Electricity sector in Norway

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Norway: Electricity sector
Flag of Norway.svg
Data
Installed capacity (2007) 30.46 GW
Share of fossil energy 4%
Share of renewable energy 96%
GHG emissions from electricity generation (2007) 0.8 Mt CO2
Average electricity use (2008) 27 MWh annually per capita
Alta dam, one of Norway's 1,166 hydropower stations that provide 98% of the nation's power.

The electricity sector in Norway relies predominantly on hydroelectricity. A significant share of the total electrical production is consumed by national industry.

Consumption[edit]

Of the total production in 2011 of 128 TWh, 122 TWh was from hydroelectric plants, 4 795 GWh was from thermal power, and 1 283 GWh was wind generated.[1] In same year, the total consumption was 114 TWh.[1]

The annual electricity consumption was about 26-27 MWh per inhabitant during 2004-2009 when the European union (EU15) average in 2008 was 7.4 MWh. Norway’s consumption of electricity was over three times higher per person compared to the EU 15 average in 2008. The domestic electricity supply promotes use of electricity.[2]

Electricity per person and by power source[edit]

Electricity pro person in Norway* (kWh/ hab.)[3]
Use Production Import Imp./Exp. % Fossil Nuclear Nuc. % Other RE* Bio+waste Wind Non RE use* RE %*
2004 26,601 24,096 2,505 9.4% 105 0 0% 23,893 98 2,610 90.2%
2005 27,297 29,894 -2,597 -9.5 % 108 0 0% 29,701 84 -2,488 109.1%
2006 27,349 29,490 -2.141 -7.8 % 167 0 0% 29,195 128 -1,974 107.2%
2008 27,398 30,355 -2,957 -10.8 % 151 0 0% 30,130 74 -2,806 110.2%
2009** 25,691 27,549 -1,858 -7.2 % 919 0 0% 26,388* 63 209* -969 103.8%
**2009 Check updates
* This data for Norway is extracted from the international column of a Swedish report
* Other RE is waterpower, solar and geothermal electricity and windpower until 2008
* Non RE use = use – production of renewable electricity
RE % = (production of RE / use) * 100% Note: EU calculates the share of renewable energies in gross electrical consumption.

Transmission[edit]

Norway has an open electric market, integrated with the other Nordic countries. Export and import is routine over the direct power links to Sweden, Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. The market is handled by NASDAQ OMX Commodities Europe and Nord Pool Spot. Many of the hydroelectric plants in Norway are easily adjustable and can adapt well to variations in demand, and hence in price. On a normal day, when price is low during nighttime, Norway normally imports power, and exports during daytime when the price is higher.

West of Oslo, there is a smallsingle-phase AC power grid operated with 16.7 Hz frequency for power supply of electric railways, see Electric power supply system of railways in Norway.

Fuel mix disclosure[edit]



Circle frame.svg

Average fuel mix for electricity consumption in Norway

  Fossil (42.2%)
  Hydro (35.8%)
  Nuclear (21.5%)
  Biomass (0.4%)
  Wind (0.1%)
  Solar (0.0%)

The annual share of renewable electricity in the Norwegian market dropped in 2010 to 24%. It is expected that this share has declined further in 2011. Consumer who do not purchase renewable electricity, will get more than 75% from non-renewable sources such as coal, gas and nuclear power.

Source percentage (2010)
Fossil 42.2%
Hydroelectricity 35.8%
Nuclear power 21.5%
Biomass 0.4%
Wind power 0.1%
Solar power 0.0%
CO2 286 g/kWh
Nuclear waste 0.0022 g/kWh

This is the result of Norway exporting the bulk of its Guarantees of Origin.[4]

Price[edit]

During the last few years a combination of high power prices in the market and less than usual rainfall has made the power system more vulnerable to power shortages. So far consumers in Norway have noted this by paying a higher price for electrical power during wintertime, however still a low price in international terms.

Mode of production[edit]

Hydroelectric power is the main mode of production. Wind power offers huge export opportunities. Norway’s potentials for wind power are excellent and the electricity production exceeds its own use. The solar industry development in Norway is significant.

Hydroelectricity[edit]

Norway is considered by many[who?] to have particular expertise in the area of building and operation of hydroelectric power plants.

Hydroelectricity was 98.5% of electricity generation in 2008. 141 TWh hydropower in 2008 was 4.3% of the world total. The installed capacity of hydropower was 29 GW in 2007.[5]

According to IEA Norway was the 6th in the hydroelectricity power in the world in 2008 after China, Canada, Brazil, United States and Russia.[5]

Solar power[edit]

The national support for solar power is in place since 2008.[6] The solar companies include Renewable Energy Corporation REC, Elkem Solar and NorSun. REC is a solar power company with headquarters in Norway. It has solar manufacturing facility in Bécancour, Quebec, Canada and the United States. Revenue was NOK 13.78 billion in 2010.[7] Elkem Solar was part of Norwegian Elkem. Orkla Group sold it with $2 mrd. in January 2011 to a Chinese chemical company China National Bluestar head office in Beijing.[8] NorSun is a private solar cell producer.[9]

Export/Import[edit]

Norway has imported up to 10% of its electricity production during 2004-2009.)[3] According to IEA the net electricity export was 14 TWh and the hydro power production 141 TWh in 2008.[5]

A new high-voltage link between Nea in Norway and Järpströmmen in Sweden was commissioned in 2009.[10]

Norways grid is connected with the NorNed-cable to the Netherlands. There are plans for cables with the Germany (Norger) and the UK (Nordlink).

See also[edit]

Regional:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Statistics Norway - Electricity, annual figures, 2011, Generation and consumption of electricity. GWh
  2. ^ Energy in Sweden, Facts and figures, The Swedish Energy Agency, (in Swedish: Energiläget i siffror), Table: Specific electricity production per inhabitant with breakdown by power source (kWh/person), Source: IEA/OECD 2006 T23, 2007 T25, 2008 T26, 2009 T25 and 2010 T49
  3. ^ a b Norway numbers extracted from Energy in Sweden, Facts and figures, The Swedish Energy Agency, (in Swedish: Energiläget i siffror), Table: Specific electricity production per inhabitant with breakdown by power source (kWh/person), Source: IEA/OECD 2006 T23, 2007 T25, 2008 T26, 2009 T25 and 2010 T49.
  4. ^ Norwegian: {{{1}}}http://www.ecohz.com/facts-news/news/fuel-mix/. Varedeklarasjon 2010
  5. ^ a b c IEA Key stats 2010 pages 19 and 27
  6. ^ Renewables Global Status Report: REN 21 Paris 13.5.2009 page 8
  7. ^ REC report February 9, 2011
  8. ^ Orkla sells Elkem to China National Bluestar
  9. ^ NorSun
  10. ^ Energy in Sweden 2010 page 81

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]