Emperor Zhenzong

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Emperor Zhenzong of Song
SongEmperorAlbumZhenzongPortrait.jpg
Portrait on a hanging scroll, kept in the National Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan
Emperor of the Song dynasty
Reign8 May 997 – 23 March 1022 (All with the Empress Liu)
Coronation8 May 997
PredecessorEmperor Taizong
SuccessorEmperor Renzong
RegentEmpress Liu
BornZhao Dechang (968–983)
Zhao Yuanxiu (983–986)
Zhao Yuankan (986–995)
Zhao Heng (995–1022)
23 December 968
Died23 March 1022(1022-03-23) (aged 53)
ConsortsEmpress Zhanghuai
(m. 983; died 989)
Empress Zhangmu
(m. 991; died 1007)

Empress Zhangyi (–1022)

Empress Zhanghui (m. 995–1022)
IssueEmperor Renzong
Princess Zhaohuai
Era dates
Xianping (咸平; 998–1003)
Jingde (景德; 1004–1007)
Dazhongxiangfu (大中祥符; 1008–1016)
Tianxi (天禧; 1017–1021)
Qianxing (乾興; 1022)
Posthumous name
Yingfu Jigu Shengong Rangde Wenming Wuding Zhangsheng Yuanxiao Huangdi
(膺符稽古神功讓德文明武定章聖元孝皇帝) (awarded in 1047)
Temple name
Zhenzong (真宗)
HouseHouse of Zhao
FatherEmperor Taizong
MotherEmpress Yuande
Emperor Zhenzong of Song
Chinese宋真宗
Literal meaning"True Ancestor of the Song"
Zhao Dechang
Traditional Chinese趙德昌
Simplified Chinese赵德昌
Zhao Yuanxiu
Traditional Chinese趙元休
Simplified Chinese赵元休
Zhao Yuankan
Traditional Chinese趙元侃
Simplified Chinese赵元侃
Zhao Heng
Traditional Chinese趙恆
Simplified Chinese赵恒

Emperor Zhenzong of Song (23 December 968 – 23 March 1022), personal name Zhao Heng, was the third emperor of the Song dynasty in China. He reigned from 997 to his death in 1022. His personal name was originally Zhao Dechang, but was changed to Zhao Yuanxiu in 983, Zhao Yuankan in 986, and finally Zhao Heng in 995. He was the third son of his predecessor, Emperor Taizong, and was succeeded by his sixth son, Emperor Renzong (At the end of his reign, he was ill with the power to rule, so all rule was in the hands of his third wife, Empress Liu).

Reign[edit]

Emperor Zhenzong's reign was noted for the consolidation of power and the strengthening of the Song Empire. The empire prospered, and its military might was further reinforced. However, it would also mark the beginning of a foreign policy towards the Khitan-led Liao dynasty in the north that would ultimately result in humiliation.

In 1004, the Khitans waged war against the Song Empire. Emperor Zhenzong, leading his army, struck back at the Khitans. Despite initial successes, in 1005, Emperor Zhenzong concluded the Chanyuan Treaty. The treaty resulted in over a century of peace, but at the price of the Song Empire agreeing to an inferior position to the Liao Empire, and also agreeing to pay an annual tribute of 100,000 ounces of silver and over 200,000 bolts of silk. The admission of inferiority would come to plague the foreign affairs of the Song Empire, while the payments slowly depleted the empire's coffers.

He was responsible for ordering the shipment of 30,000 bushels of quick-maturing rice seed from the Fujian Province to the lower Yangtze basin in 1011–1012, improving agriculture.

Emperor Zhenzong stressed the importance of Taoism at his imperial court. It was during his reign that the so-called Heavenly Texts, which glorified the Zhao family, were allegedly discovered. This was followed up by imperial sacrificial ceremonies carried out at Mount Tai. From 1013 to 1015, the emperor issued official decrees deifying the Jade Emperor as the highest ruler of Heaven.[1]

Champa rice was introduced to China from Champa during Emperor Zhenzong's reign.

In 1020, Emperor Zhenzong became affected by an illness which was to cause his death two years later and unable to handle the affairs of state. By this time, Zhenzong’s wife Empress Liu was already established as power behind the throne and handled the affairs of state. She continued to act unofficially as regent of China for the two remaining years of Zhenzong’s life.

Zhenzong died in 1022 of the foresaid illness. He was succeeded by his 4th son, Zhao Zhen who took the throne as Emperor Renzong.

Archaeology[edit]

A number of Chinese artifacts dating from the Tang dynasty and Song dynasty, some of which had been owned by Emperor Zhenzong were excavated and then came into the hands of the Kuomintang general Ma Hongkui, who refused to publicise the findings. Among the artifacts were a white marble tablet from the Tang dynasty, gold nails, and bands made out of metal. It was not until after Ma died, that his wife went to Taiwan in 1971 from the United States to bring the artifacts to Chiang Kai-shek, who turned them over to the National Palace Museum.[2]

Family[edit]

  • Parents:
    • Zhao Jiong, Taizong (太宗 趙炅; 939–997)
    • Empress Yuande, of the Li clan (元德皇后 李氏; 943–977)
  • Consorts and Issue:
    • Empress Zhanghuai, of the Pan clan (章懷皇后 潘氏; 968–989)
    • Empress Zhangmu, of the Guo clan (章穆皇后 郭氏; 975–1007)
      • Zhao You, Crown Prince Daoxian (悼獻皇太子 趙佑; 995–1003), second son
      • Unnamed son
      • Unnamed son
    • Empress Zhangxian, of the Liu clan (章獻皇后 劉氏; 968–1033), personal name E ()
    • Empress Zhangyi, of the Li clan (章懿皇后 李氏; 987–1032)
      • Zhao Zhen, Renzong (仁宗 趙禎; 1010–1063), sixth son
      • Princess Jingyi (靜一帝姬), first daughter
    • Empress Zhanghui, of the Yang clan (章惠皇后 楊氏; 984–1036)
    • Guifei, of the Shen clan (昭靜貴妃 沈氏; 994–1076)
    • Guifei, of the Du clan (貴妃 杜氏; d. 1046), personal name Qiongzhen (瓊真)
      • Princess Zhaohuai (昭懷帝姬; d. 1047), personal name Zhichong (志衝), second daughter
    • Unknown
      • Zhao Ti, Prince Wen (溫王 趙禔), first son
      • Zhao Zhi, Prince Chang (昌王 趙只), third son
      • Zhao Zhi, Prince Xin (信王 趙祉), fourth son
      • Zhao Qi, Prince Qin (欽王 趙祈), fifth son

See also[edit]

  1. Chinese emperors family tree (middle)
  2. List of emperors of the Song dynasty
  3. Architecture of the Song dynasty
  4. Culture of the Song dynasty
  5. Economy of the Song dynasty
  6. History of the Song dynasty
  7. Society of the Song dynasty
  8. Technology of the Song dynasty

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jonathan D. Spence. God's Chinese Son. New York 1996. p.42
  2. ^ China archeology and art digest, Volume 3, Issue 4. Art Text (HK) Ltd. 2000. p. 354.
Emperor Zhenzong
House of Zhao (960–1279)
Born: 997 Died: 1022
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Emperor Taizong
Emperor of the Song Dynasty
997–1022
Succeeded by
Emperor Renzong
Emperor of China
997–1022 (With the Empress Consort Liu)