A film festival is an organized, extended presentation of films in one or more cinemas or screening venues, usually in a single city or region. Increasingly, film festivals show some films outdoors. Films may be of recent date and, depending upon the festival's focus, can include international and domestic releases. Some festivals focus on a specific film-maker or genre (e.g., film noir) or subject matter (e.g., horror film festivals). A number of film festivals specialise in short films of a defined maximum length. Film festivals are typically annual events. Some film historians do not consider Film Festivals as official releases of film, like Jerry Beck. The best known film festivals are the Venice Film Festival, the Cannes Film Festival, the Toronto Film Festival, Sundance Film Festival, and the Berlin International Film Festival, the latter being the largest film festival worldwide, based on attendance. The Venice Film Festival is the oldest major festival. The Melbourne International Film Festival is the largest film festival in the Southern Hemisphere and one of the oldest in the world. A 2013 study found 3,000 active films festivals worldwide—active defined as having held an event in the previous 24 months.
- 1 History
- 2 Festival administration
- 3 Notable festivals
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 Further reading
Venice held the first major film festival in 1932. Other major and older film festivals of the world include:
- Moscow International Film Festival (1935)
- Cannes Film Festival (1946)
- Festival del film Locarno (1946)
- Karlovy Vary International Film Festival (1946)
- Edinburgh International Film Festival (1947)
- Berlin International Film Festival (1951)
- Melbourne International Film Festival (1952)
- International Film Festival Mannheim-Heidelberg (IFFMH) (1952)
- International Film Festival of India (IFFI) (1952)
- San Sebastián International Film Festival (1953)
- Sydney Film Festival (1954)
- Mar del Plata International Film Festival Argentina (1954)
- Seminci, Valladolid, Spain (1956)
- London Film Festival (1956)
- San Francisco International Film Festival (1957)
- Tashkent International Film Festival of countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America (1968)
- Kraków Film Festival (1960)
- International Film Festival for Children and Youth in Zlín (1961)
- Antalya Golden Orange Film Festival (1963)
- Chicago International Film Festival (1965)
- Telluride Film Festival (1974)
- Atlanta Film Festival (1976)
- Cairo International Film Festival (1976)
- Toronto International Film Festival (1976)
- Cleveland International Film Festival (1977)
- Montreal World Film Festival (1977).
- Hong Kong International Film Festival (HKIFF) (1977)
- Durban International Film Festival (DIFF) (1979)
- Fantasporto, Portugal (1982)
- Istanbul International Film Festival (1982)
- Filmfest München (1983)
- Tokyo International Film Festival (1985)
- Warsaw International Film Festival (1985)
- Fort Lauderdale International Film Festival (1986)
- Guadalajara International Film Festival (1986)
- Santa Barbara International Film Festival (1986)
- Melbourne Queer Film Festival (1991)
- Shanghai International Film Festival (1993)
- International Film Festival of Kerala (IFFK) 1996
- Tallinn Black Nights Film Festival (PÖFF) 1997
- SEOUL International Women's Film Festival (SIWFF) 1997
- Sofia International Film Festival (SIFF) 1997
- Dubai International Film Festival (DIFF) 2004
- Filmsaaz (Short film festival) 2008
The Venice Film Festival in Italy began in 1932, and is the oldest film festival still running. Raindance Film Festival is the UK's largest celebration of independent film-making, and takes place in London in October.
Australia's first and longest running film festival is the Melbourne International Film Festival (1952), followed by the Sydney Film Festival (1954). Edinburgh International Film Festival is the longest running festival.
North America's first and longest running short film festival is the Yorkton Film Festival, established in 1947. The first film festival in the United States was the Columbus International Film & Video Festival, also known as The Chris Awards, held in 1953. According to the Film Arts Foundation in San Francisco, "The Chris Awards (is) one of the most prestigious documentary, educational, business and informational competitions in the U.S; (it is) the oldest of its kind in North America and celebrating its 54th year." It was followed four years later by the San Francisco International Film Festival, held in March 1957, which emphasized feature-length dramatic films. The festival played a major role in introducing foreign films to American audiences. Films in the first year included Akira Kurosawa's Throne of Blood and Satyajit Ray's Pather Panchali.
Today, thousands of film festivals take place around the world—from high profile festivals such as Sundance Film Festival and Slamdance Film Festival (Park City, Utah), to horror festivals such as Terror Film Festival (Philadelphia), and the Park City Film Music Festival, the first U.S. film festival dedicated to honoring music in film.
Film Funding competitions such as Writers and Filmmakers were introduced when the cost of production could be lowered significantly and internet technology allowed for the collaboration of film production.
Although there are notable for-profit festivals such as SXSW, most festivals operate on a nonprofit membership-based model, with a combination of ticket sales, membership fees, and corporate sponsorship constituting the majority of revenue. Unlike other arts nonprofits (performing arts, museums, etc), film festivals typically receive few donations from the general public and are occasionally organized as nonprofit business associations instead of public charities. Film industry members often have significant curatorial input, and corporate sponsors are given opportunities to promote their brand to festival audiences in exchange for cash contributions. Private parties, often to raise investments for film projects, constitute significant "fringe" events. Larger festivals maintain year-round staffs often engaging in community and charitable projects outside festival season.
While entries from established filmmakers are usually considered pluses by the organizers, most festivals require new or relatively unknown filmmakers to pay an entry fee to have their works considered for screening. This is especially so in larger film festivals, such as the Cannes Film Festival, Toronto International Film Festival, Sundance Film Festival, South by Southwest, Montreal World Film Festival, and even smaller "boutique" festivals such as the Miami International Film Festival, British Urban Film Festival in London and Mumbai Women's International Film Festival in India.
On the other hand, some festivals—usually those accepting fewer films, and perhaps not attracting as many "big names" in their audiences as do Sundance and Telluride—require no entry fee. Rotterdam Film Festival, Mumbai Film Festival, and many smaller film festivals in the United States (the Stony Brook Film Festival on Long Island, the Northwest Filmmakers' Festival, and the Sicilian Film Festival in Miami), are examples.
Screening out of competition
The core tradition of film festivals is competition, that is, the consideration of films with the intention of judging which are most deserving of various forms of recognition. In contrast to those films, some festivals may screen (i.e., project onto a movie screen before an audience) some films without treating them as part of the competition; the films are said to be "screened out..." (or "outside...") "of competition".
The three most prestigious film festivals are generally considered to be Cannes, Berlin and Venice. These festivals are sometimes called the "Big Three." Polish director Krzysztof Kieślowski's The Three Colors Trilogy were each made for these festivals, with Blue for Venice, White for Berlin, and Red for Cannes.
The Toronto International Film Festival is North America's most popular festival. Time wrote it had, "...grown from its place as the most influential fall film festival to the most influential film festival, period." Seattle International Film Festival is credited as being the largest film festival in the USA, regularly showing over 400 films in a month across the city. The Sundance Film Festival, Tribeca Film Festival, Austin Film Festival, New York Film Festival, Montreal World Film Festival, and Vancouver International Film Festival are also major North American festivals.
The most notable online film festival is hosted by Culture Unplugged Studios[not in citation given] where over 20,000 film makers from over 120 countries participate on the online venue. The festivals are themed as We Speak Here, Humanity Explored, Green and Spirit Enlightened. The venue was the first one to launch the international scale documentary film network worldwide.
Competitive feature film
The festivals in Berlin, Cairo, Cannes, Goa, Karlovy Vary, Locarno, Mar del Plata, Montreal, Moscow, San Sebastián, Shanghai, Tallinn, Tokyo, Venice, and Warsaw are accredited by the International Federation of Film Producers Associations (FIAPF) in the category of competitive feature films.
Ann Arbor Film Festival started in 1963. It is the oldest continually operated experimental film festival in North America, and has become one of the premiere film festivals for independent and, primarily, experimental filmmakers to showcase work.
In the US, Telluride Film Festival, Sundance Film Festival, Austin Film Festival, Austin's South by Southwest, New York City's Tribeca Film Festival and Slamdance Film Festival are all considered significant festivals for independent film. The Zero Film Festival is significant as the first and only festival exclusive to self-financed filmmakers. The biggest independent film festival in the UK is Raindance Film Festival.
The San Francisco International Film Festival, started in 1957, is the oldest continuously annual film festival in the United States. It highlights current trends in international filmmaking and video production with an emphasis on work that has not yet secured U.S. distribution. The Toronto International Film Festival, begun in 1976, is regarded as North America's most major and most prestigious film festival, and is the most widely attended.
Toronto's Hot Docs is the leading North American documentary film festival. Toronto also has the largest amount of film festivals in the world, ranging from cultural, independent, and historic films. The largest festival, in terms of the number of feature productions, is the Seattle International Film Festival, which screens 270 features, and approximately 150 short films. The Whistler Film Festival gets bigger every year, with more than 80 screenings and an industry summit.
The Sundance film festival is a major festival for independent film. The Vail Film Festival in Vail, Colorado, is one of the "Top 10 destination film festivals in the world," (MovieMaker magazine) It screens over 90 films, mostly by new filmmakers and rising stars.
The Cartagena Film Festival, founded by Victor Nieto in 1960, is the oldest film festival in Latin America. The Festival de Gramado (or Gramado Film Festival) Gramado, Brazil, along with the Guadalajara International Film Festival in Guadalajara and the Morelia International Film Festival in Morelia, Michoacan Mexico, are considered the most important film festivals of Latin America. The Huelva Ibero-American Film Festival has been held since 1975 in that Spanish city.
The Expresión en Corto International Film Festival is the largest competitive film festival in Mexico. It specializes in emerging talent, and is held in the last week of each July in the two colonial cities of San Miguel de Allende and Guanajuato. Oaxaca Film Fest. For Spanish-speaking countries, the Dominican International Film Festival takes place annually in Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic. The Valdivia International Film Festival is held annually in the city of Valdivia. It is arguable the most important film festival in Chile.
The Havana Film Festival was founded in 1979 and is the oldest continuous annual film festival in the Caribbean. Its focus is on Latin American cinema. The Trinidad and Tobago Film Festival, founded in 2006, is dedicated to screening the newest films from the English-, Spanish, French- and Dutch-speaking Caribbean, as well as the region's diaspora. It also seeks to facilitate the growth of Caribbean cinema by offering a wide-ranging industry programme and networking opportunities.
Other festivals in the Caribbean include Festival Régional et International du Cinéma de Guadeloupe (FEMI), Rencontres Cinémas Martinique, the Curaçao International Film Festival Rotterdam, the Jamaica Film Festival, the Aruba International Film Festival, Cayfilm in the Cayman Islands, and the Bahamas International Film Festival.
Many film festivals are dedicated exclusively to animation.
- Annecy International Animated Film Festival(f. 1960—the oldest)
- Zagreb (f. 1972)
- Ottawa (f. 1976)
- Hiroshima (f. 1985)
- KROK (f. 1989)
- Anima Mundi (f. 1992)
- Chritrakatha (f. 2007)
- Animac(f. 1996)
A variety of regional festivals happen in various countries. Austin Film Festival is accredited by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts & Sciences®, which makes all their jury award-winning narrative short and animated short films eligible for an Academy Award®.
Asian Film Festivals
Notable Asian film festivals include the Osian's-Cinefan: Festival of Asian Cinema at New Delhi, which recently expanded to include Arab Cinema, and the Annual Mumbai Film Festival in India, with its 200,000 USD cash prize (www.mumbaifilmfest.com), Toronto Reel Asian International Film Festival, (www.reelasian.com), Mumbai Women's International Film Festival (MWIFF) is an annual film festival in Mumbai featuring films made by women directors and women technicians. and the Hong Kong International Film Festival (HKIFF), Chennai Women's International Film Festival (CWIFF) and Busan International Film Festival (BIFF). International Film Festival of India, the official International film festival organised by Government of India held at Goa every year is a famous film festival. International Film Festival of Kerala organised by Government of Kerala held at Thiruvananthapuram every year in the month of December is the biggest film festival in India in terms of public participation. International Documentary and Short Film Festival of Kerala (IDSFFK) hosted by the Kerala State Chalachitra Academy on behalf of Department of Cultural Affairs, Government of Kerala is a major documentary and short film festival., Kolkata International Film Festival at Kolkata in India, Rafi Peer International Film Festival at Lahore in Pakistan, Jagran Film Festival (JFF), Kolkata International Children's Film Festival and newly started Dehradun International Film Festival at Dehradun, Uttrakhand in India.
There are several significant film festivals held regularly in Africa. The biannual Panafrican Film and Television Festival of Ouagadougou (FESPACO) in Burkina Faso was established in 1969 and accepts for competition only films by African filmmakers and chiefly produced in Africa. The annual Durban International Film Festival in South Africa and Zanzibar International Film Festival in Tanzania have grown in importance for the film and entertainment industry, as they often screen the African premieres of many international films.
The Sahara International Film Festival, held annually in the Sahrawi refugee camps in western Algeria near the border of Western Sahara, is notable as the only film festival in the world to take place in a refugee camp. The festival has the two-fold aim of providing cultural entertainment and educational opportunities to refugees, and of raising awareness of the plight of the Sahrawi people, who have been exiled from their native Western Sahara for more than three decades.
The biggest European festival is the Cannes film festival in France along with Berlin and Venice.
- List of film festivals
- List of film festivals in Europe
- List of short film festivals
- Outdoor cinema
- Outline of film
- "Open air cinemas". Open air cinemas.
- "Animated Movie Guide 1 - Cartoon Research". cartoonresearch.com.
- "Venice Film Festival". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2012-11-23.
- "film festival". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2012-11-23.
- 2013 study on 10,000 film festivals
- "Ташкентский кинофестиваль 1958 года". Письма о Ташкенте.
- "Chicago International Film Festival". chicagofilmfestival.com.
- "History". Atlanta Film Festival.
- Cleveland International Film Festival
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- "Fort Lauderdale International Film Festival". fliff.com.
- "Beale's best in show: Raindance film festival (4Creative)". The Independent (London). September 8, 2008. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
- "DivX Networks Presents Greencine Online Film Festival". Greencine.com. Retrieved 2011-07-31.
- Anheier, Helmut K. and Mark Juergensmeyer, eds. (2012). Encyclopedia of Global Studies. Sage Publications. p. 566. ISBN 9781412994224.
Cannes, Venice, and Berlin—still hold the most prestigious status as cultural institutions that officially endorse the aesthetic and cinematic values of movies and critical currencies of film directors.
- Bordwell, David (2005). Figures Traced in Light: On Cinematic Staging. University of California Press. p. 144. ISBN 9780520241978.
Because reputations were made principally on the festival circuit, the filmmaker had to find international financing and distribution and settle for minor festivals before arriving at one of the Big Three (Berlin, Cannes, Venice).
- Wong, Cindy Hing-Yuk (2011). Film Festivals: Culture, People, and Power on the Global Screen. Rutgers University Press. p. 5. ISBN 9780813551104.
Whether we talk about the Big Three festivals—Cannes, Venice, Berlin—look at Sundance, Tribeca, and Toronto in North America, or examine other significant world festivals in Hong Kong, Pusan, Locarno, Rotterdam, San Sebastián, and Mar del Plata, the insistent global icons of all festivals are films, discoveries, auteurs, stars, parties, and awards.
- Balio, Tino (2010). The Foreign Film Renaissance on American Screens, 1946–1973. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 250. ISBN 9780299247935.
Unlike the big three international film festivals—Cannes, Venice, and Berlin—the New York Film Festival, like its London model, would be noncompetitive.
- Jugu Abraham. "International film festivals and India". DearCinema.com. Archived from the original on 2012-03-17.
- "Big-Screen Romance". Time. August 29, 2007.
- "2011 Seattle International Film Festival (May 19 - June 12)". Siff.net. Retrieved 2011-07-31.
- Penn State University. "psu.edu".
- "NuHo, quando il festival del cinema è in streaming". LINKESTA. February 8, 2014.
- International Federation of Film Producers Associations. "Competitive Feature Film Festivals". Retrieved 2012-07-29.
- Redford Says Sundance Maintains Essence
- Filmmakers look to Sundance buying spree
- "The Plot Thickens For 2009 Austin Film Festival". Film Threat. 2009-02-24. Retrieved 2012-11-23.
- "Zero Film Festival Celebrates Indie Spirit". New York Post. November 23, 2009.
- de la Fuente, Anna Marie (2008-12-03). "Cartagena Festival's Nieto dies at 92, Director of oldest film festival in Latin America". Variety Magazine. Retrieved 2008-12-07.
- "IFFi". www.iffi.nic.in. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
|last1=in Authors list (help)
- "IFFI". www.iffk.in. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
|last1=in Authors list (help)
- "IDSFFK". www.iffk.in/idsffk. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
- Turan, Kenneth, Sundance to Sarajevo: Film Festivals and the World They Made, Los Angeles, University of California Press, 2002, hardback, ISBN 0-520-21867-1.
- Watson, Nigel, "The Sense and Sensationalism of Film Festivals", Talking Pictures website
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