|11th President of South Korea|
25 February 2013 – 10 March 2017[a]
|Prime Minister||Chung Hong-won|
Choi Kyoung-hwan (acting)
|Preceded by||Lee Myung-bak|
|Succeeded by||Hwang Kyo-ahn (Acting)|
|Leader of the Saenuri Party|
19 December 2011 – 15 May 2012
|Preceded by||Hwang Woo-yea (Acting)|
|Succeeded by||Hwang Woo-yea|
|Leader of the Grand National Party|
23 March 2004 – 15 June 2006
|Preceded by||Choe Byeong-ryeol|
|Succeeded by||Kim Yeong-seon (Acting)|
|Member of the National Assembly|
30 May 2012 – 10 December 2012
3 April 1998 – 29 May 2012
|Preceded by||Kim Suk-won|
|Succeeded by||Lee Jong-jin|
|First Lady of South Korea|
16 August 1974 – 26 October 1979
|Preceded by||Yuk Young-soo|
|Succeeded by||Hong Gi|
|Born||2 February 1952|
Daegu, South Korea
|Political party||Independent (2017–present)|
|Saenuri (until 2017)|
|Alma mater||Sogang University|
Université Grenoble Alpes
|Revised Romanization||Bak Geun(-)hye|
Park Geun-hye (Korean: 박근혜; Hanja: 朴槿惠; RR: Bak Geun(-)hye; IPA: [pak‿k͈ɯn.hje]; often in English / /; born 2 February 1952) is a former South Korean politician who served as President of South Korea from 2013 to 2017. Park was the first woman to be President of South Korea and also the first female president popularly elected as head of state in East Asia. She was also the first South Korean president to be born after the founding of First Republic of Korea; her predecessors were born either during the Joseon dynasty, Japanese rule or during the post-World War II American occupation. Her father, Park Chung-hee, was the President of South Korea from 1963 to 1979, serving five consecutive terms after he seized power in 1961.
Before her presidency, Park was chairwoman of the conservative Grand National Party (GNP, formerly called the Saenuri Party from February 2012 onwards now called the Liberty Korea Party) from 2004 to 2006 and 2011 to 2012. She was also a member of the National Assembly, serving four consecutive parliamentary terms between 1998 and 2012. She started her fifth term as a representative elected via national list in June 2012. In 2013 and 2014, Park ranked 11th on the Forbes list of the world's 100 most powerful women and the most powerful woman in East Asia. In 2014, she ranked 46th on the Forbes list of the world's most powerful people, the third-highest South Korean on the list, after Lee Kun-hee and Lee Jae-yong.
On 9 December 2016, the National Assembly impeached Park on charges related to influence peddling by her top aide, Choi Soon-sil. Then-Prime Minister Hwang Kyo-ahn assumed her powers and duties as Acting President as a result. The Constitutional Court upheld the impeachment by a unanimous 8–0 ruling on 10 March 2017, thereby removing Park from office. On 6 April 2018, South Korean courts sentenced her to 24 years in prison which was later increased to 25 years. Park is currently imprisoned at Seoul Detention Center. In 2018, two separate criminal cases resulted in an increase of seven years in her prison sentence. She was found guilty of illegally taking off-the-book funds from the National Intelligence Service and given a five year prison sentence, and also found guilty of illegally interfering in the Saenuri Party primaries in the 2016 South Korean legislative election, for which she was sentenced to two more years in prison.
Early life and education
Park was born on 2 February 1952, in Samdeok-dong of Jung District, Daegu, as the first child of Park Chung-hee, the third president of South Korea, who having come to power with the May 16 military coup d'état of 1961, served from 1963 until his assassination in 1979, and Yuk Young-soo. Both of her parents were assassinated. She has a younger brother, Park Ji-man, and a younger sister, Park Geun-ryeong. She is unmarried with no children. Pew Research Center described her as an atheist with a Buddhist and Roman Catholic upbringing.
In 1953, Park's family moved to Seoul and she graduated from Seoul's Jangchung Elementary School and Sungshim (literal: Sacred Heart) Girls' Middle and High School in 1970, going on to receive a bachelor's degree in electronic engineering from Sogang University in 1974. She briefly studied at Joseph Fourier University, but left France following the murder of her mother.
Park's mother was killed on 15 August 1974 in the National Theater of Korea; Mun Se-gwang, a Japanese-born ethnic Korean sympathizer of North Korea and member of the Chongryon, was attempting to assassinate President Park Chung-hee. Park was regarded as First Lady until the assassination of her father by his own intelligence chief, Kim Jae-gyu, on 26 October 1979. During this time, activists who were political opponents of her father claimed to be subject to arbitrary detention. Further, human rights were considered subordinate to economic development. In 2007, Park expressed regret at the treatment of activists during this period.
Park was elected a Grand National Party (GNP) assemblywoman for Dalseong County, Daegu, in 1998 by-election, and three more times in the same electoral district between 1998 and 2008, being the incumbent assemblywoman till April 2012. In 2012, she announced that she would not run for a constituency representative seat for the 19th election in Dalseong or anywhere else, but for a proportional representative position for the Saenuri Party instead, in order to lead the party's election campaign. She was elected as a proportional representative in the April 2012 election.
GNP chairwoman and "Queen of Elections"
Due to the failed attempt to impeach President Roh Moo-hyun and the bribery scandal of its 2002 presidential candidate, Lee Hoi-chang (revealed in 2004), the GNP was facing a severe defeat in the 2004 general election. Park was appointed as the chairwoman of the party and led the election efforts. In the election, the GNP lost its majority position but managed to gain 121 seats, which is largely considered a great achievement under such inhospitable circumstances for the party. As the chairwoman of the GNP, Park helped her party make significant gains in local elections and actually obtain a majority in 2006.
During the campaign, on 20 May 2006, Ji Chung-ho, a 50-year-old man with eight criminal convictions, slashed Park's face with a utility knife, causing an 11-centimeter wound that required 60 stitches and several hours of surgery. A famous anecdote from this incident occurred when Park was hospitalized after the attack. The first word that she said to her secretary after her recovery from her wound was "How is Daejeon?" After this, the candidate from the Grand National Party won the election for mayor of the city of Daejeon despite having trailed by more than 20 percentage points in opinion polls up to the point of the attack. In addition, during her term as the GNP chairwoman between 2004 and 2006, the party won all 40 reelections and by-elections held, which was largely credited to her influence and efforts. This feat gave Park a nickname "Queen of Elections".
On 12 February 2007, Park made a much-publicized visit to Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States. Her visit culminated in an address to a packed audience at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, where she said she wanted to save Korea and advocated a stronger relationship between South Korea and the United States.
2007 Presidential bid
Park hoped to emulate her father's success by becoming the presidential nominee of the Grand National Party. She eventually lost to Lee Myung-bak by a narrow margin. Lee had a commanding lead at the beginning of the primary season, but Park was able to narrow the gap through allegations of Lee's corruption. Park won the "party members' bid", but she lost the "national bid", which is a larger percentage of the total presidential bid.
2008 general election
After the 2007 presidential election, President Lee Myung-bak formed a government of mostly close supporters. Park's supporters argued that this was a kind of political reprisal, and that they should secede from the Grand National Party. Eventually, they formed parties named Pro-Park Coalition and Solidarity for Pro-Park Independents (친박 무소속 연대; Chin Park Musosok Yeondae). Park herself did not join them, but indirectly supported them by announcing "I hope these people will come back alive." After the mass secession, the rebels announced that they would rejoin GNP after the general election, but the GNP prohibited it. In the following 2008 general election, the rebels won 26 seats: 14 from the Pro-Park Coalition and 12 as independents. Together, they played a pivotal role in the GNP's narrow majority. Park continually insisted that GNP should allow the return of her supporters. As of 2011, most of these rebels had returned to the GNP, resulting in approximately 50 to 60 assembly members who support Park out of 171 in the GNP.
Head of Saenuri Party
As a response to the dwindling approval rating of the GNP, the party formed an emergency committee and changed the name of the political party from the Grand National Party to the Saenuri Party, meaning "New Frontier" Party. On 19 December 2011, Park was appointed as the chairwoman of GNP's Emergency Committee, the de facto leader of the party.
2012 parliamentary election
The Saenuri Party achieved a surprise win against the opposing Democratic United Party in the 2012 General Election, winning 152 seats and retaining its majority position. Because of the corruption scandals of the Lee administration revealed before the election, the Saenuri Party was widely expected to win no more than 100 seats. During the 13-day campaign period, Park traveled about 7,200 km (4,500 mi) around South Korea, visiting more than 100 constituencies. It is the consensus of Korean news media and political experts that the most important factor leading to Saenuri Party's victory was Park's leadership. For this reason, the 2012 election was often dubbed the "return of the Queen of Election". Saenuri's defeat in the populous Seoul metropolitan area in this election, however, revealed the limitation of Park's political influence.
2012 presidential campaign
Park had been the leading candidate for the 2012 presidential election in every national-level poll in South Korea between 2008, when the Lee Myung-bak administration began, and September 2011, with an approval rating of 25% to 45%, more than twice that of the second candidate. Park's approval rating was highest when the 2008 National Assembly election showed her strong influence and lowest in early 2010 as a result of her political stance against the Lee administration in Sejong City issue. Park also benefited from a public image of standing aloofly above the fray of politics. In September 2011, Ahn Cheol-soo, a former venture IT businessman and the Dean of Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology at Seoul National University, emerged as a strong independent candidate for the presidency. In national-level presidential polls in September 2011, Ahn and Park Geun Hye closely competed for the status of front-runner, with Park losing the top seat in some polls for the first time since 2008.
After her victory in the 2012 General Election, Park's approval rating increased significantly. In a national-level survey by Mono Research on 30 August Park was the top presidential candidate with an approval rating of 45.5% when competing with all potential candidates, and according to another recent national survey result, had a higher approval rating (50.6%) than Ahn (43.9%) in a two-way competition with him as of 11 September. On 10 July, Park formally announced her 2012 presidential bid at the Time Square, Yeongdeungpo District, Seoul. In this event she emphasized the right to pursue happiness, a democratic economy, and customized welfare services for the Korean people.
The opposing Democratic Party elected Moon Jae-in as its presidential candidate on 17 September, while Ahn Cheol-soo announced his presidential bid on 19 September. Although still a leading candidate, Park had a lower approval rating than both Ahn and Moon when engaged in two-way competition, according to a 22 September national survey. She was elected as the President of the Republic of Korea on 19 December 2012 with the approval of 51.6% of Korean voters.
In 2017, the National Intelligence Service (NIS) admitted that it had conducted an illicit campaign to influence the 2012 presidential election, mobilising teams of experts in psychological warfare to ensure that the conservative candidate, Park Geun-hye, beat her liberal rival Moon Jae-in.
In a 2012 survey by Korean Research assessing the political stance of 12 potential presidential candidates of South Korea, Park was considered the most conservative candidate. Her conservative, market-oriented political stance was well reflected in her campaign pledge for 2008 presidential bid to cut taxes, reduce regulation, and establish strong law and order. Since 2009, however, Park started to focus more on welfare issues, advocating customized welfare services to the South Korean people.
Park was well known for her strict adherence to political promises. In 2010, for example, she successfully stopped the Lee administration's attempt to cancel the plan to establish Sejong City, a new national center of administration, arguing that the plan was a promise made to the people. This conflict between Park and the Lee Administration cost her a considerable decrease in her approval rating at the time. In 2012, Park also vowed to construct a new airport in the southeastern region, a 2008 presidential campaign promise made by GNP but cancelled in 2011, despite claims of economic infeasibility of the plan.
The administrative vision of Park's new government was "a new era of hope and happiness". The five Administrative Goals of the government were "a jobs-centered creative economy", "tailored employment and welfare", "creativity-oriented education and cultural enrichment", "a safe and united society" and "strong security measures for sustainable peace on the Korean Peninsula". The Park Geun-hye administration planned to create a trustworthy, clean, and capable government through carrying out these goals, related strategies, and tasks.
Park became the 18th president of South Korea on 25 February 2013. At midnight, she took over all presidential authorities including the prerogative of supreme command of South Korea's armed forces from her predecessor Lee Myung-bak. In her inauguration speech at the National Assembly building, Park spoke of her plan to open a new era of hope through "economic prosperity, people's happiness, and cultural enrichment". She particularly expressed her hope that North Korea would give up its nuclear arms and walk on the path of peace and mutual development, and declared that the foundation for a happy era of unification in which all Korean people will be able to enjoy prosperity and freedom and realize their dreams would be built through the Korean Peninsula Trust-building Process. In her inauguration speech, Park presented four guiding principles to realize her administrative vision: economic prosperity, people's happiness, cultural enrichment, and establishment of foundation for peaceful unification. Park's inauguration ceremony was the largest one in South Korean history with 70,000 participants. Diplomatic representatives in Korea as well as high-level delegates specially sent from 24 countries around the world including Thai Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra, U.S. National Security Advisor Thomas Donilon, Taiwanese Legislative Speaker Wang Jin-pyng and former Japanese Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda also participated in the event to congratulate Park.
First year (February 2013 – February 2014)
The goal of the newly launched Park Geun-hye Administration for governing state affairs was to open "a new era of hope and happiness for all the people". Park avowed that South Korea would break away from its long-pursued development model that centered around the nation, and shift the focus of government administration from the state to individual citizens. Through this process the structure of co-prosperity would be created, in which citizens became happy and national development occurred as a result. Park's administrative vision and basic principles for governing the nation were concretely outlined in her policy plans for the economy, society, welfare, diplomacy, and unification. The administration's keywords in managing state affairs were "people", "happiness", "trust", "co-prosperity" and "principle".
Right after taking office, Park restructured the Blue House and government organization to carry out her administrative vision. The Office of National Security at the Blue House, Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning, and Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries were newly launched, and the seat of Deputy Prime Minister for Economic Affairs was revived. The Chief of the National Security Office would act as a "control tower" for diplomatic, security, and national defense issues, and the Deputy Prime Minister for Economic Affairs for economic, social, and welfare issues.
After taking office, Park met with John Kerry and U.S. President Barack Obama. Park's trip to the United States in May 2013 was her first foreign trip after taking office.
Like many of her predecessors, Park has maintained a close relationship with the U.S., which has over 20,000 soldiers stationed in South Korea. During her visit to the U.S., she addressed a joint session of the U.S. Congress, where she called for a united front against any North Korean provocations. Park also called for a strong global relationship between South Korea and the United States.
Park assesses the security situation on the Korean Peninsula and emphasized that deterrence capabilities were the most important factor for security. Thus, Park considers the American-South Korean alliance as the most successful one in the world. And she hopes the American-South Korean relationship can be upgraded from a comprehensive strategic alliance to a global partnership.
Park visited the United States on her first overseas trip as president. She traveled to Washington, D.C., New York City, and Los Angeles on 5–9 May 2013.
During summit talks in May at the White House, Presidents Park and Obama adopted a joint declaration for the American-South Korean alliance and discussed ways to further develop the bilateral relations in a future-forward manner. Also, two leaders discussed ways to promote cooperation in building peace in the Northeast Asian region and strength the partnership between Seoul and Washington.
The two leaders of South Korea and the United States agreed to adopt a joint statement on comprehensive energy cooperation to build a foundation for a future growth engine and establish a policy cooperation committee on information and communication technology. In addition, Park urged her U.S. counterpart to expand the annual U.S. visa quota for South Korean professionals in order to promote co-development of both economies.
In particular, the "Joint declaration in commemoration of the 60th anniversary of the Alliance between the Republic of Korea and the United States of America" adopted by South Korea and the United States will become a meaningful document looking back at the past six decades of the alliance and spelling out a new direction for the development of bilateral relations over the coming decade.
North Korea had engaged in provocations such as violating a UN Security Council resolution and firing a long-range missile on 12 December 2012, just before 19 December presidential election. After Park was elected, North Korea conducted its third nuclear test 12 February 2013, nullified the non-aggression agreements between the two countries on 8 March and withdrew North Korean workers from the Kaesong Industrial Complex on 8 April. Park maintained her stance that South Korea will not succumb to the North's provocations and threats, and will endeavor to elicit policy coordination towards North Korea with major powers such as the United States, China and the UN. Her response to North Korean issues gained the support of many South Koreans and also the United States, China, and Russia, and played a significant role in the unanimous adoption by the UN Security Council of Resolution 2094 regarding North Korea on 7 March 2013. Due to Park's response and the international community's actions, on 6 June North Korea ceased provocations and threats towards the South and suggested holding discussions on reopening the Kaesong Industrial Complex. Park said that peace and unification on the Korean peninsula is the wish of all 70 million Koreans and that as president she will do her utmost to meet such a goal. As well, "the ultimate objective of reunification efforts is to improve the quality of life of people in both Koreas, to further expand freedom and human rights, and [from there] build a prosperous Korean Peninsula." She later stated, "to open a new era of peace and hope on the peninsula, North Korea needs to accept her administration's trust building policy initiative".
Park's policy vision and initiative on issues concerning North Korea and unification are reflected in her Korean Peninsula Trust-building Process. The Ministry of Unification has announced a new vision statement "realizing a new unified Korea that ensures everyone's happiness". The administrative tasks for this cause include normalizing inter-Korean relations through a trust-building process, embarking on small-scale unification projects that will lead to a complete integration of the two Koreas, and taking practical measures to prepare for unification by strengthening unification capabilities. According to Park, peaceful unification will be achieved in a three-stage unification initiative: starting from securing peace, going through economic integration, and finally reaching political integration. To achieve sustainable peace by the initiative, the new administration will offer humanitarian assistance for the people in North Korea, inter-Korean exchange and cooperation in economic, social and cultural areas, and will apply 'Vision Korea project' for establishing a single economic community in the Korean Peninsula, conditioned on sufficient mutual trust and progress in denuclearizing North Korea.
On 27–30 June 2013, Park visited China with a South Korean delegation, where she met with Xi Jinping, the Chinese president. During the meetings, Park explained the government's stance on North Korea and gained his support.
On 13 November 2013, Park held an extended summit with President Vladimir Putin, whose visit to South Korea was the first among leaders of 4 major powers including the United States, China, and Japan. During the summit, Park and Putin had a comprehensive and productive dialogue with focus on improving economic relations such as logistics cooperation projects (through Russia and North Korea), expanding people-to-people exchanges, and strengthening political ties between South Korea and Russia. Park, especially, emphasized on making preparations to produce an outcome that corresponds to common interests by combining Korea's Eurasian Initiative and Russia's Asia-Pacific Policy. After the summit, both presidents issued a joint communique and held a joint press conference. Earlier, Park attended the G-20 Summit at St. Petersburg in September 2013, where she met Putin for a separate dialogue discussing economic cooperation and seeking support on North Korean issues. It marked the first Korea-Russia summit talk since Park's inauguration. When Park met with Russian Minister for the Development of Russian Far East Viktor Ishaev, who headed the Russian delegation to Park's inaugural ceremony, she stated that Russia is one of Korea's key strategic partners, and the successful launch of the Naro rocket is the outcome of mutually beneficial relations and demonstrates that relations will grow stronger in the future. She also noted that Russia's active participation in the six-party talks will contribute to alleviating tension on the Korean Peninsula.
Park announced her plan to build a "Creative Economy" on 5 June 2013, representing her vision for economic revival and job creation. In April, Park said "Timing is very important for our economic policy, jobs and livelihood mainly ordinary people should organize a supplementary budget in a timely manner." On 8 April 2014, Park signed the Australia–Korea Free Trade Agreement with Australia's Prime Minister Tony Abbott.
Park proposed the eradication of "Four Major Social Evils" (사 대회악: "sa dae hwe ak") – sexual violence, domestic violence, school violence and unsafe food. Statistics show that sexual violence and domestic violence are increasing in these years. Without referring to statistical data, aggravating school violence or food safety is a public concern in South Korea. She also launched the National Unity Committee on 17 June with the purpose to advise the president in the process of resolving various conflicts in South Korean society and establishing a culture of co-existence and co-prosperity. Former Democratic United Party Advisor Han Kwang -ok was named as the head.
Second year (February 2014 – February 2015)
Park proposed three steps to North Korea to help move toward the reunification of the Korean Peninsula, on 28 March in Dresden during her state visit to Germany. She stated that "Starting with jointly managing rivers and forests running through the two Koreas, we need to expand joint projects that benefit both sides. In that respect, I hope North Korea will attend the UN Convention on Biological Diversity conference to be held in South Korean city of Pyeongchang in October." In May 2014, Park warned that a new nuclear test by North Korea could lead to "a nuclear domino effect", that might provide its neighbors with a pretext to arm themselves with nuclear weapons.
On 18 May 2014, Park announced South Korea's "plans to break up its coastguard" after failing to respond well during the MV Sewol ferry disaster. According to Park, "investigation and information roles would be transferred to the South Korea National Police while the rescue and salvage operation and ocean security roles would be transferred to the Department for National Safety, not to be confused with the Korean Ministry of Security and Public Administration, which will be newly established". On 19 November 2014, the Korea Coast Guard and National Emergency Management Agency ceased control as the Ministry of Public Safety and Security was founded at the same day.
Third year (February 2015 – February 2016)
On 26 May 2015, Park urged the head of the Asian Development Bank to cooperate with South Korea and the China-led Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank after South Korea had officially applied to join the Chinese-led Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank in late March 2015.
Fourth and fifth year (February 2016 – March 2017)
On 1 May 2016, Park became the first South Korean president to visit Iran. She was at the head of a 236-member delegation of businessmen and entrepreneurs during a three-day visit to Tehran to discuss bilateral trade and other matters of mutual interest. She met Iranian President Hassan Rouhani and held talks with Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei. The two countries also signed 19 basic agreements to expand mutual cooperation over a variety of areas. Earlier, Iran's President Rouhani emphasized that Iran and South Korea are set to boost their trade volume from the current $6 billion to $18 billion.
2016 general elections
Park suffered a serious setback in the 2016 general elections on 13 April 2016, as the Saenuri Party lost both its majority and its status as first party in the National Assembly. Park had been criticized for her involvement in the elections and the party's nomination process, and other Saenuri members blamed the pro-Park faction in the party for the defeat. Park loyalists fared badly in constituency elections. The result was seen to hinder the chances of Park's passing her proposed economic reforms, and in the aftermath of the results the conservative The Chosun Ilbo stated that Park's "lame duck period has started earlier than any other administration in the past".
In July 2013, public support for Park's method of governing state affairs reached up to 63 percent, higher than the percentage of the votes she had won in the presidential election, which was 52 percent. The Korean media suggested that such a high level of support came from Park's principled North Korea policy, constructive outcomes from visits to the United States and China, and distancing from internal political disputes.
By January 2015, Park's approval rating had fallen to 30 percent, partly due to the sinking of MV Sewol and disputes with North Korea. By September 2015, Park's approval had increased to 54 percent due to her diplomacy that defused a military standoff with North Korea, but in the aftermath of her party's 2016 election loss, her ratings fell to 31.5 percent, plunging 8.1 percentage points compared to the week before the election.
Arrest and detention
Park was arrested on 31 March 2017, and held in pre-trial detention at the Seoul Detention Center in Uiwang, Gyeonggi Province. On 17 April 2017, Park was formally charged with abuse of power, bribery, coercion and leaking government secrets. Park denied the charges during five rounds of interrogation while in prison.
Prosecutors sought a 30-year prison term for Park, along with a fine of ₩118,500,000,000 (US$110,579,397). On 6 April 2018, a three-judge panel of the Central District Court in Seoul sentenced Park to 24 years in prison and a fine of ₩18,000,000,000 (US$16,798,683), finding her guilty of 16 out of 18 charges brought before her.
In June 2018, three former NIS directors (Lee Byung-kee, Lee Byung-ho, and Nam Jae-joon) who served in the Park administration were found guilty of bribing, related to the 2016 Park Geun-hye scandals. They illegally transferred money from the NIS budget to Park's presidential office. This illegally obtained money was used by Park and her associates for private use and to pay bribes. On 24 August 2018, Park's sentence was increased to 25 years in prison.
Park had been often criticized for being the "daughter of a dictator (Park Chung-hee)" and for not actively supporting the Lee administration by supporters of Lee Myung-bak. A national-level poll conducted in July 2012 by a conservative newspaper reported that 59% of participants responded they did not believe Park was a "daughter of a dictator" while 36% agreed with the characterization. Park Chung-Hee's status as a dictator became a contested topic after the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis. GNP party elites saw this as their chance to revitalize Park Chung-Hee's image, focusing on South Korea's economic growth during his administration, thus steadily changing his public perception.
During a recent interview with the Cheongju broadcast station CJB, Park commented regarding her stance that her father's May 16 coup was a "revolution to save the country" by stating, "I don't think it's the place of politicians to be fighting over whether [the events of 1961] were a 'coup d'etat' or a 'revolution'." In a July 2012 survey, 50% of respondents answered that they disagreed with Park's assessment that her father's 1961 coup was "unavoidable, the best possible choice, and an advisable decision", as opposed to 37% that agreed. From another survey conducted in July 2012, 42% of respondents agreed with her opinion that her father's 1961 coup was "unavoidable", while 46% disagreed.
Because Park inherited strong regional and generational support from her father, as well as the legacy of his economic success, Park's opponents used her father as criticism against her.
Bu-il foundation accusations
Park has faced much scrutiny over an educational foundation, Jeongsoo Scholarship Foundation, formerly known as Buil (in reference to the stock it controls in the newspaper "Busan Ilbo"), which her father, and later she, headed. Its original owners claimed in court they were forced to turn it over to her father.
Liberty Korea Party assemblyman Nam Kyung-pil criticized the Park-centered nature of the party, regarding its preparation for the 2012 presidential election, and stated, "If we keep seeing the same situation where Park Geun-hye gives a press conference before a general meeting of lawmakers is held, and what she says then gets decided on as the party's position, then the public is going to think democracy has disappeared from the party."
Furthermore, some have said Park's behavior in the lead-up to 2012 presidential election was a mixture of trend-following and corner-cutting—a stark contrast with the vehement insistence on principle that she showed when she opposed a revision of the plan for a multifunctional administrative city in Sejong City. For instance, Yim Tae-hee, another presidential candidate of the party, pointed to Park's voting down of a motion to arrest Chung Doo-un, a lawmaker implicated with bribery related to saving banks. Another candidate, Ahn Sang-soo, accused Park of "saying one thing yesterday and another today".
Park fired Yoon Chang-jung, a Blue House spokesman who was alleged by Washington police to have committed sexual assault against a young woman hired as an intern at the South Korean Embassy in Washington during Park's first visit to the United States. Park has been criticized for picking the wrong people for senior government posts.
Lack of communication
Park has been criticized for holding press conferences with questions and answers submitted in advance. By 11 January 2015, she had held four press conferences since taking office in February 2013. Among the four press conferences, three of them were public speeches without questions and answers. Even in the remaining press conference, the questions were submitted in advance and she read prepared answers. Her opponents labeled her as "No communication" (불통, Bultong).
November 2015 protests
On 15 November 2015, around 80,000 anti-government protesters clashed with government forces on the streets of Seoul, demanding that Park step down, with many of the protesters chanting "Park Geun-hye, step down". The rally was triggered by Park's adopting business-friendly labour policies and a decision to require middle and high schools to use only state-issued history textbooks in classes starting in 2017, combined with plans to make labour markets more flexible by giving employers more leeway in dismissing workers. Security forces fired tear gas and sprayed water cannons into the crowd when protesters attempted to break through police barricades.
In the wake of the April 2014 capsizing of the Sewol ferry, public outcry arose over the government's handling of the situation. In response, the Park administration established a commission to monitor and prosecute social media critics of Park. Tatsuya Kato, Japanese journalist who was a Seoul Bureau chief of South Korea at Sankei Shimbun was indicted on charges of defamation for reporting the relationship between Park and Choi Soon-sil's husband, Chung Yoon-hoi, by the Supreme Prosecutors' Office of the Republic of Korea after the MV Sewol sank.
Public Official Election Act
On 25 June 2015 Park said that "Betrayal which breaks the trust shouldn't be accepted in politics and this should be punished by election with people's own hands". This mention was aimed to Yu Seungmin who was a member of Saenuri Party. Her statement was criticized by professor Jo Guk and politician Moon Jae-in because it was intended to affect Yu's election, which is forbidden by the Public Official Election Act. However, the National Election Commission decided not to treat Park's mention as a violation of the Act.
Choi Soon-sil scandal and impeachment
In late October 2016, investigations into Park's relationship with Choi Soon-sil, daughter of the late Church of Eternal Life cult leader and Park's mentor Choi Tae-min began. Several news media including JTBC and the Hankyoreh reported that Choi, who has no official government position, had access to confidential documents and information for the president, and acted as a close confidant for the president. Choi and Park's senior staff including both Ahn Jong-bum and Jeong Ho-sung used their influence to extort ₩77.4 billion (approximately $75 million) from Korean chaebols—family-owned large business conglomerates—and set up two culture and sports-related foundations, Mir and K-sports foundations. Choi is also accused of having influenced Ewha Womans University to change their admission criteria in order for her daughter Chung Yoo-ra to be given a place there. Ahn Jong-bum and Jeong Ho-sung, top presidential aides, were arrested for abuse of power and helping Choi; they denied wrongdoing and claimed that they were simply following President Park's orders.
On 25 October 2016, Park publicly acknowledged her close ties with Choi. On 28 October, Park dismissed key members of her top office staff while her approval ratings fell to 4%. Her approval rating ranged from 1 to 3% for Korean citizens under 60 years of age, while it remained higher, at 13%, for the over 60 age group. It was the worst ever approval rate in Korean history and is worse than the 6% approval rating of former President Kim Young-sam, who was widely blamed for forcing the Korean economy into the 1997 Asian financial crisis. The controversy led to mass protests and rallies in October and November 2016 calling for her resignation. On 12 November, more than 1 million citizens participated in the protests at Gwanghwamun Square close to presidential residence demanding Park's resignation or impeachment. On 19 November, another 1 million people participated in the national protest after Park refused to help in the investigation.
Park then fired a number of her cabinet members and the prime minister. In particular, the sacking of the prime minister Hwang Kyo-ahn resulted in a controversy, due to the claim that his firing was carried out via a text message. The Supreme Prosecutors' Office of Korea (SPO), in laying charges against Choi and two former presidential aides, have alleged that Park colluded with the three in certain criminal activities. The president would be questioned by prosecutors, the first time this has occurred with a serving South Korean president. Following the scandal, there were a series of massive demonstrations that started in the first week of November 2016. On 29 November 2016, Park offered to resign as President, and invited the National Assembly to arrange a transfer of power. The opposition parties rejected the offer, accusing Park of attempting to avoid the process of impeachment.
The National Assembly instead filed a motion for impeachment, which was put to a vote on 9 December 2016 and passed with 234 supports. Due to the ratification of her impeachment proposal, her presidential powers and duties were suspended, and Prime Minister Hwang Kyo-ahn assumed those powers and duties as Acting President. Park was finally ousted from office by the Constitutional Court on 10 March 2017. The decision was unanimous, 8–0 in favour of impeachment, as announced shortly thereafter. On 26 March 2017, South Korean prosecutors announced they were seeking an arrest warrant against Park. This warrant was granted by the Seoul Central District Court on 30 March 2017 and Park was arrested later that day.
National Assembly races (1998 to present)
|Grand National||Park Geun-hye||28,937||64|
|National Congress||Eom Sam-tak||16,355||36|
|Grand National hold|
|Grand National||Park Geun-hye||37,805||61|
|Millennium Democratic||Eom Sam-tak||23,744||38|
|Grand National hold|
|Grand National||Park Geun-hye||45,298||70|
|Democratic Labor||Heo Gyeong-do||4,367||7|
|Grand National hold|
|Grand National||Park Geun-hye||50,149||89|
|Democratic Labor||No Yun-jo||5,080||9|
|Grand National hold|
|Park Geun-hye||Saenuri Party||15,773,128||51.55|
|Moon Jae-in||Democratic United Party||14,692,632||48.02|
|Source: National Election Commission|
- 절망은 나를 단련시키고 희망은 나를 움직인다 [Despair Trains Me and Hope Moves Me] (in Korean). Wisdom House. July 2007. ISBN 978-89-6086-033-9.
- 나의 어머니 육영수 [My mother, Yuk Young-soo] (in Korean). People&People. January 2001. ISBN 978-89-85541-54-1.
- 결국 한 줌, 결국 한 점 [In the End Only a Fistful, One Speck] (in Korean). Busan Ilbo Books. October 1998. ISBN 978-89-87236-25-4.
- 고난을 벗 삼아 진실을 등대삼아 [Befriending Adversity, Truth as the Guiding Light] (in Korean). Busan Ilbo Books. October 1998. ISBN 978-89-87236-24-7.
- 내 마음의 여정 [Journey of My Mind] (in Korean). Hansol Media. May 1995. ISBN 978-89-85656-50-4.
- 평범한 가정에 태어났더라면 [If I Were Born in an Ordinary Family] (in Korean). Nam Song. November 1993. OCLC 33010951.
- "A New Kind of Korea: Building Trust Between Seoul and Pyongyang". Foreign Affairs. September–October 2011. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
- "한국당, '1호 당원' 박근혜 출당조치…'20년 관계' 청산, Hangook-party, excludes '#1 partisan' Park Geun-hye... settlement of '20 years of relationship'". Yonhap News. 3 November 2017. Retrieved 3 November 2017.
- Demick, Barbara; Choi, Jung-yoon (19 December 2012). "South Korea elects first female president". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- "The 25 Most Powerful Women in the World". Forbes. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
- Choe Sang-hun (9 December 2016). "South Korea Parliament Votes to Impeach President Park Geun-hye". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
- "Park names Justice Minister Hwang Kyo-ahn as new PM". Yonhap. 21 May 2015. Retrieved 21 May 2015.
- Sang-hun, Choe (9 March 2017). "South Korea Removes President Park Geun-hye". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 March 2017.
- "Park Geun-hye: South Korea's ex-leader jailed for 24 years for corruption". BBC News. 6 April 2018.
- "South Korean court raises ex-president Park's jail term to 25 years". Reuters. 24 August 2018.
- Sang-hun, Choe (31 March 2017). "Park Geun-hye's Life in Jail: Cheap Meals and a Mattress on the Floor". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 13 May 2017.
- https://en.yna.co.kr/view/AEN20190725010700315 . Retrieved 26 September 2019
- "Candidacy of ruling party leader's sister gets cold shoulder". The Korea Herald. 18 March 2012.
- "6 facts about South Korea's growing Christian population". 12 August 2014.
- "(profile)Hannara Party Vice Chairwoman, Park Geun-hye". YONHAP NEWS AGENCY. 31 May 2000.
- Harlan, Chico (25 January 2013). "South Korea's new leader, Park Geun-hye, was pushed onto political stage by tragedy". The Washington Post. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
- 8·15대통령저격사건 (八一五大統領狙擊事件) [15 August President assassination-attempt incident] (in Korean). Doopedia (두산백과). Retrieved 13 May 2012.
- "Profile: South Korean President Park Geun-hye". BBC News. 10 March 2017. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
Some said the association with her father – and her experience as first lady – helped cement her win by overcoming prejudices among male voters.
- "Weiner, Tim: Legacy of Ashes. The History of CIA. New York, June 2007" (PDF).
- Weiner, Tim (2008). Weiner, Tim: Legacy of Ashes. The History of CIA. New York, June 2007. ISBN 978-0307389008.
- C. I. Eugene Kim (April 1978). "Emergency, Development, and Human Rights: South Korea". Asian Survey. 18 (4): 363–78. doi:10.1525/as.1978.18.4.01p0404m. JSTOR 2643400.
- "Park Calls 1961 Coup 'Revolution' to Save Nation". KBS news. 19 July 2009. Archived from the original on 25 December 2007. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
She apologized for the sufferings and sacrifices of pro-democracy activists under the constitutional system, which was effective between 1972 and 1979.
- "TU Dresden awards President of the Republic of Korea, Park Geun-hye, honorary doctorate". 31 March 2014. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
- Guray, Geoffrey Lou (19 December 2012). "South Korea Elects First Female President – Who Is She?". PBS NewsHour. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
- Chung Min-uck (20 March 2013). "Saenuri names proportional representatives". Korea Times. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
- Fackler, Martin (20 April 2012). "In a Rowdy Democracy, a Dictator's Daughter With an Unsoiled Aura". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
- "총선 D-1 승패기준..영남승부 관심 | General election D-1 outcome standard... attention on fight in Yeong-nam area". 10 April 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
- 박의래, Ue-rae Park (8 April 2012). "[증시閑담] 총선 결과에 촉각 세우는 주식시장 | [Stock market leisurely(閑) Stock market waiting for result of general election". Retrieved 16 October 2015.
- "Joint Probe into Attack on GNP Chairwoman". Arirang News. 22 May 2006. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- Gim Yi-sak(김이삭); Chung Min-seung(정민승) (21 May 2006). 박근혜대표 유세장서 피습 중상 [GNP leader Park Geun-hye attacked during campaign]. Hankook Ilbo (in Korean). Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- 홍종성, Jong-sung Hong (25 May 2006). "대전 "박근혜 생각하면 결심이 흔들려요" | Dae-jeon "Thinking of Park Geun-hye shakes my determination."".
- Kim Nam-kwon (김남권) (4 October 2011). 박근혜, 野시절 `40대 0 신화'.이번엔? [Park Geun-hye scored 40 to 0 as the opposition. How about this time?]. Yonhap News (in Korean). Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- Kim Min-ja(김민자) (29 March 2012). '선거의 여왕' 박근혜, 총선에서 뒷심 발휘할까? ['Queen of elections' Park Geun-hye, Could she wield her magic again in April?]. NewsIs (in Korean). Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- "Politician Wants To 'Save' Korea: South Korean National Assembly member advocates alliance with United States". The Harvard Crimson. 13 February 2007. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- "The Republic of Korea and the United States:Our Future Together". Institute for Corean-American Studies, Inc. 21 February 2007. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
An Address Delivered at the ARCO (John F. Kennedy Jr.) Forum, John F. Kennedy School of Government Harvard University
- "Lee Myung-bak". The New York Times. 25 July 2012. Retrieved 13 November 2012.
- "South Korea: Park Likely to be First Female President". Spearhead Research. 28 August 2012. Archived from the original on 16 April 2013. Retrieved 13 November 2012.
- Sung Yeon-chul(성연철) (12 April 2012). ‘선거의 여왕’ 화려한 귀환...수도권·젊은층에선 한계 [Return of Queen of election. Park also showed her limit among capital area voters and the youth]. The Hankyoreh (in Korean). Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- Kim Jeong-ha(김정하); Hur Jin(허진); Sohn Guk-hee(손국희) (14 April 2012). '청바지 유세' 고개 흔들던 박근혜, 30분 뒤 [Park Geun-hye shook head for wearing jeans, but after 30 minutes changed her mind]. JoongAng Ilbo (in Korean). Archived from the original on 23 May 2013. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- Kim Sung-gon(김성곤) (15 December 2011). '여왕의 화려한 귀환' 박근혜가 돌아왔다 [Return of Queen of election, Park Geun-hye returned as GNP leader]. Edaily News (in Korean). Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- Kim Hwa-young(김화영) (8 September 2011). 박근혜 대세론 `휘청'..스타일 변화 모색 [Park Geun-hye's top candidate position is challenged. needs to change her style]. Yonhap News (in Korean). Retrieved 16 May 2012.
Faced with rising Ahn Cheol-soo's approval rate, Park Geun-hye's leadership is in question. Sending messages wouldn't be enough, and she must increase her appearance in public. Park will try to tackle the center. [安風에 대세론 제동 걸려..정치적 시험대 올라. `메시지 정치'서 `현장정치'로..중도층 공략 본격화 예상]
- Fackler, Martin (20 April 2012). "In a Rowdy Democracy, a Dictator's Daughter With an Unsoiled Aura". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
- 박근혜 컨벤션 효과...안철수 지지율도 동반상승 | Park Geun-hye convention effect... Ahn Cheol-soo's approval rating rises also in 2012, (in Korean)
- "home survey 2012 survey by Realmeter". joongang.joinsmsn.com. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013.
- "박근혜 대선 출마선언…대선레이스 본격 점화". news.donga.com. 10 July 2012.
- "home survey 2012 survey by Realmeter". joongang.joinsmsn.com. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013.
- Harlan, Chico (19 December 2012). "Park Geun-hye wins South Korea's presidential election". The Washington Post. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
- McCurry, Justin (4 August 2017). "South Korea spy agency admits trying to rig 2012 presidential election". the Guardian.
- "한국아이닷컴!". Archived from the original on 8 June 2012.
- "2007년, 줄푸세·시장주의 → 2012년, 맞춤형 복지·경제민주화".
- "[나눔뉴스] "세종시 피로감에 박근혜 지지율 하락세"". nanumnews.com.
- "2012 Maeil Sinmoon article". imaeil.com.
- (KOCIS), Korean Culture and Information Service. "Korea.net : The official website of the Republic of Korea". korea.net.
- Ock, Hyun-ju (9 May 2017). "Did jailed ex-president Park Geun-hye use her vote?". The Korea Herald. Archived from the original on 14 May 2017. Retrieved 13 May 2017.
According to local news reports, she gave up her right to vote as she did not ask for an absentee ballot, which is provided to inmates in detention facilities.
- News1 Korea: President's Inaugural Address (in Korean)
- "Park's swearing-in draws record 70,000 participants". The Korea Herald. 24 February 2013. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
- "Legislative Speaker Wang attends S. Korea president's inauguration". China Post. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
- "THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA CHEONG WA DAE". Archived from the original on 8 December 2013. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
- "THE SCIENCE : [박근혜정부 조직개편안]미래部, 성장동력 창출… 부총리는 정책 총괄". Retrieved 16 October 2015.
- Wilson, Scott; DeYoung, Karen (7 May 2013). "Obama, South Korea's Park present united front against North Korea at joint appearance". The Washington Post. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
- "SBS 뉴스 :: 리다이렉트 페이지". 7 May 2013. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
- Korean Culture and Information Service (KOCIS). "Korea.net : The official website of the Republic of Korea". Retrieved 16 October 2015.
- "THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA CHEONG WA DAE". Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
- Korean Culture and Information Service (KOCIS). "Korea.net : The official website of the Republic of Korea". Retrieved 16 October 2015.
- "THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA CHEONG WA DAE". Archived from the original on 4 December 2013. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
- "North Korea profile". BBC News. 26 March 2014.
- "South Korean President Park Geun-hye's North Korean Strategy". The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
- "UN Security Council Passes New Resolution 2094 on North Korea". Retrieved 16 October 2015.
- "北, 남북 당국간 회담 전격 제의…정부 '수용'". 5 June 2013. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
- "North and South Korea to hold talks next week". BBC News. BBC. 20 November 2015. Retrieved 16 December 2015.
- "(LEAD) S. Korean president calls on Pyongyang to accept 'trust building' process". 6 June 2013. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
- "South Korean President Park Geun-hye answers questions". The Washington Post. 7 May 2013.
- asadal. "unikorea". eng.unikorea.go.kr.
- "Trust – The Underlying Philosophy of the Park Geun-Hye Administration". Retrieved 16 October 2015.
- "SBS 뉴스 :: 리다이렉트 페이지". 28 June 2013. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
- "(3rd LD) S. Korea to participate in Russian-led rail, port development project in N. Korea". 12 November 2013. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
- "대한민국 청와대". president.go.kr. Archived from the original on 2 January 2014.
- "Park seeks Russia's support in resolving North Korean nuclear standoff". 6 September 2013. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
- "Виктор Ишаев пригласил корейцев к совместному освоению космоса". Российская газета. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 19 August 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "박근혜 대통령, "일자리·서민 위주로 조속히 추경 편성"". 3 April 2013. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
- Australia signs free trade agreement with South Korea in Seoul; ABC; 8 April 2014
- "The zeitgeist: Rooting out social vices". JoongAng Ilbo. 24 May 2013. Archived from the original on 9 June 2013.
- 4대 사회악 근절 위한 추진본부 발족시킬 것 [Four Major Social Evils promotion headquarter will be established]. The Hankyoreh (in Korean). 14 March 2013.
- "국민대통합위 오늘 출범…초대 위원장에 한광옥". 17 June 2013. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
- Kang Jin-kyu (20 May 2013). "Park attends memorial of Gwangju massacre". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 15 June 2013. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
- "Park Says Once-Divided Germany Is Model for Korea Reunification". Bloomberg.com. 26 March 2014. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
- arirang, Arirang International Broadcasting Foundation. "News View – The World On Arirang". Retrieved 16 October 2015.
- S. Korean Leader Warns of 'Nuclear Domino' if North Conducts Test (May 30, 2014), NTI
- "South Korea to break up coastguard after ferry disaster". BBC. 19 May 2014. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
- Kwon, K.J.; Hancocks, Paula; Mullen, Jethro (19 May 2014). "South Korean president dismantles coast guard after ferry disaster". CNN. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
- "South Korea launches new safety agency". San Diego Union-Tribune. Associated Press. 18 November 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
- "Park calls for cooperation with China-led AIIB". Yonhap News Agency. 26 May 2015. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
- Jun, Kwanwoo; Gale, Alastair (26 March 2015). "South Korea Says It Will Join China-Led Investment Bank". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
- "Park leaves for Iran for talks with Rouhani". May 2016. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
- "Korean pres. makes historic visit to Tehran". 1 May 2016. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
- "Park on landmark visit to Tehran, economy high on agenda". 1 May 2016. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
- "PressTV-Korean pres., biggest trade team woo Iran". Retrieved 29 October 2016.
- "PressTV-Iran, South Korea sign 19 agreements". Retrieved 29 October 2016.
- "South Korean election setback deals severe blow to President Park Geun-hye's economic reform agenda". South China Morning Post. 14 April 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
- "Park's election meddling may backfire". The Korea Times. 21 March 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
- "Park may stay in power after 2018". The Korea Times. 25 March 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
- "Saenuri's defeat brewing political upheaval". The Korea Times. 14 April 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
- "Park loyalists tumble". The Korea Times. 13 April 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
- "Conservative rout leaves South Korea's Park Geun-hye a lame duck". The Australian. 14 April 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
- "Vote defeat for South Korea's Park raises 'lame duck' prospect". Reuters. 14 April 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
- "한국갤럽조사연구소". Retrieved 16 October 2015.
- MoneyToday. "朴대통령, 지지율 63% 급반등···취임후 최고". Retrieved 16 October 2015.
- "Park's popularity hits new low". 23 January 2015. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
- "South Korea President Park's Approval Highest in Year-and-a-Half". bloomberg.com. 3 September 2015. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
- "Park and Saenuri's approval ratings dip to new lows". The Korea Times. 18 April 2016. Archived from the original on 4 May 2016. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
- "데일리 오피니언 제234호(2016년 11월 1주)" [Daily Opinion No. 234 (1 November 2016)]. Gallup Korea.
- "South Korea's presidency 'on the brink of collapse' as scandal grows". Washington Post. 29 October 2016.
- "한국갤럽 여론조사, 박근혜 대통령 지지율 4%". 2 December 2016.
- Park, Si-soo (31 March 2017). "PARK GEUN-HYE ARRESTED". The Korea Times. Archived from the original on 1 April 2017. Retrieved 1 April 2017.
Park, who was awaiting the ruling at a room of the Seoul Central Prosecutors' Office, was taken to the Seoul Detention Center in Uiwang, Gyeonggi Province, soon after the decision was announced. Park – in prison garb – is expected to travel back and forth to the prosecutors' office for additional questioning before being formally indicted.
- Kim, Tong-Hyung (31 March 2017). "Ousted South Korean leader goes from presidential palace to solitary cell". The Associated Press via The Toronto Star. Retrieved 1 April 2017.
Park Geun-hye entered the Seoul Detention Center in a black sedan before dawn Friday after a court approved her arrest on corruption allegations.
- "Former President Park, Lotte chairman indicted on corruption charges". Korea Times. 17 April 2017. Archived from the original on 17 April 2017. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
- Kim, Hyung-jin (17 April 2017). "Ex-South Korean leader Park indicted, faces trial". Associated Press (via ABC News). Retrieved 17 April 2017.
- "All the Queen's men and women". The Straits Times. Retrieved 12 May 2017.
- Shin, Hyonhee; Yang, Heekyong; Kim, Christine (27 February 2018). Macfie, Nick (ed.). "South Korean prosecutors seek 30 years' jail for ousted Park as supporters demand her release". Reuters.
- Se-jeong, Kim (6 April 2018). "Court orders 24 years in jail for former President Park". Korea Times.
- Choe Sang-hun (6 April 2018). "Park Geun-hye, South Korea's Ousted President, Gets 24 Years in Prison". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
- Paula Hancocks; Yoonjung Seo; James Griffiths. "Former South Korean President Park Geun-hye sentenced to 24 years in prison". CNN.
- https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2018/06/15/asia-pacific/south-korea-jails-ex-spy-chiefs-bribing-former-president-park-geun-hye/ . Retrieved 22 June 2018
- Chang Jin-bok(장진복) (24 March 2011). 이해찬 "野 총선승리 시 박근혜 별명은 '독재자의 딸'" [Lee Hae-chan, "If the oppositions win the legislative election, Park Geun-hye's nickname will change (from Queen of election) to daughter of a dictator"]. NewsIs (in Korean). Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- Ko Dong-seok(고동석) (10 January 2011). 손학규 "누가 뭐래도 박근혜는 박정희의 딸" [Sohn Hak-kyu, "No one can deny Park Geun-hye is the daughter of dictator Park Jeonghui"]. News Hankook (in Korean). Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- (in Korean) 2012 Donga Ilbo article
- Lee, Young-Im (21 July 2016). "From first daughter to first lady to first woman president: Park Geun-Hye's path to the South Korean presidency". Feminist Media Studies. 17 (3): 377–391. doi:10.1080/14680777.2016.1213307. ISSN 1468-0777.
- "Was it a 'coup' or a 'revolution'?". The Hankyoreh. 9 August 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
- "An leading Park in latest polls". The Hankyoreh. 30 July 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
- "한국갤럽조사연구소". Retrieved 29 October 2016.
- "Park Geun-hye denies involvement in scandal-ridden foundation". The Hankyoreh. 22 October 2012. Retrieved 13 November 2012.
- Seong Yeon-cheol (16 July 2012). "Park Geun-hye's flip flopping and double-talking". The Hankyoreh. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
- CHOE, SANG-HUN (10 May 2013). "South Korean President Fires Spokesman for 'Unsavory Act' During Visit to U.S." New York Times. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- Lee, Chi-dong (10 May 2013). "(4th LD) Park sacks spokesman Yoon amid sexual assault allegations". Yonhap News Agency. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- 대통령 기자회견 [Presidential Press Conference] (in Korean). Jeonbuk Daily. 11 February 2015.
- "News Analysis: Park Geun-hye's first year: principle vs. non-communication". Xinhua. 25 February 2014. Archived from the original on 19 October 2015.
- "Anti-government protesters rally in South Korea". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
- "S Korea protesters clash with police in Seoul – BBC News". BBC News. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
- "South Korea | Country report | Freedom in the World | 2015". freedomhouse.org. Retrieved 28 February 2016.
- "Korean Prosecutors Indict Japanese Journalist on Defamation Charge – WSJ". wsj.com. Retrieved 1 November 2016.
- "US journal criticizes Park's regression into dictatorship". m.koreatimes.co.kr. Retrieved 1 November 2016.
- Park's mention can be treated as a violation of public official election act http://finance.daum.net/news/news_content.daum?docid=MD20150628171008128 Archived 8 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine Ruling party floor leader resigns amid party's internal feud / YTN https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dvxXJr4PeIE
- "Investigations into 'Choi Soon-sil gate' widening". The Korea Times. 23 October 2016.
- "All the Queen's men and women". The Straits Times. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
- "박 대통령 독대한 대기업들 미르·K 출연금 유독 많았다". hani.co.kr. 3 November 2016.
- "[안선희의 밑줄 긋기] 재벌들이 피해자라고?". hani.co.kr. 3 November 2016.
- "[단독]"미르-K스포츠재단 모금, 안종범 수석이 지시했다"". news.donga.com.
- McCurry, Justin (30 October 2016). "'Rasputin-like' friend of South Korean president returns amid protests". The Guardian.
- "검찰, 안종범 전 정책조정수석 긴급체포…서울남부구치소로 이송". news.donga.com. Archived from the original on 4 November 2016.
- "President Park breaks YS's record, approval rating at 5 percent". Oh My News. 6 November 2016.
- "Park orders secretaries to resign over 'Choi Soon-sil scandal'". The Korea Times. 28 October 2016.
- "Thousands protest in South Korea, demand president quit over scandal". Reuters.
- "'100만명'이 지하철 통계로 증명됐다". huffingtonpost.kr.
- "들불로 번진 2주연속 '100만 촛불혁명'…26일 300만 예고". news.nate.com.
- "Dreaming of a new world, one million candles again burn nationwide". english.hani.co.kr.
- "Left wings outrage regarding text firing of Hwang Kyo-ahn". KyungHyang.
- "Prime minister Hwang Kyo-ahn 'fired' by president Park via a text message". Insight.
- Agence France-Presse (20 November 2016). "Choi-gate prosecutors accuse South Korean president of collusion". The Guardian.
- "최순실, 딸 친구 부모 민원 들어주고 1000만원 샤넬백 등 5000만원 챙겨". news.chosun.com.
- "檢, 헌정사상 첫 현직 대통령 피의자 입건…"3명과 공모범행"(종합)". news.nate.com.
- Breen, Michael (29 November 2016). "South Korea's President Park and the beast of public sentiment". www.atimes.com. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- McCurry, Justin (29 November 2016). "South Korea's president calls on parliament to arrange her exit". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
- Agence France-Presse (3 December 2016). "South Korean president Park Geun-Hye to face impeachment vote". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 December 2016.
- Sang-hun, Choe (9 December 2016). "South Korea Parliament Votes to Impeach President Park Geun-hye". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
- Joo, Youngjae (9 December 2016). [속보]박근혜 대통령 탄핵소추안 가결···찬성 234·반대 56·무효 7·기권 2. Kyunghyang (in Korean). Retrieved 9 December 2016.
- Park, Ju-min; Kim, Jack. "South Korean parliament votes overwhelmingly to impeach President Park".
- "South Korea president Park Geun-hye ousted by court". BBC. 10 March 2017. Retrieved 10 March 2017.
- Taehoon Lee. "Arrest warrant sought for ousted South Korean president". CNN. Retrieved 27 March 2017.
- "Ex-South Korean president Park Geun-hye arrested". BBC. 30 March 2017. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
- An Jaeseung(안재승); Choe Ikrim(최익림); Hong Dae-sun(홍대선); Sin Seung-geun(신승근) (3 April 1998). 한나라 재보선 4곳 석권 [GNP won all four seats of by-election]. The Hankyoreh (in Korean). Retrieved 16 May 2012.
대구 달성에선 이날 자정 현재 82%개표 상황에서 박근혜 후보가 2만8937표(51.5%)를 얻어 1만 6355표(29.1%)를 얻은 엄삼탁 국민회의 후보를 크게 앞지르며 당선됐다. [In Dalseong Daegu, 82% votes were counted by 12 am. And Park Geun-hye got 28,937 (52%) votes, compared to 16,355 (29%) votes for Eom Samtak of Democratic Party. Park has been elected by wide margin.]
- "중앙선거관리위원회, 역대 선거정보 시스템" [NEC, past election result]. Archived from the original on 18 February 2013. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- "중앙선거관리위원회, 18대 국회의원 선거관리 시스템" [National Election Committee, 18th legislative election information]. Archived from the original on 4 September 2012. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- "Voting figures for proportional representation by parties (in Korean)". National Election Commission. Retrieved 16 May 2012.[permanent dead link]
- 새누리당 비례대표 당선자 박근혜 [Saenuri Proportional Representation-elect, Park Geun-hye]. Yonhap News (in Korean). 12 April 2012. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- Her powers and duties suspended since 9 December 2016 by the National Assembly until final impeachment verdict on 10 March 2017
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Park Geun-hye.|
- Official website
- Park Geun-hye addresses "U.S.–Korea Relations in a Changing World" at Stanford University, 6 May 2009
- Park Geun-hye's speech at the JFK Jr. Forum, Harvard University, 12 February 2007
- "Star Rises for Daughter of South Korea", The Washington Post, 15 March 2005
- "All the Queen's men and women", The Straits Times, 20 March 2017
- Appearances on C-SPAN
| First Lady of South Korea
16 August 1974 – 26 October 1979
|National Assembly (South Korea)|
| Member of the National Assembly
from Dalseong County
3 April 1998 – 29 May 2012
|Party political offices|
| Leader of the Grand National Party
23 March 2004 – 10 July 2006
as Leader of the Grand National Party
| Leader of the Saenuri Party
17 December 2011 – 15 May 2012
| President of South Korea
25 February 2013–10 March 2017
Suspended 9 December 2016 – 10 March 2017