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First Lady is an unofficial title used for the wife or hostess of a non-monarchical head of state or chief executive. The term is also used to describe a woman seen to be at the top of her profession or art. Collectively, the President of the United States and his spouse are known as the First Couple and, if they have children, they are usually referred to as the First Family.
The term is sometimes used, primarily in the U.S., to refer to the spouse of other non-monarchical heads of state, even though they do not have that style in their own country. Some other countries have a title, formal or informal, that is or can be translated as first lady. The title is not normally used for the wife of a head of government who is not also head of state.
The term in the United States is also used to refer to wives of governors and, less formally, to wives of college and university presidents. It has even been used in reference to female spouses of men who were chairmen of major corporations. While there has never been a male spouse of a U.S. President, "First Gentleman" is used in the United States for the husband of a state governor.
- 1 Origin of the term
- 2 History of use in the United States
- 3 Use in other countries
- 4 Non-spousal uses
- 5 Apolitical uses
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
Origin of the term
The word lady originates in Anglo-Saxon or Old English. The designation First Lady seems to have originated in the United States, where one of the earliest uses in print, in 1838, was in reference to Martha Washington. Some sources say that, in 1849, President Zachary Taylor called Dolley Madison "first lady" at her state funeral, while reciting a eulogy written by himself; but no copy of that eulogy has been found. The term might have roots as far back as the end of the Roman Republic. When Gaius Octavius became Emperor he did not want to assume the titles rex (king) or dictator since it could create resentment amongst senators and other influential men. He thus took the more humble title Princeps Civitatis, or the first citizen, which made his wife Principa Femina, the first lady.
History of use in the United States
In the early days of the United States, there was no generally accepted title for the wife of the president. Many early first ladies expressed their own preference for how they were addressed, including the use of such titles as Lady. One of the earliest uses of the term "first lady" was applied to Martha Washington in a profile by Mrs. C. H. Sigourney in 1838: Mrs. Sigourney, discussing how Martha Washington had not changed, even after her husband George became president, wrote that "The first lady of the nation still preserved the habits of early life. Indulging in no indolence, she left the pillow at dawn, and after breakfast, retired to her chamber for an hour for the study of the scriptures and devotion". However, the term "first lady" would not come into common use until the late 1800s.
Harriet Lane, niece of bachelor President James Buchanan, was the first woman to be called first lady while actually serving in that position. The phrase appeared in Frank Leslie's Illustrated Monthly in 1860, when he wrote, "The Lady of the White House, and by courtesy, the First Lady of the Land." Once Harriet Lane was called first lady, the term was applied retrospectively to her predecessors.
The title first gained nationwide recognition in 1877, when Mary C. Ames wrote an article in the New York City newspaper The Independent describing the inauguration of President Rutherford B. Hayes. She used the term to describe his wife, Lucy Webb Hayes.
While historically the term has generally been used to refer to the wife of a president, there were occasions when another woman, such as the President's daughter, has filled the duties of First Lady as hostess in the White House, if the President's wife was unwilling, unable, or if the President was a widower or bachelor.
The entire family of the head of state may be known familiarly as the "First Family". The spouse of the second-in-command (such as a Vice President) may be known as the "Second Lady", or Vice-First Lady. Less frequently, the family would be known as the "Second Family". The spouse of the governor of a U.S. state is commonly referred to as the First Lady or First Gentleman of that state, for example "First Lady Tonette Marie Walker of Wisconsin". The practice is less common for spouses of mayors but is nevertheless used for some, particularly in large cities; example: "First Lady Amy Rule of Chicago" or "First Lady Kris Barrett of Milwaukee." Mike Gregoire, husband of former Washington state governor Chris Gregoire, preferred to use his name instead of a common noun, calling himself "First Mike".
Use in other countries
In U.S. media the term First Lady is often applied to the wife of a head of state in another country, irrespective of whether a different appellation (or none) is used in that country. For example, in 1902, the U.S. publication Munsey's Magazine said of the wife of Canadian Governor General the Earl of Minto: "As the first lady in the land, she has done much to weld together the heterogeneous components of a colonial society which includes peoples of different races and of antagonistic religions." The term was also used by Munsey's to refer to the wife of Mexico's leader, President Porfirio Díaz: In an 1896 piece about "The Daughters of Mexico", author Jeannie Marshall said of Carmen Romero Rubio de Díaz: "She is still a young woman, though she has filled the position of 'first lady of the land' for many years, with marked success." The U.S. Spanish-language newspaper La Prensa also called her "primera dama" when writing about her activities.
The wife of the president is called "Primeira-Dama".
The term "Lok Chumteav" is used.
The term "Primera Dama" is used.
The term První dáma is used for wife of the President of the Czech Republic.
Current first lady is Ivana Zemanová.
The term "First Lady" is less frequently used in India. The term might be used at times to refer to the wife of the President of India in newspapers; however, the more widespread term in general use is "Wife of The President" or more informally as the President's wife/spouse/husband. The term "First Lady" is not used to refer to the wife of the Prime Minister.
The term "Ibu Negara" (Lady/Mother of the State) is used for wife of the president.
Republic of Ireland
In the Republic of Ireland, the term "First Lady" (Irish: an Chéad Bhean) is not used in official contexts, but is often used in the media to refer to the wife of the President and, less frequently, to refer to the wife of the Taoiseach (prime minister). During the first half of Bertie Ahern's term as Taoiseach, he was separated from his wife Miriam (née Kelly) and the role of First Lady was filled by his then domestic partner, Celia Larkin.
During the administration of President Kamuzu Banda, Malawi had an "Official Hostess" who served in the same capacity as "First Lady" because the President was unmarried. Banda was never married and therefore Cecilia Kadzamira served in this capacity for the nation.
The term "first lady" has been used intermittently for the wife of the President of Nigeria. The wife of the President has no official title, but receives the same style as her husband: His/Her Excellency.
The consort of the President of the Philippines bears the gender-neutral title of First Spouse (Filipino: Unang Kabiyák), and among other duties, is host(ess) of Malacañan Palace. The title is genderless as many Philippine languages lack grammatical gender, and because there have been presidential consorts of both sexes.
When the official consort is female, she is known as "First Lady" (Unang Ginang); the title has also been applied to an immediate female relative serving in this capacity for a widowed President. There has only been one First Gentleman (Unang Ginoó) in history: José Miguel Arroyo, the husband of Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, the 14th President.
The wife of the president is called "Yoeong-boo-in".
Trinidad and Tobago
The wife of the current president uses the term "first lady".
In some situations, the title is bestowed upon a non-spouse. This includes terms like "First Family", "First Daughter", and "First Son".
In the past, occasionally another woman, such as the President's daughter, has filled the duties of First Lady as hostess in the White House, if the President's wife was unwilling, unable, or if the President was a widower or bachelor. Harriet Lane, niece of bachelor President James Buchanan was the first non-spouse to be called First Lady.
The title was also officially bestowed on Victoria Quirino-Delgado, the daughter of widower Elpidio Quirino (1948–53), sixth President of the Philippines. Victoria's mother, Alicia Quirino née Syquía, had been killed by occupying Japanese troops towards the end of the Second World War. While President Corazón Aquino (1986–92) was also widowed, the title was not given to her older children who would assist her in official duties. These included her son (and later President) Benigno Aquino III, who was a sort of de facto First Gentleman; his four sisters, as under their mother's presidency, now unofficially share the duties of the First Spouse. The current President, Rodrigo Duterte's marriage was annulled, and his common-law wife is not qualified to take the title as they are not married yet. Instead, he named his daughter, Davao City Mayor Sara Duterte, as First Lady.
After taking office as Puerto Rico's first female governor, Governor Sila Maria Calderón appointed her two daughters, Sila María González Calderón and María Elena González Calderón, to serve as First Ladies.
Following the leadership spill which installed Julia Gillard as the first female Prime Minister of Australia on 24 June 2010, some news media referred to her de facto partner, Tim Mathieson, as the "First Bloke".
It has become commonplace in the United States for the title of "First Lady" to be bestowed on women, as a term of endearment, who have proven themselves to be of exceptional talent or unique notoriety in non-political areas. The phrase is often, but not always, used when the person in question is either the wife or "female equivalent" of a well-known man (or men) in a similar field. For example, the term has been applied in the entertainment field to denote the "First Lady of Television" (Lucille Ball), the "First Lady of Song" (Ella Fitzgerald), the "First Lady of Country Music" (Tammy Wynette, although Loretta Lynn was also known by the title), the "First Lady of Star Trek" (actor/producer Majel Barrett), the "First Lady of American Soul" (Aretha Franklin), the "First Lady of the Grand Ole Opry" (Loretta Lynn), and the "First Lady of the American Stage" (Helen Hayes) .
The term "first lady" is also used to denote a woman who occupies the foremost social position within a particular locality, in this sense being particularly popular in Africa, where the pre-eminent female noble in some chieftaincy hierarchies, such as those of the Yoruba people, is often referred to by the title.
In recent years, the term has also been used to refer to the wife of the pastor of a church, especially in predominantly black churches.
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