Faith Ringgold

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Faith Ringgold
Faith Ringgold, April 2017-2.jpg
Ringgold in April 2017 at the Brooklyn Museum
Born
Faith Willi Jones

(1930-10-08) October 8, 1930 (age 92)
New York City, U.S.
EducationCity College of New York
Known forPainting
Textile arts
Children's Books
Notable workThe American People Series #18: The Flag is Bleeding (1967)
The American People Series #20: Die (1967)
Who's Afraid of Aunt Jemima? (1983)
Tar Beach (1991)
The French Collection (1991-1997)
MovementFeminist art movement, Civil rights
Awards2009 Peace Corps Award

Faith Ringgold[1] (born October 8, 1930 in Harlem,[2] New York City) is an American painter, writer, mixed media sculptor, and performance artist, best known for her narrative quilts.

Early life[edit]

Faith Ringgold was born the youngest of three children on October 8, 1930, in Harlem Hospital, New York City.[3]: 24  Her parents, Andrew Louis Jones and Willi Posey Jones, were descendants of working-class families displaced by the Great Migration. Ringgold's mother was a fashion designer and her father, as well as working a range of jobs, was an avid storyteller.[4] They raised her in an environment that encouraged her creativity. After the Harlem Renaissance, Ringgold's childhood home in Harlem became surrounded by a thriving arts scene – where figures such as Duke Ellington and Langston Hughes lived just around the corner.[3]: 27  Her childhood friend, Sonny Rollins, who would grow up to be a prominent jazz musician, often visited her family and practiced saxophone at their parties.[3]: 28  Because of her chronic asthma, Ringgold explored visual art as a major pastime through the support of her mother, often experimenting with crayons as a young girl.[3]: 24  She also learned how to sew and work creatively with fabric from her mother.[5] Ringgold maintains that despite her upbringing in Great Depression-era Harlem, 'this did not mean [she] was poor and oppressed' – she was 'protected from oppression and surrounded by a loving family.'[3]: 24  With all of these influences combined, Ringgold's future artwork was greatly affected by the people, poetry, and music she experienced in her childhood, as well as the racism, sexism, and segregation she dealt with in her everyday life.[3]: 9 

In 1948,[6] due to pressure from her family, Ringgold enrolled at the City College of New York to major in art, but was forced to major in art education instead, as City College only allowed women to be enrolled in certain majors.[7][8]: 134  In 1950, she married a jazz pianist named Robert Earl Wallace and had two children, Michele and Barbara Faith Wallace, in 1952.[6] Ringgold and Wallace separated four years later due to his heroin addiction.[9]: 54  In the meantime, she studied with artists Robert Gwathmey and Yasuo Kuniyoshi. She was also introduced to printmaker Robert Blackburn, with whom she would collaborate on a series of prints 30 years later.[3]: 29 

In 1955, Ringgold received her bachelor's degree from City College and soon afterward taught in the New York City public school system.[10] In 1959, she received her master's degree from City College and left with her mother and daughters on her first trip to Europe.[10] While traveling abroad in Paris, Florence, and Rome, Ringgold visited many museums, including the Louvre. This museum in particular inspired her future series of quilt paintings known as the French Collection. This trip was abruptly cut short, however, due to the untimely death of her brother in 1961. Faith Ringgold, her mother, and her daughters all returned to the US for his funeral.[9]: 141  She married Burdette Ringgold on May 19, 1962.[10]

Ringgold visited West Africa twice: once in 1976 and again in 1977. These travels would deeply influence her mask making, doll painting and sculptures.

Artwork[edit]

Faith Ringgold's artistic practice is extremely varied – from painting to quilts, from sculptures and performance art to children's books. As an educator, she taught in both the New York City Public school system and at college level. In 1973, she quit teaching public school to devote herself to creating art full-time.

Painting[edit]

Ringgold began her painting career in the 1950s after receiving her degree.[10] Her early work is composed with flat figures and shapes. She was inspired by the writings of James Baldwin and Amiri Baraka, African art, Impressionism, and Cubism to create the works she made in the 1960s. Though she received a great deal of attention with these images, many of her early paintings focused on the underlying racism in everyday activities;[11] which made sales difficult, and disquieted galleries and collectors.[3]: 41  These works were also politically based and reflected her experiences growing up during the Harlem Renaissance – themes which matured during the Civil Rights Movement and Women's movement.[12]: 8 

Taking inspiration from artist Jacob Lawrence and writer James Baldwin, Ringgold painted her first political collection named the American People Series in 1963, which portrays the American lifestyle in relation to the Civil Rights Movement. American People Series illustrates these racial interactions from a female point of view, and calls basic racial issues in America into question.[9]: 145  In a 2019 article with Hyperallergic magazine, Ringgold explained that her choice for a political collection comes from the turbulent atmosphere around her: "( ... ) it was the 1960s and I could not act like everything was okay. I couldn't paint landscapes in the 1960s – there was too much going on. This is what inspired the American People Series."[13] This revelation stemmed from her work being rejected by Ruth White, a gallery owner in New York.[4] Oil paintings like For Members Only, Neighbors, Watching and Waiting, and The Civil Rights Triangle also embody these themes.

In 1972, as part of a commission sponsored by the Creative Artists Public Service Program, Ringgold installed For the Women's House[14] in the Women's Facility on Rikers Island. The large-scale mural is an anti-carceral work, composed of depictions of women in professional and civil servant roles, representing positive alternatives to incarceration. The women portrayed are inspired by extensive interviews Ringgold conducted with women inmates, and the design divides the portraits into triangular sections – referencing Kuba textiles of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It was her first public commission and widely regarded as her first feminist work.[15] Subsequently, the work inspired the creation of Art Without Walls, an organization that brings art to prisons.[4]

Around the opening of her show for American People, Ringgold also worked on her collection called America Black ( also called the Black Light Series, ) in which she experimented with darker colors. This was spurred by her observation that "white western art was focused around the color white and light/contrast/chiaroscuro, while African cultures, in general used darker colors and emphasized color rather than tonality to create contrast." This led her to pursue "a more affirmative black aesthetic".[9]: 162–164  Her American People series concluded with larger-scale murals, such as The Flag is Bleeding, U.S. Postage Stamp Commemorating the Advent of Black Power People, and Die. These murals lent her a fresher and stronger prospective to her future artwork.

Her piece, Black Light Series #10: Flag for the Moon: Die Nigger, 1969—which was created in response to the first image of the Apollo 11 moon landing[16]—was to be purchased by the Chase Manhattan Bank, after Ringgold's work caught the attention of David Rockefeller, the chief executive of the bank. He sent a couple of representatives to buy a piece, and they realized, only after the artist suggested they actually read the text on her work, that the stars and stripes of the American flag as depicted also optically incorporated the phrase "DIE N****R".[17] The representatives instead purchased Black Light #9: American Spectrum.[17] In 2013, Black Light Series #10: Flag for the Moon: Die Nigger was shown in the artist's solo exhibition at ACA Galleries in New York, where it was highlighted by the artist and critic Paige K. Bradley in the first solo show coverage Ringgold had ever received from Artforum[18] up until then, preceding Beau Rutland's own review two months later.[19]

In the French Collection, a multi-paneled series that touches on the truths and mythologies of modernism, Ringgold explored a different solution to overcoming the painful historical legacy of women and men of African descent. As France was the home of modern art at the time, it also became the source for African-American artists to find their own "modern" identity.[12]: 2 

During the 1970's she also made a "Free Angela" poster design for the Black Panthers,[20] although it was never widely produced Ringgold has stated that she has given a copy of the design to Angela Davis herself.[21]

In terms of the place of painting in her practice as whole, the artist considers it her "primary means of expression," as she noted in an interview on the occasion of a retrospective at the New Museum in New York, from 2022. She goes on to note: "My work is always autobiographical—it’s about what is happening at the time. I always do what is honest to me. I think all artists should try to be knowledgeable about the world and express feelings about what they’re observing, what’s important to them. My advice is: Find your voice and don’t worry about what other people think."[22]

Quilts[edit]

Tar Beach 2 (1990), by Faith Ringgold. This painted story quilt tells the story of Cassie Louise Lightfoot, an eight-year-old girl who dreams of flying over her family's Harlem apartment building and throughout the rest of New York City. Photo taken at the Delaware Art Museum in 2017.
Tar Beach 2 (1990), by Faith Ringgold. This painted story quilt tells the story of Cassie Louise Lightfoot, an 8-year-old girl who dreams of flying over her family's Harlem apartment building and throughout the rest of New York City. Photo taken at the Delaware Art Museum in 2017.

Ringgold stated she switched from painting to fabric to get away from the association of painting with Western/European traditions.[23] Similarly, the use of quilt allowed her advocation of the feminist movement as she could simply roll up her quilts to take to the gallery, therefore negating the need of any assistance from her husband.[17]

In 1972, Ringgold travelled to Europe in the summer of 1972 with her daughter Michele. While Michele went to visit friends in Spain, Ringgold continued onto Germany and the Netherlands. In Amsterdam, she visited the Rijksmuseum, which became one of the most influential experiences affecting her mature work, and subsequently, lead to the development of her quilt paintings. In the museum, Ringgold encountered a collection of 14th- and 15th-century Nepali paintings, which inspired her to produce fabric borders around her own work.

When she returned to the US, a new painting series was born: The Slave Rape Series. In these works, Ringgold took the perspective of an African woman captured and sold into slavery. Her mother, Willi Posey, collaborated with her on this project, as Posey was a popular Harlem clothing designer and seamstress during the 1950s[24] and taught Ringgold how to quilt in the African-American tradition.[25] This collaboration eventually led to their first quilt, Echoes of Harlem, in 1980.[3]: 44–45  Ringgold was also taught the art of quilting in an African-American style by her grandmother,[4] who had in turn learned it from her mother, Susie Shannon, who was a slave.[4]

Ringgold quilted her stories to be heard, since at the time no one would publish the autobiography she had been working on; making her work both autobiographical and artistic. In an interview with the Crocker Art Museum she stated, "In 1983, I began writing stories on my quilts as an alternative. That way, when my quilts were hung up to look at, or photographed for a book, people could still read my stories."[26] Her first quilt story Who's Afraid of Aunt Jemima? (1983) depicts the story of Aunt Jemima as a matriarch restaurateur and fictionally revises "the most maligned black female stereotype."[27] Another piece, titled Change: Faith Ringgold’s Over 100 Pounds Weight Loss Performance Story Quilt (1986), engages the topic of "a woman who wants to feel good about herself, struggling to [the] cultural norms of beauty, a person whose intelligence and political sensitivity allows her to see the inherent contradictions in her position, and someone who gets inspired to take the whole dilemma into an artwork".[12]: 9 

The series of story quilts from Ringgold's French Collection (1990–1997) focuses on historical African-American women who dedicated themselves to change the world (Sunflowers Quilting Bee at Arles). It also calls out and redirects of the male gaze, and illustrates the immersive power of historical fantasy and childlike imaginative storytelling. Many of her quilts went on to inspire the children books that she later made, such as Dinner at Aunt Connie's House (1993) published by Hyperion Books, based on The Dinner Quilt (1988).

Sculpture[edit]

In 1973, Ringgold began experimenting with sculpture as a new medium to document her local community and national events. Her sculptures range from costumed masks to hanging and freestanding soft sculptures, representing both real and fictional characters from her past and present. She began making mixed-media costumed masks after hearing her students express their surprise that she did not already include masks in her artistic practice.[9]: 198  The masks were pieces of linen canvas that were painted, beaded and woven with raffia for hair, and rectangular pieces of cloth for dresses with painted gourds to represent breasts. She eventually made a series of eleven mask costumes, called the Witch Mask Series, in a second collaboration with her mother. These costumes could also be worn, but would lend the wearer female characteristics, such as breasts, bellies and hips. In her memoir We Flew Over the Bridge, Ringgold also notes that in traditional African rituals, the mask wearers would be men, despite the mask's feminine features.[9]: 200  In this series, however, she wanted the masks to have both a "spiritual and sculptural identity",[9]: 199 The dual purpose was important to her: the masks could be worn, and were not solely decorative.

After the Witch Mask Series, she moved onto another series of 31 masks, the Family of Woman Mask Series in 1973, which commemorated women and children whom she had known as a child. She later began making dolls with painted gourd heads and costumes (also made by her mother, which subsequently lead her to life-sized soft sculptures). The first of this series was her piece, Wilt, a 7'3" portrait sculpture of basketball player Wilt Chamberlain. She began with Wilt as a response to some negative comments that Chamberlain made on African-American women in his autobiography. Wilt features three figures, the basketball player with a white wife and a mixed daughter, both fictional characters. The sculptures had baked and painted coconuts shell heads, anatomically-correct foam and rubber bodies covered in clothing, and hung from the ceiling on invisible fishing lines. Her soft sculptures evolved even further into life sized "portrait masks", representing characters from her life and society, from unknown Harlem denizens to Martin Luther King Jr. She carved foam faces into likenesses that were then spray-painted—however, in her memoir she describes how the faces later began to deteriorate and had to be restored. She did this by covering the faces in cloth, molding them carefully to preserve the likeness.

Performance art[edit]

As many of Ringgold's mask sculptures could also be worn as costumes, her transition from mask-making to performance art was a self-described "natural progression".[9]: 206  Though art performance pieces were abundant in the 1960s and '70s, Ringgold was instead inspired by the African tradition of combining storytelling, dance, music, costumes and masks into one production.[9]: 238  Her first piece involving these masks was The Wake and Resurrection of the Bicentennial Negro. The work was a response to the American Bicentennial celebrations of 1976; a narrative of the dynamics of racism and the oppression of drug addiction. She voices the opinion of many other African Americans – there was "no reason to celebrate two hundred years of American Independence…for almost half of that time we had been in slavery".[9]: 205  The piece was performed in mime with music and lasted thirty minutes, and incorporated many of her past paintings, sculptures and installations. She later moved on to produce many other performance pieces including a solo autobiographical performance piece called Being My Own Woman: An Autobiographical Masked Performance Piece, a masked story performance set during the Harlem Renaissance called The Bitter Nest (1985), and a piece to celebrate her weight loss called Change: Faith Ringgold’s Over 100 Pound Weight Loss Performance Story Quilt (1986). Each of these pieces were multidisciplinary, involving masks, costumes, quilts, paintings, storytelling, song and dance. Many of these performances were also interactive, as Ringgold encouraged her audience to sing and dance with her. She describes in her autobiography, We Flew Over the Bridge, that her performance pieces were not meant to shock, confuse or anger, but rather "simply another way to tell my story".[9]: 238 

Publications[edit]

Ringgold has written and illustrated 17 children's books.[28] Her first was Tar Beach, published by Crown in 1991, based on her quilt story of the same name.[29] For that work she won the Ezra Jack Keats New Writer Award[30] and the Coretta Scott King Award for Illustration.[31] She was also the runner-up for the Caldecott Medal, the premier American Library Association award for picture book illustration.[29] In her picture books, Ringgold approaches complex issues of racism in straightforward and hopeful ways, combining fantasy and realism to create an uplifting message for children.[32]

Activism[edit]

Ringgold has been an activist since the 1970s, participating in several feminist and anti-racist organizations. In 1968, fellow artist Poppy Johnson, and art critic Lucy Lippard, founded the Ad Hoc Women's Art Committee with Ringgold and protested a major modernist art exhibition at the Whitney Museum of American Art. Members of the committee demanded that women artists account for fifty percent of the exhibitors and created disturbances at the museum by singing, blowing whistles, chanting about their exclusion, and leaving raw eggs and sanitary napkins on the ground. Not only were women artists excluded from this show, but no African-American artists were represented either. Even Jacob Lawrence, an artist in the museum's permanent collection, was excluded.[3]: 41  After participating in more protest activity, Ringgold was arrested on November 13, 1970.[3]: 41 

Ringgold and Lippard also worked together during their participation in the group Women Artists in Revolution (WAR). That same year, Ringgold and her daughter Michele Wallace founded Women Students and Artists for Black Art Liberation (WSABAL). Around 1974, Ringgold and Wallace were founding members of the National Black Feminist Organization. Ringgold was also a founding member of the "Where We At" Black Women Artists, a New York-based women's art collective associated with the Black Arts Movement. The inaugural show of "Where We At" featured soul food rather than traditional cocktails, exhibiting an embrace of cultural roots. The show was first presented in 1971 with eight artists and had expanded to 20 by 1976.[33]

In 1972, Doloris Holmes, who interviewed specifically for the Archives of American Art, interviewed Ringgold, where she was asked about an upcoming show she was "going to be involved in," to which Ringgold elaborated;

"...this is definitely the first black female show in New York... we have this show as a result of our insistence, and as a result of the work that WSABAL started. This group is not a group of women who are WSABAL. This is WSABAL's show, incidentally. This is a group of artists, some of whom have never shown before, some of whom have."

Additionally, Ringgold was asked about her life as a black woman artist and her views of black artists of the past, to which she tells the story of a sculpture that was created by Augusta Savage. The sculpture depicts two slaves that are rejoicing over having been freed from slavery. Despite the historic and emotional tones this sculpture was meant to give off, Ringgold highlights that the sculpture was, in fact, made with marble, which causes the sculpture to appear white in color; "...you really don't think that these are black people because [Savage] still had the white image in her mind." Ringgold tells this story in order to highlight the eraser of true African artwork and history. Ringgold explains that she admires African artwork, "because it attempts to take the mood and the spirit of the person and visualize that, instead of the human roundness and the suppleness of the form." As a young artist, Ringgold states that she wanted to express her feelings, yearnings, etc. rather than keep to creating "smooth and subtle" artwork. Ringgold wanted her artwork to be able to be related to by others who viewed it, "and to confront you very much, I hope, like African art does."[34]

In a statement about black representation in the arts, she said:

"When I was in elementary school I used to see reproductions of Horace Pippin’s 1942 painting called John Brown Going to His Hanging in my textbooks. I didn't know Pippin was a black person. No one ever told me that. I was much, much older before I found out that there was at least one black artist in my history books. Only one. Now that didn't help me. That wasn't good enough for me. How come I didn't have that source of power? It is important. That's why I am a black artist. It is exactly why I say who I am."[3]: 62 

In 1988, Ringgold co-founded the Coast-to-Coast National Women Artists of Color Projects with Clarissa Sligh.[35] From 1988 to 1996, this organization exhibited the works of African American women across the United States.[36] In 1990, Sligh was one of three organizers of the exhibit Coast to Coast: A Women of Color National Artists’ Book Project held January 14 – February 2, 1990, at the Flossie Martin Gallery, and later at the Eubie Blake Center and the Artemesia Gallery. Ringgold wrote the catalog introduction titled " History of Coast to Coast". More than 100 women artists of color were included. The catalog included brief artist statements and photos of the artists' books, including works by Sligh, Ringgold, Emma Amos, Beverly Buchanan, Elizabeth Catlett, Martha Jackson Jarvis, Howardena Pindell, Adrian Piper, Joyce Scott, and Deborah Willis.[37]

Later life[edit]

In 1987, Ringgold accepted a teaching position in the Visual Arts Department at the University of California, San Diego.[38] She continued to teach until 2002, when she retired.[39]

In 1995, Ringgold published her first autobiography titled We Flew Over the Bridge. The book is a memoir detailing her journey as an artist and life events, from her childhood in Harlem and Sugar Hill, to her marriages and children, to her professional career and accomplishments as an artist. Two years later she received two honorary doctorates, one for Education from Wheelock College in Boston, and the second for Philosophy from Molloy College in New York.[10]

She has now received over 80 awards and honors and 23 Honorary Doctorates[40]

She was interviewed for the film !Women Art Revolution.[41]

Ringgold resides with her second husband Burdette "Birdie" Ringgold, whom she married in 1962,[4] in a home in Englewood, New Jersey, where she has lived and maintained a steady studio practice since 1992.[42]

Copyright suit against BET[edit]

Ringgold was the plaintiff in a significant copyright case, Ringgold v. Black Entertainment Television.[43] Black Entertainment Television (BET) had aired several episodes of the television series Roc in which a Ringgold poster was shown on nine occasions for a total of 26.75 seconds. Ringgold sued for copyright infringement. The court found BET liable, rejecting a de minimis defense raised by BET, which had argued that the use of Ringgold's copyrighted work was so minimal that it did not constitute an infringement.

In popular culture[edit]

Selected exhibitions[edit]

Her first one-woman show, American People opened December 19, 1967 at Spectrum Gallery.[46] The show included three of her murals: The Flag is Bleeding, U.S. Postage Stamp Commemorating the Advent of Black Power, and Die.[46] She wanted the opening to not be "another all white" opening but a "refined black art affair."[46] There was music and her children invited their classmates.[46] Over 500 people attended the opening including artists Romare Bearden, Norman Lewis, and Richard Mayhew.[46]

In 2019, a major retrospective of Ringgold's work was mounted by London's Serpentine Galleries, from June 6 until September 8.[47] This was Ringgold's first show at a European institution.[48] Her first career retrospective in her hometown opened at the New Museum, New York in 2022 before traveling to the De Young Museum, San Francisco.[49]

Ringgold's work was included in the 2022 exhibition Women Painting Women at the Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth.[50]

Notable works in public collections[edit]

Publications[edit]

  • Tar Beach, New York: Crown Books for Young Readers, 1991 (1st ed.); Dragonfly Books (Crown), 1996. ISBN 978-0-517-88544-4
  • Aunt Harriet's Underground Railroad in the Sky, New York: Crown Books for Young Readers, 1992 (1st ed.); Dragonfly Books, 1995. ISBN 978-0-517-88543-7
  • Dinner at Aunt Connie's House, New York: Hyperion Books for Children, 1993. ISBN 978-0-590-13713-3
  • We Flew Over The Bridge: Memoirs of Faith Ringgold, Boston: Bulfinch Press (Little, Brown and Company), 1995 (1st ed.); Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 2005. ISBN 978-0-8223-3564-1
  • Talking To Faith Ringgold by Faith Ringgold, Linda Freeman and Nancy Roucher, New York: Crown Books for Young Readers, 1996. ISBN 978-0-517-70914-6
  • Bonjour, Lonnie, New York: Hyperion Books for Young Readers, 1996. ISBN 978-0-7868-0076-6
  • My Dream of Martin Luther King, New York: Dragonfly Books, 1996. ISBN 978-0-517-88577-2
  • The Invisible Princess, New York: Crown Books for Young Readers, 1998 (1st ed.); New York: Dragonfly Books, 2001. ISBN 978-0-440-41735-4
  • If a Bus Could Talk: The Story of Rosa Parks, New York: Simon & Schuster Books for Young People, 1999 (1st ed.); Aladdin Books (Simon & Schuster), 2001. ISBN 978-0-689-85676-1
  • Counting to Tar Beach: A Tar Beach Board Book, New York: Crown Books for Young Readers, 1999. ISBN 978-0-517-80022-5
  • Cassie's Colorful Day: A Tar Beach Board Book, New York: Crown Books for Young Readers, 1999. ISBN 978-0-517-80021-8
  • Cassie's Word Quilt, New York: Knopf Books for Young Readers, 2002 (1st ed.); Dragonfly Books, 2004; Random House Children's Books, 2012. ISBN 978-0-553-11233-7
  • Faith Ringgold: A View from the Studio by Curlee Raven Holton and Faith Ringgold, Boston: Bunker Hill Publishing in association with the Allentown Art Museum, 2004. ISBN 9781593731786
  • O Holy Night: Christmas with the Boys Choir of Harlem, New York: Amistad (HarperCollins), 2004. ISBN 978-1-4223-5512-1
  • What Will You Do for Peace? Impact of 9/11 on New York City Youth, introduction by Faith Ringgold, Hamden, Connecticut: InterRelations Collaborative, 2004. ISBN 978-0-9761753-0-8
  • The Three Witches by Zora Neale Hurston, adapted by Joyce Carol Thomas, illustrated by Faith Ringgold, New York: HarperCollins, 2006. ISBN 978-0-06-000649-5
  • Henry Ossawa Tanner: His Boyhood Dream Comes True, Piermont, New Hampshire: Bunker Hill Publishing in association with the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, 2011. ISBN 9781593730925
  • Bronzeville Boys and Girls (poetry) by Gwendolyn Brooks, illustrated by Faith Ringgold, New York: Amistad, 2007 (1st ed.); HarperCollins, 2015. ISBN 978-3948318130
  • Harlem Renaissance Party, New York: Amistad, 2015. ISBN 0060579110
  • A Letter to my Daughter, Michele: in response to her book, Black Macho and the Myth of the Superwoman, North Charleston, South Carolina: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2015 (written 1980). ISBN 9781517572662
  • We Came to America, New York: Knopf, 2016 (1st ed.); Dragonfly Books, 2022. ISBN 978-0-593-48270-4
  • Faith Ringgold: Politics / Power by Faith Ringgold, Michele Wallace, and Kirsten Weiss, Berlin: Weiss Publications, 2022. ISBN 394-831813-1

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Faith Ringgold's website".
  2. ^ "Faith Ringgold". Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. Archived from the original on May 12, 2013. Retrieved May 1, 2013.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Holton, Curlee Raven (2004). A View From the Studio. Boston: Bunker Hill Pub in association with the Allentown Art Museum. ISBN 978-1-593-73045-1. OCLC 59132090.
  4. ^ a b c d e f "Faith Ringgold Biography, Life & Quotes". The Art Story. Retrieved March 9, 2021.
  5. ^ "Faith Ringgold". Biography. Retrieved March 31, 2019.
  6. ^ a b "Faith Ringgold (b. 1930), Painter, Sculptor, Quilter, Performance Artist. | Artists of the American Mosaic: Encyclopedia of African American Artists - Credo Reference". search.credoreference.com. Retrieved June 2, 2022.
  7. ^ "About: Our History". The City College of New York. June 30, 2015. Retrieved February 27, 2018.
  8. ^ Farrington, Lisa (2011). Creating Their Own Image: The History of African-American Women Artists. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-199-76760-1. OCLC 57005944.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Ringgold, Faith (1995). We Flew Over the Bridge: The Memoirs of Faith Ringgold. Boston: Little Brown & Co. ISBN 978-0-821-22071-9. OCLC 607544394.
  10. ^ a b c d e Ringgold, Faith. "Faith Ringgold Chronology" (PDF). Faith Ringgold. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 22, 2016. Retrieved September 12, 2015.
  11. ^ Wallace, Michelle (2010). American People, Black Light: Faith Ringgold's Paintings of the 1960s. New York: Neuberger Museum of Art. p. 31. ISBN 978-0979562938.
  12. ^ a b c Ringgold, Faith (1998). Dancing at the Louvre: Faith Ringgold's French Collection and Other Story Quilts. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-21430-9. OCLC 246277942.
  13. ^ "AS-2007_10zL0075-300". Hyperallergic. Retrieved March 31, 2019.
  14. ^ "Brooklyn Museum Tumblr Page".
  15. ^ Wallace, Michele (1990). Invisibility Blues: From Pop to Theory. London, New York: Verso. pp. 34–43. ISBN 978-1859844878.
  16. ^ Bradley, Paige K. (April 1, 2013). ""Critics Picks: Faith Ringgold"". Artforum.
  17. ^ a b c "The quilts that made America quake: how Faith Ringgold fought the power with fabric". The Guardian. June 4, 2019. Retrieved March 9, 2021.
  18. ^ Bradley, Paige K. (April 1, 2013). ""Critics' Picks: Faith Ringgold"". Artforum.
  19. ^ Rutland, Beau (June 1, 2013). "Reviews: Faith Ringgold". Artforum. 51 (Summer 2013).
  20. ^ "Faith Ringgold". Biography. Retrieved March 9, 2021.
  21. ^ Haider, Arwa. "Faith Ringgold: The artist who captured the soul of the US". www.bbc.com. Retrieved March 9, 2021.
  22. ^ Butler, O’Neill-, Lauren (March 4, 2022). "Interviews: Faith Ringgold". Artforum.
  23. ^ Barbara J., Bloemink (1999). re/righting history: counternarratives by contemporary african-american artists. Katonah Museum of Art. p. 16. ISBN 0-915171-51-1.
  24. ^ Huey Copeland (2010). Adler, Ester (ed.). Modern Women; Women Artists at the Museum of Modern Art. New York: The Museum of Modern Art. p. 487. ISBN 9780870707711.
  25. ^ Millman, Joyce (December 2005). "Faith Ringgold's Quilts and Picturebooks: Comparisons and Contributions". Children's Literature in Education. 36 (4): 383. doi:10.1007/s10583-005-8318-0. S2CID 145804995.
  26. ^ ""Faith Ringgold: An American Artist" to Open February 2018". Crocker Art Museum. Retrieved March 31, 2019.
  27. ^ Tucker, Marcia (1994). Bad Girls. New York: The MIT Press. p. 70.
  28. ^ Faith Ringgold blogspot.
  29. ^ a b "Tar Beach" (one library record). WorldCat.
  30. ^ "Ezra Jack Keats Book Award Winners". ezra-jack-keats.org.
  31. ^ "Brooklyn Museum". Faith Ringgold. Retrieved October 18, 2011.
  32. ^ Millman, Joyce (December 2005). "Faith Ringgold's Quilts and Picturebooks: Comparisons and Contributions". Children's Literature in Education. 36 (4): 388. doi:10.1007/s10583-005-8318-0. S2CID 145804995.
  33. ^ Fax, Elton C. (1977). Black Artists of the New Generation. New York: Dodd, Mead & Company. pp. 176. ISBN 0-396-07434-0.
  34. ^ Ringgold, Faith (1972). "Interview by Doloris Holmes". Archives of American Art. Retrieved December 7, 2021.
  35. ^ "Donor Spotlight: Clarissa Sligh". wsworkshop.org. March 26, 2009. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved March 25, 2015.
  36. ^ Works by Women to go on Display in Wooster Toledo Blade, August 21, 1991.
  37. ^ Coast to coast: a Women of Color National Artists' Book Project. Flossie Martin Gallery. 1990. OCLC 29033208.
  38. ^ "Department History". visarts.ucsd.edu. Retrieved February 13, 2020.
  39. ^ "Faith Ringgold". Biography. Retrieved February 13, 2020.
  40. ^ "About Faith Ringgold".
  41. ^ Anon 2018
  42. ^ Russeth, Andrew. "The Storyteller: At 85, Her Star Still Rising, Faith Ringgold Looks Back on Her Life in Art, Activism, and Education", ARTnews, March 1, 2016. Retrieved February 6, 2017. "The artist's second husband, Burdette Ringgold (everyone calls him Birdie), went along too, carrying her paintings, as he always did. 'We never showed [galleries] books or slides,' Ringgold told me one morning in her studio at her home in Englewood, New Jersey."
  43. ^ Ringgold v. Black Entertainment Television, 126 F.3d 70 (2nd Cir. 1997).
  44. ^ Oler, Tammy (October 31, 2019). "57 Champions of Queer Feminism, All Name-Dropped in One Impossibly Catchy Song". Slate Magazine.
  45. ^ "Some Living American Women Artists/Last Supper". Smithsonian American Art Museum. Retrieved January 23, 2022.
  46. ^ a b c d e Ringgold, Faith (1987). "Being My Own Woman". Women's Studies Quarterly. 15 (1/2): 31–34 – via JSTOR.
  47. ^ Hettie Judah, "Faith Ringgold review – critique of racist America as relevant as ever", The Guardian, June 5, 2019.
  48. ^ Buck, Louisa. "Faith Ringgold discusses civil rights and children's books in solo London show". Retrieved September 18, 2021.
  49. ^ Angeleti, Gabriella. "Faith Ringgold to get her first New York retrospective at the New Museum in 2022". Retrieved September 18, 2021.
  50. ^ "Women Painting Women". Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth. Retrieved May 14, 2022.
  51. ^ Ribeiro, Rem; Bohrman, Gabrielle (December 8, 2020). "A Peek Into the Collection: Faith Ringgold". Purchase. SUNY Purchase. Archived from the original on January 4, 2022. Retrieved May 29, 2022.
  52. ^ a b "Faith Ringgold". Glenstone. Archived from the original on April 20, 2022. Retrieved April 23, 2022.
  53. ^ Valentine, Victoria L. (October 24, 2021). "National Gallery of Art Acquires Faith Ringgold's 'Flag is Bleeding' Painting: May Be Museum's 'Most Important Purchase of a Single Work of Contemporary Art' Since 1976". Culture Type. Retrieved October 25, 2021.
  54. ^ "Faith Ringgold, American People Series #20: Die". Museum of Modern Art. Archived from the original on April 23, 2022. Retrieved May 29, 2022.
  55. ^ "Black Light Series #1: Big Black". PAMM. Pérez Art Museum Miami. Archived from the original on May 29, 2022. Retrieved May 29, 2022.
  56. ^ "Argus: UMFA Collection, Soul Sister". UMFA. Utah Museum of Fine Arts. Archived from the original on May 31, 2022. Retrieved May 31, 2022.
  57. ^ "Black Light Series #7: Ego Painting". AIC. Art Institute of Chicago. Archived from the original on April 28, 2022. Retrieved May 29, 2022.
  58. ^ "America Free Angela". Smithsonian. Archived from the original on May 30, 2022. Retrieved May 30, 2022.
  59. ^ "United States of Attica". AIC. Art Institute of Chicago. Retrieved June 3, 2022.
  60. ^ "United States of Attica". Harvard Art Museums. Harvard University. Retrieved June 3, 2022.
  61. ^ "United States of Attica". Hood Museum of Art. Retrieved June 4, 2022.
  62. ^ "United States of Attica". MFAH. Museum of Fine Arts, Houston. Retrieved June 3, 2022.
  63. ^ "United States of Attica". MoMA. Museum of Modern Art. Archived from the original on April 22, 2022. Retrieved May 29, 2022.
  64. ^ "United States of Attica". Whitney. Whitney Museum. Archived from the original on June 21, 2021. Retrieved May 29, 2022.
  65. ^ Small, Zachary (January 18, 2022). "Faith Ringgold Mural at Rikers Island to Move to Brooklyn Museum". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 20, 2022. Retrieved May 29, 2022.
  66. ^ "Lucy: The 3.5 Million Year Old Lady". MIA. Minneapolis Institute of Art. Archived from the original on May 30, 2022. Retrieved May 31, 2022.
  67. ^ "Echoes of Harlem". Studio Museum. Archived from the original on April 26, 2022. Retrieved May 29, 2022.
  68. ^ "Street Story Quilt". Met Museum. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Archived from the original on May 29, 2022. Retrieved May 29, 2022.
  69. ^ "Sonny's Bridge". High. High Museum of Art. Archived from the original on November 5, 2019. Retrieved May 29, 2022.
  70. ^ "THE BITTER NEST, PART 1: LOVE IN THE SCHOOL YARD". PAM. Phoenix Art Museum. Archived from the original on May 29, 2022. Retrieved May 29, 2022.
  71. ^ "The Bitter Nest, Part II: The Harlem Renaissance Party". SAAM. Smithsonian American Art Museum. Archived from the original on November 26, 2020. Retrieved May 29, 2022.
  72. ^ "Dream 2: King & The Sisterhood". MFA. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Archived from the original on August 16, 2022. Retrieved August 16, 2022.
  73. ^ "Woman on a Bridge #1 of 5: Tar Beach". Guggenheim. Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. Archived from the original on October 19, 2021. Retrieved May 29, 2022.
  74. ^ "Freedom of Speech". Met Museum. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Archived from the original on May 29, 2022. Retrieved May 29, 2022.
  75. ^ "Tar Beach 2". PMA. Philadelphia Museum of Art. Archived from the original on January 21, 2022. Retrieved May 29, 2022.
  76. ^ "Tar Beach 2". PAFA. Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. Archived from the original on May 30, 2022. Retrieved May 30, 2022.
  77. ^ "Tar Beach II". VMFA. Virginia Museum of Fine Arts. Archived from the original on May 31, 2022. Retrieved May 31, 2022.
  78. ^ "Dancing in the Louvre". Gund Gallery. Kenyon College. Archived from the original on May 31, 2022. Retrieved May 31, 2022.
  79. ^ "Matisse's Model (The French Collection, Part I: #5)". BMA. Baltimore Museum of Art. Archived from the original on May 29, 2022. Retrieved August 16, 2022.
  80. ^ "Picasso's Studio". Worcester Art Museum. Archived from the original on August 16, 2022. Retrieved August 16, 2022.
  81. ^ "Feminist Series: Of My Two Handicaps #10 of 20". Whitney. Whitney Museum. Archived from the original on April 28, 2022. Retrieved May 29, 2022.
  82. ^ "Faith Ringgold". NYC SCA. Archived from the original on May 31, 2022. Retrieved May 31, 2022.
  83. ^ "Artwork: "Flying Home Harlem Heroes and Heroines" (Faith Ringgold)". nycsubway. Retrieved April 29, 2022.
  84. ^ Wat, Kathryn. "Collection on the Move: Faith Ringgold". NMWA. National Museum of Women in the Arts. Archived from the original on May 30, 2022. Retrieved May 30, 2022.
  85. ^ "American Collection #5: Bessie's Blues". AIC. Art Institute of Chicago. Archived from the original on January 8, 2022. Retrieved May 29, 2022.
  86. ^ "People Portraits". Metro Art. LACMTA. Retrieved June 2, 2022.
  87. ^ "Hopper College Stained Glass" (PDF). Yale University. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 6, 2022. Retrieved November 6, 2022.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]