial Tramway Kaprun III 1966 Austria Kaprun 113.6 m 372 ft
Torre Jaume I 1931 Spain Barcelona 107 m 351 ft Intermediate stop, also observation tower
Gant Hohtaelli Aerial Tramway ? Switzerland Zermatt 94 m 308 ft
Old Eibsee Aerial Tramway pylon 1 1962 Germany Garmisch-Partenkirchen 85 m 279 ft Demolished in 2017 and replaced by a taller single pylon
3S Aerial Tramway 2004 Austria Kitzbühel 80 m 262 ft
Torre Sant Sebastia 1931 Spain Barcelona 78 m 256 ft Terminal of harbour aerial tramway of Barcelona Spain
Wendelstein Aerial Tramway 1970 Germany Bischofsmais 75 m 246 ft
Sandia Peak Tramway 1965 United States Albuquerque 70.7 m 232 ft inclined in an angle of 18 degree
Old Eibsee Aerial Tramway pylon 2 1962 Germany Garmisch-Partenkirchen 65 m 213 ft Demolished in 2017 and replaced by a taller single pylon

Rides[edit]

List of amusement park rides that make use of a steel lattice tower above 100 m / 328 ft in height.

Tower Year Country Town Theme Park Height m Height ft Manufacturer
Kingda Ka & Zumanjaro: Drop of Doom 2005 USA Jackson, NJ Six Flags Great Adventure 139 m 456 ft Intamin
Top Thrill Dragster 2003 USA Sandusky, OH Cedar Point 128 m 420 ft Intamin
Superman: Escape from Krypton 1997 USA Santa Clarita CA Six Flags Magic Mountain 126.5 m 415 ft Intamin
Texas SkyScreamer 2013 USA Arlington, TX Six Flags Over Texas 122 m 400 ft Funtime
Eclipse[403] 2013 Sweden Stockholm Gröna Lund 121.9 m 400 ft Funtime
Highlander 2019 Germany Sierksdorf Hansa-Park 120 m 394 ft Funtime
La Venganza del Enigma Spain Madrid Parque Warner Madrid 115 m 377 ft S&S Worldwide
Red Force 2017 Spain Catalonia Ferrari Land 112 m 367 ft Intamin
Donjon de l'Extrême France Dolancourt Nigloland 105 m 345 ft Funtime

Monuments[edit]

Tower Year Country Town Height m Height ft Remarks
Trylon and Perisphere 1939 USA New York City 186 m 610 ft Monument built for the 1939 New York World's Fair, demolished in 1941[404]
Ring of Life[405] 2012 China Fushun 157 m 515 ft
Torre del Reformador 1935 Guatemala Guatemala City 75 m 246 ft
Mount Gorbea summit cross 1907 Spain Mount Gorbea 17.2 m 89 ft

Lighthouses[edit]

Tower Year Country Town meters feet
Campen Lighthouse 1889 Germany Krummhörn 65.3 214
Carysfort Reef Light 1852 USA Key Largo, Florida 36.6 120
The Duga radar array

Other uses[edit]

Tower Year Country Town Height m Height ft Remarks
Sky Ride, East tower 1933 USA Chicago 191 m 628 ft attraction built for the 1933 World's Fair, demolished on Aug 29 1935
Sky Ride, West tower 1933 USA Chicago 191 m 628 ft demolished in 1933
George Washington Bridge, East tower 1931 USA New York 184 m 604 ft
George Washington Bridge, West tower 1931 USA New York 184 m 604 ft
Meteorological Towers of Høvsøre Wind Turbine Test Centre, Tower 1[406] 2004 Denmark Bøvlingbjerg 165 m 541 ft used for wind measurements (a measurement tower)
Meteorological Towers of Høvsøre Wind Turbine Test Centre, Tower 2[406] 2004 Denmark Bøvlingbjerg 165 m 541 ft used for wind measurements
Arts Centre Melbourne 1996 Australia Melbourne 162 m 532 ft performing arts centre, rebuilt, height includes building structure at base, original lattice tower completed in 1981 was 115m
Panmunjom Flagpole 2009 North Korea Peace Village 160 m 525 ft Flagpole
Duga radar 1976 Ukraine Chernihiv 150 m 492 ft Over-the-horizon radar, comprising 17 towers
Khan Shatyr Entertainment Center[407] 2010 Kazakhstan Nur-Sultan 150 m 492 f Entertainment Center, glass dome structurally supported by an internal 3-legged lattice structure[408]
Ivanpah Solar Power Facility, tower 1 2014 USA California 139.9 m 459 ft Solar power tower
Ivanpah Solar Power Facility, tower 2 2014 USA California 139.9 m 459 ft Solar power tower
Ivanpah Solar Power Facility, tower 3 2014 USA California 139.9 m 459 ft Solar power tower
Zeitzeichensender Pragins I[409] 1931 Switzerland Prangins 125 m 410 ft used to broadcast Time Signal
Zeitzeichensender Pragins II[410] 1931 Switzerland Prangins 125 m 410 ft used to broadcast Time Signal
Oak Ridge DOE Reservation Water Tower United States Tennessee 111 m 365 ft Water tank, demolished August 3, 2013[411] possibly the tallest traditional steel water tower built
Rattling Brook Power Plant Surge Tank[412] 1958 Canada Jackson's Arm 94.75 m 311 ft Surge tank, tallest steel plate structure in the world when built
Canadian Nuclear Laboratories Water Tower Canada Chalk River 91.5 m 300 ft Water tank, demolished June 3, 2017[413]
John Hart Dam Surge Tank 1 1947 Canada Vancouver Island 90 m 295 ft Surge tank
John Hart Dam Surge Tank 2 1947 Canada Vancouver Island 90 m 295 ft Surge tank, demolished July 25, 2019[414]
John Hart Dam Surge Tank 3 1947 Canada Vancouver Island 90 m 295 ft Surge tank, demolished July 12, 2019[415]
Parachute Tower Katowice 1937 Poland Katowice 75 m 246 ft Parachute tower
Eindhoven Water Towers 1970 Netherlands Eindhoven 43 m 142 ft Water tower

Wooden lattice towers[edit]

Radio Tower Gliwice is the tallest wooden lattice tower in the world

Existing towers[edit]

Tower Year Country Town Pinnacle height Remarks
Radio Tower Gliwice 1935 Poland Gliwice 118 m Museum on Radio History and Visual Arts
Rottenbuch Radio Tower 2002 Germany Peiting 66 m Tower for directional radio and mobile phone services
Tour du Millénaire 2001 Belgium Gedinne 60 m interesting design
Aalborgtårnet 1933 Denmark Aalborg 54.9 m observation tower
Aerial test facility Brück 1963 Germany Brück 54 m Two towers of different design
Torre de Herveo 1922 Colombia Manizales 52 m former support structure of aerial tramway
Observation Tower Blumenthal 2004 Germany Blumenthal 45 m observation tower
Copenhagen Zoo Tower 1905 Denmark Copenhagen 43.5 observation tower
Chuderhüsi Tower 2001 Switzerland Röthenbach 42 m observation tower
Teltschik Tower 2001 Germany Wilhelmsfeld 41 m observation tower
Veitsch Mount of Olives Pilgrims Cross 2004 Austria Veitsch 40.6 m observation tower
Wil Tower 2006 Switzerland Wil 38 m observation tower
Raiffeisen Observation Tower 1990 Germany Aldorf 35 m observation tower
Oberpfalz Tower 2000 Germany Platte 35 m observation tower
Loorenkopf Observation Tower 1954 Switzerland Zurich 33 m observation tower
Ossinger Tower 2013 Germany Ossinger mountain 32 m observation tower
Eugen-Keidel Tower 1981 Germany Schauinsland mountain 31 m observation tower
Atzelberg Tower 1980 Germany Kelkheim 30.39 m observation tower
Fire observation Tower Rennbeck ? Germany Oer 30 m fire observation tower
Idarkopf Tower 1980 Germany Idarkopf 28 m observation tower
Hohenmirsberg Observation Tower 2008 Germany Pottenstein 28 m observation tower
Höhbeck Observation Tower 2008 Germany Höhbeck 26 m observation tower
Loth Tower 2003 Switzerland Magglingen 25 m observation tower
Salzkopfturm 1975 Germany Salzkopf 24 m observation tower
Observation Tower Burgstall 2000 Austria Kirchberg/Donau 24 m observation tower
Krawutschke Tower 1972 Germany Burgberg 13 m observation tower

Destroyed Wooden lattice towers[edit]

Tower Year Country Town Pinnacle height Date of demolition Remarks
Transmission Tower Mühlacker 1934 Germany Mühlacker 190 m April 6, 1945
Transmitter Berlin-Tegel 1933 Germany Berlin 165 m December 16, 1948
Sendeturm Ismaning 1932 Germany Ismaning 163 m March 16, 1983
Sendeturm Langenberg 1934 Germany Velbert-Langenberg 160 m October 10, 1935 destroyed by a tornado
Sendeturm Wiederau 1935 Germany Wiederau 150 m October 27, 1953
Sendeturm Hamburg-Billstedt 1934 Germany Hamburg 145 m September 1949
Transmitter Żórawina 1932 Germany Żórawina, Poland 140 m Fall 1990
Transmitter Nuremberg-Kleinreuth 1935 Germany Nuremberg 124 m July 12, 1961
Madona Radio Towers 1932 Latvia Madona 116 m 1944
Transmitter Heilsberg 1935 Germany Lidzbark Warmiński, Poland 115 m 1940
Freiburg-Lehen transmitter 1933 Germany Freiburg 107 m April 21, 1945
Heiligenstock transmitter 1934 Germany Frankfurt/Main 107 m March 25, 1945
Transmitter Koblenz 1934 Germany Koblenz 107 m 1965
Transmitter Trier 1935 Germany Trier 107 m 1948
Transmitter Heilsberg 1930 Germany Lidzbark Warmiński, Poland 102 m 1935 Two towers
Reichenbach transmitter 1937 Germany Reichenbach/Oberlausitz 100 m May 7, 1945
Golm transmitter 1948 Germany Golm 100 m October 25, 1979
Stettin Radio Tower 1934 Poland Szczecin 93 m 1945
Utbremen Radio Tower 1933 Germany Bremen 90 m 1939 destroyed by lightning
Flensburg Radio Tower 1928 Germany Flensburg 90 m 1957
Pillar of Mittersill goods aerial tramway 194? Austria Mittersill 80 m 195? Aerial tramway support pillar of goods aerial tramway, which never went in service
Stadelheim Transmitter 1926 Germany Munich-Stadelheim 75 m 1930s Two towers
Chain Home Reception Towers 1939 UK multiple locations 73.15 m 1945–1960
Wood Transmitting Tower Zeesen 1931 Germany Zeesen 70 m 1939
Reception Tower Utlandshörn 1935 Germany Utlandshörn 65 m 1977
Towers of South Wellfleet Marconi Wireless Station 1902 United States South Wellfleet, Massachusetts 64 m 1920 4 towers [1]
Towers of Königsberg Air Traffic Control Centre 1926 Russia Kaliningrad 63 m 1945 Two towers
Palatine Transmitter 1926 Germany Kaiserslautern 60 m 1945 Two towers
Huizen transmitter 1937 Netherlands Huizen 60 m 1940
Central mast of Boguchwala transmitter 1953 Poland Boguchwala 60 m 1957
Holmudden Radar Tower[2] 1948 Sweden Holmudden ? 1958
Wardenclyffe Tower 1899 United States Shoreham 57 m 1917
Wiesbaden Bismarck Tower 1910 Germany Wiesbaden 50 m 1918
Sahlenburg Marine Radio Station 1937 Germany Cuxhaven 50 m 1967/1970 Three towers, two demolished in 1967, third tower demolished in 1970
Stolp transmitter 1938/1939 Poland Dębnica Kaszubska 50 m 1955 7 towers
Jelenia Góra transmitter 1957 Poland Jelenia Góra 47 m 1967
Towers of triangle antenna Langenberg 1935 Germany Velbert-Langenberg 45 m April 12, 1945 Three towers
Goethe Tower 1931 Germany Frankfurt-Sachsenhausen 43 m October 12, 2017 Destroyed in a fire
Bayreuth transmitter, T-antenna 194? Germany Bayreuth 40 m 1954 2 towers in a distance of 70 metres
Augsburg-Hochzoll transmitter 194? Germany Augsburg 40 m 1952 2 towers
Kempten-Engelshalde Transmitter 1951 Germany Kempten 40 m 1956 Two towers
Heusweiler Mast 1 1935 Germany Heusweiler 35 m March 17, 1945
Schneeberg Air Force Tower 1938 Germany Bischofsgrün 35 m 1942
Heusweiler Mast 2 1935 Germany Heusweiler 31 m March 17, 1945
Holzbergturm 2005 Germany Malente 28 m 2017 observation tower

Tallest lattice towers, by design type[edit]

List of the tallest lattice towers by common(min 5) design types.

design Type total built Name Year Built in City/location Height m Height ft Remarks
Compliant tower(Oil Platform) 5 Petronius Compliant Tower 2000 USA Gulf of Mexico 640 2,100 tallest lattice tower of any type,
Additionally supported by a solid core, Concrete unknown >10 Tokyo Skytree 2012 Japan Sumida, Tokyo 634 2,080 tallest lattice tower of any type built on land
Self-supported steel truss of any type unknown Bullwinkle Platform 1989 USA Gulf of Mexico 529 1,736 tallest fixed/rigged freestanding steel-only truss structure built on land or sea
Additionally supported by a solid core, Steel unknown >10 Kyiv TV Tower 1973 Ukraine Kyiv 385 1,263
Hydro Pylons thousands Jintang and Cezi islands Overhead Powerline Tie, East & West towers 2019 China Jintang Island 380 1,247 tallest pylons in the world
4-sided steel lattice tower(land-based) thousands Tokyo Tower 1957 Japan Tokyo 333 1,093
3-sided steel lattice tower thousands WITI TV Tower 1962 USA Shorewood, Wisconsin 329.4 1,081
Landmark tower 10 Star Tower 1991 USA Cincinnati, Ohio 290.8 m 954 ft
Hyperboloid structure >10 Perm TV Tower 2016 Russia Perm 275 m 902 ft
Top guyed lattice tower, featuring a guyed upper section with four horizontal crossbars 5 Grodno TV Tower 1984 Belarus Grodno 254 m 833 ft tallest freestanding structure in Belarus
Annapolis type 40~ Lafayette transmitter, Towers 1-8 1918 France Marcheprime 250 m 820 ft demolished in 1944 & 1953
Non-tapering unknown >100 Noble Lloyd Noble(Oil Platform) 214 m 702 ft all lattice towers above this height use a tapering design
3803 KM design 83 Edineţ TV Tower & Rezeknes TV Tower ? Latvia Edineţ & Rezeknes 204 m 669 ft
Wooden lattice tower unknown >100 Transmission Tower Mühlacker 1934 Germany 190 m 623 ft demolished in 1945, tallest structure ever built out of wood

Unique lattice tower designs. Minimum height of 120 m / 400 ft.
  indicates a structure that is no longer standing.

Hyperboloid structures[edit]

Tower Year Country Town Height m Height ft Remarks
Perm TV tower[42] 2016 Russia Perm 275 m 902 ft
Moscow Octod Tower 2006 Russia Moscow 258 m 846 ft
Hitachinaka Power Plant Chimney[373][374] 2003 Japan Hitachinaka 230 m 754 ft Lattice chimney
Orion Tower[83][84] 2001 Russia Samara 201 m 660 ft
Radio Mast at Krupskoi Street[214] 2003 Russia Perm 180 m 591 ft
Shukhov radio Tower 1922 Russia Moscow 160 m 525 ft
Pylons of Cádiz, west tower 1960 Spain Cádiz 158 m 518 ft Electrical pylons
Pylons of Cádiz, east tower 1960 Spain Cádiz 158 m 518 ft Electrical pylons
Shukhov tower on the Oka River, west tower 1929 Russia Dzerzhinsk 128 m 420 ft Electrical pylons
Shukhov tower on the Oka River, east tower 1929 Russia Dzerzhinsk 128 m 420 ft Electrical pylons, demolised in May 2005.
Gettysburg National Tower 1974 USA Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 120 m 394 ft demolished on July 3, 2000

Landmark towers[edit]

Tower Year Country Town Height m Height ft Remarks
Star Tower 1991 USA Cincinnati, Ohio 291 m 954 ft Tallest Landmark tower ever built, assembled by helicopter
Hughes Memorial Tower 1989 USA Washington, DC 232 m 761 ft Tallest structure in Washington DC
Yiye Avila Tower 1991 USA Utuado, Puerto Rico 167 m 548 ft Tallest freestanding structure in Puerto Rico. Collapsed during Hurricane Maria
WLLY Tower[279][280] 1995[416] USA Mangonia Park, Florida 158.2 m 519 ft
Mesquite Tower 1990 USA Mesquite, Texas 155.3 m 509.5 ft
Cumulus Media Tower[339][340] <2002 USA Shreveport, Louisiana 152 m 499 ft
Tower at 3551 J.R. Lynch Street (Extension)[351] <1996 USA Jackson, Mississippi 152 m 499 ft
Telecourier Communications Tower[417] 1989 USA Bloomington, Illinois 152 m 418 ft

Blaw-Know towers[edit]

Tower Year Country Town Height m Height ft Remarks
Lakihegy Tower 1946 Hungary Szigetszentmiklós-Lakihegy 314 m 1030 ft The current tower is a rebuild of the original tower which was constructed in 1933 but destroyed at the end of World War II.[418]
Liblice Blaw-Knox Radio Mast[419] 1936 Czech Republic Liblice 280.40 m 920 ft demolished on October 17, 1972
WSM Tower 1932 USA Nashville, Tennessee 246 m 808 ft The first Blaw-Know tower ever built, originally 267 m (874 ft) in height
WLW Tower 1934 USA Cincinnati, Ohio 227 m 747 ft Originally 253 m (831 ft) in height
Vakarel Blaw-Knox Radio Mast[420] 1937 Bulgaria Elin Pelin 215 705 ft demolished on September 16, 2020[421]
WBT Tower 1 1934 USA Charlotte, North Carolina 130 m 426 ft Three towers in total, one original, two reproductions from the original plans after the originals were destroyed by Hurricane Hugo in 1989.
WBT Tower 2 1989 USA Charlotte, North Carolina 130 m 426 ft
WBT Tower 3 1989 USA Charlotte, North Carolina 130 m 426 ft
WADO Tower[422] 1934 USA Carlstadt, New Jersey 129 m 424 ft Demolished on October 17, 1999
LVRTC Riga Blaw Knox Radiator[423] 1947 Latvia Riga 125 m 410 ft Demolished in 2010
WFEA Tower[424] 1931 USA Manchester, New Hampshire 121 m 396 ft

Top guyed lattice towers[edit]

Tower Year Country Town Height m Height ft Remarks
Grodno TV Tower 1984 Belarus Grodno 254 m 833 ft Tallest freestanding structure in Belarus
Vitebsk TV Tower 1983 Belarus Vitebsk 244 m 801 ft
Astara TV Tower 1981 Republic of Azerbaijan Astara 243.84 m 800 ft
Wavre Transmitter 1983 Belgium Wavre 232 m 761 ft Tallest lattice tower in Belgium
Tour Dégueu[357] ? Belgium Leglise-Anlier 151 m 495 ft

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ a b "Popular Science". January 1981.
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  96. ^ http://skyscraperpage.com/diagrams/?buildingID=109263
  97. ^ a b http://radiomap.eu/ru/krasnoyarsk
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  99. ^ http://radiomap.eu/ru/novosibirsk
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  122. ^ http://worldradiomap.com/kg/bishkek_img/vyshka_02.jpg
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  124. ^ mn:Телевиз
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  253. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=by12Ru54jow&ab_channel=VisionsofPuertoRico
  254. ^ https://www.facebook.com/UtuadoNews/posts/303793760024618/
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  269. ^ https://worldradiomap.com/br/sao-paulo
  270. ^ http://radiomap.eu/ru/tver
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  272. ^ https://worldradiomap.com/uy/montevideo
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  283. ^ https://www.yelp.com/biz/skytel-des-moines-2
  284. ^ https://www.fccinfo.com/CMDProASRLookup.php?sASR=1016049&tabSearchType=ASR+Search
  285. ^ https://www.daytondailynews.com/business/whio-building-and-tower-taken-down/3vfZvCwK5c2FuTF1LiADNN/
  286. ^ http://skyscraperpage.com/cities/?buildingID=63268
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  292. ^ https://www.emporis.com/buildings/214006/torre-da-tv-cultura-sao-paulo-brazil
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  306. ^ https://www.smh.com.au/national/tv-era-has-started-to-change-australians-way-of-life-20060418-gdndod.html
  307. ^ http://amtci.com/galleryproj.html
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  326. ^ https://structurae.net/en/structures/dobrochov-transmission-tower
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  352. ^ https://www.fccinfo.com/CMDProASRLookup.php?sASR=1218101&tabSearchType=ASR+Search
  353. ^ https://www.nashville.gov/Office-of-Emergency-Management/Contact-OEM.aspx
  354. ^ https://www.fccinfo.com/CMDProASRLookup.php?sASR=1017605&tabSearchType=ASR+Search
  355. ^ https://www.waymarking.com/waymarks/wm4EWY_WJXT_Jacksonville_Florida
  356. ^ https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/local/1985/10/10/weta-tower-is-deemed-too-high-but-can-stay/1a5740ce-b658-4ede-a9d4-141343c619e2/
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  358. ^ https://www.fccinfo.com/CMDProASRLookup.php?sASR=1031470&tabSearchType=ASR+Search
  359. ^ https://www.fccinfo.com/CMDProASRLookup.php?sASR=1241067&tabSearchType=ASR+Search
  360. ^ https://www.digital.wienbibliothek.at/wbrobv/periodical/pageview/1701753
  361. ^ http://radiomap.eu/ru/vorkuta
  362. ^ http://radiomap.eu/ru/veliky-novgorod
  363. ^ https://www.ntt-f.co.jp/architect_e/building/yokohama-media.html
  364. ^ https://skyscraperpage.com/cities/?buildingID=8962
  365. ^ https://www.fccinfo.com/CMDProASRLookup.php?sASR=1256830&tabSearchType=ASR+Search
  366. ^ https://www.emporis.com/buildings/1209070/rpn-ibc-transmitter-tower-quezon-city-philippines
  367. ^ http://worldradiomap.com/jp/sendai
  368. ^ http://skyscraperpage.com/cities/?buildingID=42431
  369. ^ http://skyscraperpage.com/cities/?buildingID=42432
  370. ^ https://www.emporis.com/buildings/1516996/kogushi-electric-power-transmission-tower-okayama-japan
  371. ^ https://www.emporis.com/buildings/1227186/river-tower-of-doel-schelde-powerline-crossing-antwerp-belgium
  372. ^ https://www.fccinfo.com/CMDProASRLookup.php?sASR=1020642&tabSearchType=ASR+Search
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  375. ^ http://skyscraperpage.com/cities/?buildingID=92153
  376. ^ https://skyscraperpage.com/cities/?buildingID=99716
  377. ^ https://skyscraperpage.com/cities/?buildingID=99714
  378. ^ https://skyscraperpage.com/cities/?buildingID=46812
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  381. ^ http://www.japan-kyushu-tourist.com/kyushu-electric-power/
  382. ^ https://www.tobata-kyoka.co.jp/030kaishagaiyou/kaishagaiyou.htm
  383. ^ http://skyscraperpage.com/cities/?buildingID=47836
  384. ^ a b ja:日本製鉄九州製鉄所
  385. ^ https://skyscraperpage.com/cities/?buildingID=99715
  386. ^ https://www.idemitsu.com/business/factory/chiba_video.html
  387. ^ http://skyscraperpage.com/cities/?buildingID=65754
  388. ^ https://skyscraperpage.com/cities/?buildingID=106872
  389. ^ https://skyscraperpage.com/cities/?buildingID=106871
  390. ^ http://globalenergyobservatory.org/geoid/44929
  391. ^ http://group.mmc.co.jp/osr/
  392. ^ http://skyscraperpage.com/cities/?buildingID=84319
  393. ^ http://skyscraperpage.com/cities/?buildingID=112692
  394. ^ https://skyscraperpage.com/cities/?buildingID=104675
  395. ^ http://skyscraperpage.com/cities/?buildingID=39669
  396. ^ https://skyscraperpage.com/cities/?buildingID=112691
  397. ^ http://www.setouchi-kyouka.co.jp/
  398. ^ https://skyscraperpage.com/cities/?buildingID=99755
  399. ^ https://www.infield.com/rigs/noble-lloyd-noble-jackup-61323
  400. ^ https://www.offshore-energy.biz/maersk-drillings-new-xle-jack-up-set-for-north-sea/
  401. ^ https://www.equinor.com/en/magazine/industry-world-records.html
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  403. ^ https://www.gronalund.com/en/rides/eclipse
  404. ^ https://www.drivingfordeco.com/vanished-new-york-city-art-deco-the-trylon-and-perishpere-part-two-1939-1941/
  405. ^ http://avax.news/pictures/57836
  406. ^ a b https://www.emporis.com/buildings/1229409/meteorological-towers-of-hovsore-wind-turbine-test-centre-bovlingbjerg-denmark
  407. ^ http://skyscraperpage.com/cities/?buildingID=86012
  408. ^ https://thumbs.dreamstime.com/z/view-interior-khan-shatyr-entertainment-center-flags-left-to-right-turkmenistan-kazakhstan-159457840.jpg
  409. ^ http://skyscraperpage.com/cities/?buildingID=48548
  410. ^ http://skyscraperpage.com/cities/?buildingID=48549
  411. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bBo9QK-EJ_4&list=PLXyPIZ9ksr8zWe8EJ4lA6hu8k5gGEufFV&index=146&ab_channel=TheLoizeauxGroupLLC
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  419. ^ https://www.emporis.com/buildings/1226311/liblice-blaw-knox-tower-liblice-czech-republic
  420. ^ https://www.emporis.com/buildings/1226448/vakarel-blaw-knox-radio-mast-elin-pelin-bulgaria
  421. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QwELjpzWpmw&ab_channel=PredavatelRadiomap
  422. ^ http://j-hawkins.com/wado.shtml
  423. ^ https://www.emporis.com/buildings/1226603/lvrtc-riga-blaw-knox-radiator-riga-latvia
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