First lady

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A group of first ladies assemble in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, September 22, 2008
First ladies in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, September 25, 2009

First lady is an unofficial title usually used for the wife, and occasionally used for the daughter or other female relative, of a non-monarchical head of state or chief executive.[1][2][3] The term is also used to describe a woman seen to be at the top of her profession or art.[4]

The title has also been used for the wife of a head of government who is not also head of state.[5][6][7][8] It has also been used to refer to the wives of the leaders of administrative divisions within a country.[9]

History[edit]

It has been noted that the earliest use of the term "first lady" is in reference to women of a high ranking or outstanding women in their field,[10] and that the term, as used to describe the female spouse of the president of the United States, saw its first documented use in 1838 in reference to Martha Washington, who was never referred to as such during George Washington's time as President.[10]

The first person to have been referred to as "first lady" on a regular basis during her time in the position was Harriet Lane, who was actually James Buchanan's niece, as Buchanan was a lifelong bachelor.[10]

Variations[edit]

Queen Mathilde of Belgium meeting with the First Ladies and First Gentlemen of NATO members at the Royal Castle of Laeken on Thursday, May 25, 2017.

The male equivalent of the title in countries where the head of state's spouse has been a man, such as the Philippines or Malta, is first gentleman. While there has never been a male spouse of a U.S. president, "First Gentleman" is used in the United States for the male spouse of a mayor or governor.

First spouse and First partner, both rare variations of the title, can be used in either case where the spouse of a political leader is of any gender. This term is used to promote gender equality and gender neutrality.[11]

In the United States, collectively, the president of the United States and his spouse are known as the first couple[12] and, if they have children, they are usually referred to as the first family.

Use in non-English speaking countries[edit]

French-speaking countries have used the term "première dame" for First Ladies,[13] regardless of where the first lady is from.[14] At least one article, published in 2017, used the term "Premier Monsieur" for First Gentleman. For that particular article, it was used to discuss the possibility of Louis Aliot becoming First Gentleman, should his spouse, Marine Le Pen, win that year's presidential election.[15] Emmanuel Macron defeated Le Pen in that year's election.

Portuguese-speaking countries have used the term "Primeira-Dama"[16] or "Primeira Dama"[17] for First Ladies. The term is used regardless of where the person is from.[18] The term "primeiro-cavalheiro" is used for First Gentlemen.[19]

In Spanish-speaking countries, the term "Primera Dama" is used for First Ladies,[20][21][22] regardless of the country the person is from.[23] The term "Primer Caballero" has been used for First Gentlemen.[24]

Sinophone countries have used the term 第一夫人 (Dìyī fūrén) as a term for first ladies,[8][25] also without regards as to where the first lady is from.[26]

Europe[edit]

Croatia[edit]

The terms Supruga Predsjednika Republike (Wife of the president of the Republic) or Suprug Predsjednice Republike (Husband of the president of the Republic) are most commonly used in Croatia, while the terms Prva dama (First Lady) and Prvi gospodin (First Gentleman) are rarely used, except by foreign sources. The current wife of the president of Croatia is Sanja Musić-Milanović.

The wife of the prime minister has occasionally, in exceptionally rare cases, also been referred to as the first lady of Croatia, however as the spouses of prime ministers have often maintained a low profile and have almost never been public figures, the title Supruga Predsjednika Vlade (Wife of the Prime Minister) has been used in cases when such a reference is needed. The current wife of the prime minister is Ana Maslać Plenković.

Czech Republic[edit]

The term První dáma is used for wife of the president of the Czech Republic.[citation needed]

The current first lady is Ivana Zemanová.

The term První dáma is also used for First ladies of other countries.[27]

Poland[edit]

The term Pierwsza Dama is used by the wife of the current president of Poland.[28] The title of Pani Prezydentowa (the presidential lady) is also commonly, though informally, used.

Russia[edit]

Foreign press reports have referred to the wife of the Russian president as First Lady.[29] The term has also been used by foreign press to refer to the wife of Alexei Navalny, Yulia Navalnaya.[30]

Russian first ladies have been less visible than their western counterparts due to historical reasons, as explained below.[29]

Soviet Union[edit]

It has been noted that Soviet leaders generally preferred to keep their wives and families out of the spotlight, resulting in "invisible first ladies." As a result, low-profile first ladies remain common in post-Soviet countries, due to the leaders of those countries having grown up during the Soviet era.[29]

The wife of Mikhail Gorbachev, Raisa Gorbachev, has been referred to as a Soviet first lady.[31][32]

Ukraine[edit]

The wife of the country's president has been referred to as перша леді (persha ledi) by the country's government.[33] The term "First Lady" has also been used by the government in English language news releases.[34]

While some first ladies, like Marina Poroshenko[35][36] and Olena Zelenska,[34] have played a role in social activism, other first ladies, like Lyudmila Yanukovych, have rarely taken part in public roles.[29]

Asia[edit]

Armenia[edit]

The wife of the president of Armenia has been referred to as "Հայաստանի Առաջին տիկին" (Hayastani Arrajin tikin).[37] The term "First Lady" has also been used.[38] The spouse of the current president, however, is only referred to as "Հանրապետության նախագահի տիկին" (Hanrapetut’yan nakhagahi tikin),[39] or "Wife of the President of Armenia".[40]

Azerbaijan[edit]

The wife of the current president of Azerbaijan uses the term "Birinci xanım".[41][citation needed]

India[edit]

The term "Pratham Mahila" (प्रथम महिला, literally meaning "First Lady") is less frequently used in India. The term might be used at times to refer to the wife of the president of India in newspapers; however, the more widespread term in general use is "Wife of The President" or more informally as the president's wife/spouse/husband. The term "First Lady" is not used to refer to the wife of the prime minister. Instead the term "First Spouse" is used for the spouse of PM of India.

Indonesia[edit]

The term "Ibu Negara" (Lady/Mother of the State) is used for wife of the president of Indonesia.[42] The term is also used to refer to First Ladies of other countries.[43]

Pakistan[edit]

In Pakistan, the term خاتون اول(Read As Khatoon-e-Awwal) is commonly used for the wife of Mohammad, Khadija Bint Al-Khuwaylid. It has also been used for wife of the prime minister of Pakistan. It has also been used for wife of the president of Pakistan.

Philippines[edit]

The consort of the president of the Philippines bears the gender-neutral title of First Spouse (Filipino: Unang Kabiyák), and among other duties, is host of Malacañan Palace. The title is genderless as many Philippine languages lack grammatical gender, and because there have been presidential consorts of both sexes.

When the official consort is female, she is known as "First Lady" (Unang Ginang); the title has also been applied to an immediate female relative serving in this capacity for a widowed president. There has only been one first gentleman (Unang Ginoó) in history: José Miguel Arroyo, the husband of Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, the 14th president, but always given title "Excellency".

South Korea[edit]

The wife of the president is called "Yeong-bu-in" (영부인/令夫人).

Non-spousal uses[edit]

In some situations, the title is bestowed upon a non-spouse.

Australia[edit]

Following the leadership spill which installed Julia Gillard as the first female prime minister of Australia on 24 June 2010, some news media referred to her partner, Tim Mathieson, as the "First Bloke".[44] The Australian Government has referred to Mathieson as Gillard's partner, and has also recognized him as a prime ministerial spouse.[45]

Bolivia[edit]

Evo Morales, the former president of Bolivia, is single, so during his presidency his sister, Esther Morales Ayma, fulfilled the role of first lady.[46]

Ireland[edit]

During the first half of Bertie Ahern's term as Taoiseach, he was separated from his wife Miriam (née Kelly) and the role of First Lady was filled by his then domestic partner, Celia Larkin.[47][48]

Republic of Korea (South Korea)[edit]

During the last five years of Park Chung-hee's time as President, his daughter, Park Geun-hye, served as first lady following her mother, Yuk Young-soo's death.[49] She has been regarded as a de facto first lady of South Korea by some modern sources.[50]

Peru[edit]

Keiko Fujimori took over the duties of First Lady at the age of 19, after her the divorce of her father Alberto Fujimori and mother Susana Higuchi.[51]

Philippines[edit]

The title was officially bestowed on Victoria Quirino-Delgado, the daughter of widower Elpidio Quirino (1948–53), sixth president of the Philippines. Victoria's mother, Alicia Quirino née Syquía, had been killed by occupying Japanese troops towards the end of the Second World War. While President Corazón Aquino (1986–92) was also widowed, the title was not given to her older children who would assist her in official duties. These included her son (and later president) Benigno Aquino III, who was a sort of de facto first gentleman; his four sisters, as under their mother's presidency, now unofficially share the duties of the first spouse. The current president, Rodrigo Duterte's marriage was annulled, and his common-law wife is not qualified to take the title as they are not married yet. Instead, he named his daughter, Davao City Mayor Sara Duterte, as first lady.

United States[edit]

Thomas Jefferson was a widower by the time he took office as President, and his daughter, Martha Jefferson Randolph, who served as the lady of the President's House on occasion,[52] has been recognized by the First Ladies National Historic Site as being a First Lady,[53] even though the White House website recognizes her mother, Martha Jefferson, as First Lady.[52] While Dolly Madison also served as hostess and Jefferson's escort on occasion,[54] she is recognized as a spousal First Lady by way of her husband's presidency following Jefferson.[55]

Andrew Jackson's wife, Rachel Jackson, died before Jackson's presidency. Jackson's niece, Emily Donelson, carried out the duties of First Lady until her death, and Jackson's daughter-in-law, Sarah Jackson, presided over the White House during the final months of Jackson's presidency.[56] Both are recognized by the First Ladies National Historic Site as being first ladies,[53] despite the White House website recognizing Jackson's wife as First Lady.[56]

James Buchanan was a lifelong bachelor. During his time in office, his niece, Harriet Lane, served as "hostess." She is recognized as having acted in the capacity of a contemporary first lady during her uncle's time in office, and is listed among other spousal first ladies on the White House website.[57]

Colorado[edit]

Jared Polis, who was elected as Governor in 2018, is openly gay,[58] and was in a long-term relationship with his partner, Marlon Reis, at the time of his election. Reis was referred to as "First Man" by Polis during a speech on the night of his election, and members of Polis' campaign said that Reis will take on the title of "First Gentleman."[59] The pair subsequently married in 2021.[60]

Not all non-married partners of Colorado governors are called First Lady or First Gentleman, as Robin Pringle was referred to by The Denver Post as John Hickenlooper's girlfriend prior to their marriage.[59]

Puerto Rico[edit]

After taking office as Puerto Rico's first female governor, Governor Sila Maria Calderón appointed her two daughters, Sila María González Calderón and María Elena González Calderón, to serve as first ladies.[61]

Non-political uses[edit]

It has become commonplace in the United States for the title of "First Lady" to be bestowed on women, as a term of endearment, who have proven themselves to be of exceptional talent or unique notoriety in non-political areas. The phrase is often, but not always, used when the person in question is either the wife or "female equivalent" of a well-known man (or men) in a similar field. For example, the term has been applied in the entertainment field to denote the "first lady of television" (Lucille Ball), the "first lady of song" (Ella Fitzgerald), the "first lady of country music" (Tammy Wynette, although Loretta Lynn was also known by the title), the "first lady of Star Trek" (actor/producer Majel Barrett), the "first lady of American soul" (Aretha Franklin),[62] the "first lady of the Grand Ole Opry" (Loretta Lynn), “the first lady of American cinema” (Lilian Gish) and the "first lady of the American stage" (Helen Hayes).[63]

The term has also been used to refer to wives of college and university presidents in some cases.[64][65][66]

The term "first lady" is also used to denote a woman who occupies the foremost social position within a particular locality, in this sense being particularly popular in Africa, where the pre-eminent female noble in some chieftaincy hierarchies, such as those of the Yoruba people, is often referred to by the title.[67]

In recent years, the term has also been used to refer to the wife of the pastor of a church, especially in predominantly black churches.[68]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ First Lady, Merriam-Webster Dictionary, retrieved 2014-12-30
  2. ^ First Lady, Oxford Dictionaries, retrieved 2014-12-30
  3. ^ Amanda Foreman, "Our First Ladies and Their Predecessors", Wall Street Journal, May 30–31, 2015, C11, https://www.wsj.com/articles/the-first-ladies-and-their-predecessors-1432830990, retrieved 2015-5-30
  4. ^ First Lady, Collins English Dictionary, retrieved 2014-12-30
  5. ^ McGuirk, Rod (2 May 2018). "Australian first lady 'flattered' by 'delicious' description". Associated Press. Retrieved 20 September 2021.
  6. ^ Visentin, Lisa (26 August 2018). "Jenny Morrison, Australia's new first lady". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 20 September 2021.
  7. ^ "Step forward Fionnuala -- Taoiseach's wife and his perfect partner as he runs country - Herald.ie".
  8. ^ a b Lin, Yijun (19 September 2021). "【第一配偶】最會賺錢第一夫人:何晶將從新加坡淡馬錫退休 年薪至今仍是謎" ["First Spouse"- The most moneymaking First Lady: Ho Ching set to retire from Temasek (Holdings). Her annual salary is still a mystery]. United Daily News (in Chinese). Retrieved 27 September 2021.
  9. ^ "About the Governor". Governor Tony Evers. Government of Wisconsin. Retrieved 27 September 2021.
  10. ^ a b c "The Story Behind 'First Lady'". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 24 September 2021.
  11. ^ Steinmetz, Katy (January 11, 2019). "Wives of Political Leaders Have Long Been Called 'First Ladies.' California's Jennifer Siebel Newsom Has Other Plans". Time Magazine. Retrieved October 17, 2021.
  12. ^ Collins English Dictionary definition. Retrieved 2013-12-08
  13. ^ Innocenti, Maeliss. "PHOTO – Brigitte Macron étincelante en rose pour sa visite officielle à Athènes" [PHOTO - Brigitte Macron sparkling in pink for her official visit to Athens]. Gala. Retrieved 27 September 2021. La première dame a accompagné le président pour son déplacement en Grèce. (The first lady accompanied the president on his trip to Greece.)
  14. ^ "La première dame critiquée pour s'être fait vacciner aux États-Unis" [First lady criticized for getting vaccinated in the United States]. Tribune de Genève (in French). 25 September 2021. Retrieved 27 September 2021.
  15. ^ "Première Dame ou Premier Monsieur?" [First Lady or First Gentleman?]. Magcentre (in French). 5 May 2017. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  16. ^ Máximo, Wellton (16 August 2020). "Exame de primeira-dama para covid-19 dá negativo" [The First Lady tests negative for COVID-19] (in Portuguese). Agência Brasil. Retrieved 20 September 2021.
  17. ^ "Gabinete da Primeira Dama" [Office of the First Lady]. President of Mozambique (in Portuguese). Retrieved 27 September 2021.
  18. ^ Máximo, Wellton (6 March 2016). "Obama e Michelle: Nancy Reagan "redefiniu o papel de primeira-dama"" [Obama and Michelle: Nancy Reagan "redefined the role of first lady"] (in Portuguese). Agência Brasil. Retrieved 20 September 2021.
  19. ^ "primeiro-cavalheiro". Dicionário Estraviz (in Portuguese). Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  20. ^ M., Design by Paul Andres Gomez. "'He asumido mi compromiso con la niñez de Colombia con toda la disposición de mi corazón', afirma la Primera Dama".
  21. ^ Rivas Molina, Federico (15 August 2021). "La foto de cumpleaños de la primera dama argentina pone a prueba la fortaleza electoral del peronismo" [The birthday photo of the first lady of Argentina tests the electoral strength of Peronism]. El País (in Spanish). Retrieved 20 September 2021.
  22. ^ "Primera Dama de la República de Panamá" [First Lady of the Republic of Panama]. Office of the First Lady (in Spanish). Government of Panama. Retrieved 27 September 2021.
  23. ^ "La primera dama de Haití continúa viva y recibe atención hospitalaria" [The first lady of Haiti is still alive and receiving hospital care]. Última Hora (in Spanish). Paraguay. 7 July 2021. Retrieved 27 September 2021.
  24. ^ "Néstor Kirchner: el 'primer caballero' sigue misterioso" [Nestor Kirchner: the ‘first gentleman’ is still mysterious]. El Cronista (in Spanish). 7 May 2009. Retrieved 20 September 2021.
  25. ^ Li, Ciyin (24 October 2020). "「永遠的第一夫人」逝世17週年 宋美齡晚年這樣過" [="Eternal First Lady" passed away 17 years ago: how Soong Mei-Ling spent her twilight years]. China Times (in Chinese). Retrieved 27 September 2021.
  26. ^ "巴西第一夫人來美接種疫苗 國內狂批「假愛國」" [Brazil's First Lady went to the U.S. to get vaccinated. People within Brazil criticized her as a "fake patriot"]. World Journal (in Chinese). 26 September 2021. Retrieved 27 September 2021.
  27. ^ Ulrychová, Tereza (7 September 2021). "První dáma je zpátky před tabulí. Bidenová navzdory tradicím dál pracuje". Seznam Zprávy (in Czech). Retrieved 24 September 2021.
  28. ^ www.ideo.pl, ideo -. "Oficjalna strona Prezydenta Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej / Pierwsza Dama / Aktywność Pierwszej Damy".
  29. ^ a b c d Kondratyev, Andrey (7 June 2013). "Putins' divorce throws spotlight on 'first lady' role". BBC Monitoring. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  30. ^ Ioffe, Julia (8 July 2021). ""These Bastards Will Never See Our Tears": How Yulia Navalnaya Became Russia's Real First Lady". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 24 September 2021.
  31. ^ Smith, J.Y. (21 September 1999). "Raisa Gorbachev, Last Soviet First Lady, Dies". The Washington Post. Retrieved 24 September 2021.
  32. ^ Bohlen, Celestine (21 September 1999). "Raisa Gorbachev, the Chic Soviet First Lady of the Glasnost Era, Is Dead at 67". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 September 2021.
  33. ^ "Олена Зеленська у Стенфордському університеті обговорила питання інклюзії, забезпечення рівного доступу та потреб студентів і викладачів з інвалідністю" [Olena Zelenska at Stanford University discusses inclusion, equal access and the needs of students and teachers with disabilities] (in Ukrainian). President of Ukraine. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  34. ^ a b "Olena Zelenska at Stanford University discusses issues of inclusive activity, equal access, needs of students and teachers with disabilities". President of Ukraine. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  35. ^ [x/en/news/marina-poroshenko-riven-inklyuziyi-v-osviti-pokaznik-stupeny-36072 "Maryna Poroshenko: The level of inclusion in education is an indicator of the state development degree"] Check |url= value (help). President of Ukraine. Retrieved 2017-11-15.
  36. ^ "Maryna Poroshenko and Roman Kysliak met in the coffeehouse in the framework of #накавуздругом social initiative". President of Ukraine. Retrieved 2017-11-15.
  37. ^ "Ռիտա Սարգսյան Հայաստանի Առաջին տիկին" [Rita Sargsyan The First Lady of Armenia]. President of Armenia (in Armenian). Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  38. ^ "Rita Sargsyan First Lady of Armenia". President of Armenia. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  39. ^ "Նունե Սարգսյան Հանրապետության նախագահի տիկին". President of Armenia (in Armenian). Retrieved 24 September 2021.
  40. ^ "Mrs. Nouneh Sarkissian - Wife of the President of Armenia". President of Armenia. Retrieved 24 September 2021.
  41. ^ Mehriban Əliyeva Archived 2015-03-30 at the Wayback Machine
  42. ^ "Ibu Negara Iriana Jarang Tampak Dampingi Jokowi, Ini Penjelasan Istana" [First Lady Iriana Rarely Appears To Accompany Jokowi. This Is The Palace's Explanation]. Kompas (in Indonesian). 16 January 2021. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  43. ^ "Foto resmi Melania Trump sebagai Ibu Negara, diluncurkan" [Melania Trump's official photo as First Lady, unveiled]. BBC News (in Indonesian). 4 April 2017. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  44. ^ "Tim Mathieson: why is Australia's 'first bloke' in the headlines?". The Guardian. 29 January 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2021.
  45. ^ "Julia Gillard's partner: Tim Mathieson". National Archives of Australia. Retrieved 17 September 2021.
  46. ^ Jecks, Nikki (17 February 2009). "Bolivia's First Lady hopes for unity". BBC News. Retrieved 17 September 2021.
  47. ^ "Celia -- the greatest political wife this country never had - Independent.ie".
  48. ^ "Ireland debates Larkin role — Irish Echo". 16 February 2011.
  49. ^ "Park Geun-hye: South Korea's first female president". BBC News. 6 April 2018. Retrieved 17 September 2021.
  50. ^ "Park Geun Hye: Once South Korea's princess and de facto first lady, now dethroned in disgrace". The Straits Times. Agence France-Presse. 10 March 2017. Retrieved 17 September 2021.
  51. ^ "Keiko Fujimori, daughter of Peru's disgraced ex-leader". France 24. Agence France-Presse. 30 November 2019. Retrieved 17 September 2021.
  52. ^ a b "Martha Wayles Skelton Jefferson". The White House. Retrieved September 17, 2021.
  53. ^ a b "First Ladies". First Ladies National Historic Site. National Park Service. Retrieved September 17, 2021.
  54. ^ "First Lady Biography: Martha Jefferson". National First Ladies Library. Retrieved September 17, 2021. ...whenever he had women dinner guests, he invited Dolley Madison ( 1768-1849 ), the wife of his highest-ranking Cabinet member, Secretary of State James Madison, as his escort, his vice president Aaron Burr also being a widower. At large open functions in the White House, Dolley Madison also assumed a public role as hostess, assisting the President in welcoming the general citizenry.
  55. ^ "Dolley Payne Todd Madison". The White House. Retrieved September 17, 2021.
  56. ^ a b "Rachel Donelson Jackson". The White House. Retrieved September 17, 2021.
  57. ^ "Harriet Lane". White House. Retrieved September 17, 2021.
  58. ^ "Jared Polis to become Colorado's first openly gay governor". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. Retrieved September 17, 2021.
  59. ^ a b Garcia, Nic (November 8, 2018). "How should we refer to Governor-elect Jared Polis' longtime partner?". The Denver Post. Retrieved September 17, 2021.
  60. ^ Birkeland, Bente (September 15, 2021). "Colorado Gov. Jared Polis' Wedding Marks 1st Same-Sex Marriage Of Sitting Governor". NPR. Retrieved September 17, 2021.
  61. ^ "Sila M. Calderon".
  62. ^ Preston, Richard (2007-05-25). "Are you ready to think outside the box? The abuses of the English language that readers hated most have inspired a new Telegraph book, explains Richard Preston". Daily Telegraph. p. 24.
  63. ^ Didion, Joan (2007-03-04). "The Year Of Hoping For Magic". New York Times. p. 1.
  64. ^ "Meet the First Lady, Beth Clements". Clemson University. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  65. ^ "First Lady Marisela Rosas Hemphill, Ph.D." Old Dominion University. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  66. ^ "IU president and first lady receive University Medal, IU's highest honor". Indiana University. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  67. ^ Sellers, Maud (April 1894). "The City of York in the Sixteenth Century". The English Historical Review. 9 (34): 275–304. doi:10.1093/ehr/IX.XXXIV.275.; Russell, A. (1889). "Journal of the American Geographical Society of New York". 21: 494–515. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  68. ^ DuBois, Joshua. First Ladies of the Church. The Daily Beast, 2013-03-20.

Further reading[edit]

  • Abrams, Jeanne E. First Ladies of the Republic: Martha Washington, Abigail Adams, Dolley Madison, and the Creation of an Iconic American Role (NYU Press. 2018) online review
  • Bailey, Tim. "America's First Ladies on Twentieth-Century Issues: A Common Core Unit", History Now 35 (Spring 2013) online Archived 2013-10-15 at the Wayback Machine, curriculum unit based on primary sources
  • Berkin, Berkin, ed., "America's First Ladies", History Now 35 (Spring 2013) online Archived 2013-03-18 at the Wayback Machine; popular essays by scholars
  • Burns, Lisa M. (2008). First Ladies and the Fourth Estate: Press Framing of Presidential Wives. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press. ISBN 978-0-87580-391-3
  • Caroli, Betty Boyd (2010). First ladies : from Martha Washington to Michelle Obama. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195392852.
  • Horohoe, Jill, “First Ladies as Modern Celebrities: Politics and the Press in Progressive Era” (PhD dissertation, Arizona State University, 2011). DA3452884.
  • Lugo-Lugo, Carmen R. and Mary K. Bloodsworth-Lugo. "Bare Biceps and American (In) Security: Post-9/11 Constructions of Safe(ty), Threat, and the First Black First Lady", Women's Studies Quarterly (2011) 39#1 pp 200–217, on media images of Michelle Obama
  • Watson, Robert P. "Toward the Study of the First Lady: The State of Scholarship", Presidential Studies Quarterly (2003) 33#2 pp 423–441.

External links[edit]