Future of the British Army (Army 2020 Refine)
Army 2020, formerly known as Future Army Structure (Next Steps) or FAS (Next Steps), is the name given to an ongoing review of the structure of the British Army, and in particular its fighting brigades.
The British Government gave an indication of its proposals for the future structure of the Army in early 2008, in a press report stating that it was considering restructuring the Army into a force of three deployable divisional headquarters and eight 'homogenous or identical' brigades, each with a spread of heavy, medium and light capabilities. This report indicated that the existing 16 Air Assault Brigade would be retained as a high-readiness rapid reaction force.
Subsequently, it was reported that the former Chief of the General Staff, General Sir Richard Dannatt, wanted to see the Army structured so as to extend the interval between operational tours from two to two-and-a-half years.
In 2010, the Strategic Defence and Security Review was published. As part of the plans, the British Army will be reduced by 23 regular units, and by 2020 will number 117,000 soldiers, of whom 82,000 will be regulars and 30,000 will be reservists. The Strategic Defence and Security Review 2015 increased the number of reservists to 35,000.
On 7 June 2012, the Secretary of State for Defence set out some key considerations for the future of the British Army. Refinements to the plans following the 2015 Review became known as "Army 2020 Refine". Further changes were announced in a written statement in December 2016.
- 1 Future structure
- 1.1 Originally envisaged structure
- 1.2 Army 2020 structure
- 1.3 Royal Armoured Corps
- 1.4 Royal Artillery
- 1.5 Reductions of the Infantry
- 1.6 Joint Helicopter Command/Army Air Corps
- 1.7 Army Reserve
- 1.8 Corps of Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers
- 1.9 Royal Military Police
- 1.10 Other
- 2 Formation structure
- 3 Basing
- 4 National Security Strategy and Strategic Defence and Security Review 2015/Army 2020 Refine
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Originally envisaged structure
The originally envisaged future structure was announced on 19 July 2011 in a briefing paper entitled Defence Basing Review: Headline Decisions. This structure had five identical multi-role brigades, each of around 6,500 personnel. However, in June 2012 a significantly different structure known as Army 2020 was announced.
The five multi-role brigades envisaged in 2011 would have comprised:
- One armoured regiment of Challenger 2 tanks
- One armoured reconnaissance regiment
- One armoured infantry battalion in Warrior Armoured Fighting Vehicles
- One mechanised infantry battalion in FV432 Bulldog armoured vehicles
- Two light role infantry battalions
Army 2020 structure
At the RUSI Land Warfare Conference in June 2012, the army's Chief of the General Staff General Sir Peter Wall set out a significantly different army structure from that foreseen in the 2010 Strategic Defence and Security Review. The new structure was confirmed by the then Secretary of State for Defence, Philip Hammond, on 5 July 2012. The Army Command will comprise the reaction force, the adaptable force, and force troops:
The Reaction Force
The 16 Air Assault Brigade, comprising two battalions of the Parachute Regiment and two Army Air Corps regiments of attack helicopters. This will deliver a very high readiness Lead Air Assault Task Force, with the rest of the brigade ready to move at longer notice.
The 3rd (UK) Mechanised Division, renamed the 3rd (United Kingdom) Division, comprising three armoured infantry brigades: 1st Armoured Infantry Brigade, 12th Armoured Infantry Brigade and 20th Armoured Infantry Brigade. These three brigades will rotate, with one being the lead brigade, a second undergoing training and the third involved in other tasks. The lead brigade will deliver a Lead Battlegroup at very high readiness, with the rest of the brigade at longer notice. Each armoured infantry brigade will be made up of:
- 1 Type 56 armoured regiment comprising:
- 1 armoured cavalry regiment comprising:
- 2 armoured infantry battalions, each comprising:
- 1 heavy protected mobility infantry battalion comprising:
- 101st Logistic Support Brigade.
- Royal Wessex Yeomanry providing replacement crews to the three Challenger 2 regiments.
The Adaptable Force
The 1st Armoured Division, renamed as the 1st (United Kingdom) Division, along with Support Command. Comprises seven infantry brigades (4th, 7th, 11th, 38th, 42nd, 51st and 160th) of various sizes, each made up of paired regular and Territorial Army forces, drawn from an Adaptable Force pool of units. These infantry brigades will be suited to domestic operations or overseas commitments (such as the Falkland Islands, Brunei and Cyprus) or, with sufficient notice, as a brigade level contribution to enduring stabilisation operations. This force pool will comprise:
- Three light cavalry, paired with three yeomanry regiments, each comprising:
- 3 sabre squadrons, each with 16 Jackal vehicles;
- Six light protected mobility infantry battalions equipped with Foxhound vehicles, each comprising:
- 3 rifle companies
- 1 support company.
- Several light role infantry battalions, each comprising:
- 3 rifle companies
- 1 support company.
- 102 Logistic Support Brigade.
Force Troops Command
This will comprise:
- 1st Artillery Brigade and Headquarters South West
- 1st Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Brigade
- 1st Military Police Brigade
- 1st Signal Brigade
- 2nd Medical Brigade
- 8th Engineer Brigade
- 11th Signal Brigade and Headquarters West Midlands
- 77th Brigade
- 104th Logistical Support Brigade
The table above provides the general structure of the British Army once Army 2020 is completed. It excludes regiments like the Corps of Music or units under other commands such as the air defence regiments.
There are three Foot Guards incremental companies stationed in London, and one Line Infantry incremental company stationed in Edinburgh.
Royal Armoured Corps
- 9th/12th Royal Lancers and Queen's Royal Lancers will merge to become The Royal Lancers
- 1st Royal Tank Regiment and 2nd Royal Tank Regiment will merge to form the Royal Tank Regiment.
In accordance with the Strategic Defence and Security Review, the number of AS-90 self-propelled guns will be reduced by 35%. The number of active Challenger 2 tanks was cut by around forty per cent, and by 2014 had been reduced to 227.
Reductions of the Infantry
Four of the British Army's 36 regular infantry battalions will be disbanded or merged with sister units in their regiments:
- 2nd Battalion, Royal Regiment of Fusiliers (light role)
- 2nd Battalion, Yorkshire Regiment (Green Howards) (light role)
- 2nd Battalion, Royal Welsh (Royal Regiment of Wales) (armoured infantry)
- 3rd Battalion, Mercian Regiment (Staffords) (armoured infantry)
Joint Helicopter Command/Army Air Corps
The Joint Helicopter Command will remain an integral part of the land force. The Army Air Corps will be reduced by one regular regiment. 1 and 9 Regt AAC will merge with the new Wildcat helicopter not before Oct 2015. One Regiment will be at high readiness annually, with one Apache Squadron committed towards the Lead Armoured Battlegroup. 653 AAC will be an Operational Training Squadron from 2015, leaving the Apache Regiments with four active squadrons altogether. The government pledged to upgrade 50 AgustaWestland Apache to AH-64E standard, however, a 11 May 2017 US government contract list states that only 38 will be re-manufactured.
The Territorial Army will be renamed the Army Reserve, and will be expanded from 19,000 to 30,000 personnel. Its military equipment will be upgraded to meet the standards of the regular army and its units will be realigned in line with a new planned internal structure (Order of battle ("ORBAT") in internal Army terminology). The 2015 review increased the intended strength of the Reserves to 35,000.
Corps of Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers
Royal Military Police
British Forces Royal Logistic Corps in Germany will be withdrawn back to the UK by 2015:
- 8 Regiment RLC disbanded (formerly at BFG Munster and late York Barracks) on 31 March 2012.
- 24 Regiment RLC (part of 104th Logistic Support Brigade) will disband in Bielefeld, Germany in August 2013.
- 23 Pioneer Regiment RLC (part of 104th Logistic Support Brigade) at Bicester disbands in 2013/14.
Note: There is no mention of where 12 Close Logistics Regiment will be in the Army 2020 documents. Newspapers say it will be disbanded.
Regular units only, table does not include Force Troops Command Units or Logistics Brigades
|3rd (United Kingdom) Division|
|Brigade||Armoured Cavalry||Armoured||Armoured Infantry||Heavy Protected Mobility|
|1st Armoured Infantry Brigade||HCR||RTR||1 RRF
|12th Armoured Infantry Brigade||RL||KRH||1 YORKS
1 R WELSH
|20th Armoured Infantry Brigade||RDG||QRH||1 PWRR
|1st (United Kingdom) Division (rotation until 1 September 2016)|
|Brigade||Light Cavalry||Light Protected Mobility Infantry||Light Role Infantry|
|4th Infantry Brigade||LD||2 YORKS |
|7th Infantry Brigade||QDG||2 R ANGLIAN||1 R IRISH
1 R ANGLIAN
|11th Infantry Brigade||1 WG
1 GREN GDS
|38th Irish Infantry Brigade||1 SCOTS
|42nd Infantry Brigade||2 LANCS
|51st Infantry Brigade||SCOTS DG||3 SCOTS
|160th Infantry Brigade||1 RIFLES|
|16th Air Assault Brigade|
|Infantry||Air Corps||Support troops|
|7 (Para) RHA
23 Engineer Regiment (Air Assault)
216 (Parachute) Signal Squadron
13 Air Assault Support Regiment
16 Close Support Medical Regiment
7 Air Assault Battalion REME.
|Formation||Light Protected Mobility||Light Role|
|British Forces Cyprus||1 LANCS
|British Forces Brunei||2 RGR|
|Public Duties||1 CLDM GDS
4 × incremental infantry companies1
An initial basing plan located infantry brigades throughout the United Kingdom, with the three reaction force brigades situated in the Salisbury Plain Training Area. On 5 March 2013, a future basing plan of units in the UK was released. As noted above, all Germany-based units will be relocated to the UK, with the Salisbury Plain area holding the largest concentration of troops.
National Security Strategy and Strategic Defence and Security Review 2015/Army 2020 Refine
According to the Strategic Defence and Security Review 2015, the structure of the Reaction and Adaptable Forces will further change. Two rapid reaction "Strike Brigades" will be formed by 2025, comprising 5,000 personnel each, equipped with Ajax. The armoured infantry brigades will be reduced from three to two. Two innovative brigades will be established, comprising a mix of regulars and specialist capabilities from the reserves, that are able to contribute to strategic communications, tackle hybrid warfare and deliver better battlefield intelligence. By 2025, the UK will be able to field a division comprising two armoured infantry brigades and a strike brigade. In a Defence Committee hearing, Chief of the General Staff Sir Nicholas Carter stated that "each of these [Strike] brigades will have two AJAX regiments and probably two mechanised infantry (MIV) battalions as well." There will be around 50 to 60 Ajax vehicles per Strike Brigade. According to the British Army, the post-SDSR 2015 Army 2020 plan is called "Army 2020 Refine".
A December 2016 written statement stated that the first Strike Brigade will consist of:
- Household Cavalry Regiment
- King's Royal Hussars
- 1st Battalion, Scots Guards
- 4th Battalion, Royal Regiment of Scotland (The Highlanders)
Other units such as 1 Regiment RLC, 1 Close Support Battalion REME, 3 Medical Regiment and 21 Engineer Regiment will provide close support to this Strike Brigade. 3rd Regiment Royal Horse Artillery and 4th Regiment Royal Artillery assigned to the Strike Brigades but at the current moment it's unclear what their equipment will be.
Specialised Infantry battalions, of around 300 personnel strong, will be formed from:
- 1st Battalion, Royal Regiment of Scotland (The Royal Scots Borderers)
- 4th Battalion, The Rifles
- 2nd Battalion, Princess of Wales’s Royal Regiment
- 2nd Battalion, Duke of Lancaster's Regiment
Several units will be "will be rationalised", with all manpower in those units being redeployed to other areas of the Army in its refined structure. These are:
- Headquarters 102nd Logistic Brigade
- 32 Regiment Royal Artillery
- 35 Engineer Regiment
- Headquarters 64 Works Group Royal Engineers
- 2 Medical Regiment
- Headquarters 4th Regiment Royal Military Police
- 33 Field Hospital
- 104, 105 and 106 Battalions of the Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers
The Scottish and The Prince of Wales’s Administrative Divisions of Infantry will merge, incorporating The Royal Regiment of Scotland, The Royal Welsh Regiment and The Royal Irish Regiment. This administrative division will be called the Scottish, Welsh and Irish Division. The Mercian Regiment from the Prince of Wales’s Division will join with the King's Division.
Foxhound-equipped units will no longer be assigned those vehicles but will only have them available before deployment or operations.
- "British Army proposes to revamp brigade structure". Jane's Defence Weekly: 4. 9 July 2008.
- Harding, Thomas (20 January 2009). "General Sir Richard Dannatt announces major Army changes". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
- http://www.army.mod.uk/news/24264.aspx Archived May 22, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Defence Secretary on Army 2020". Ministry of Defence. 7 June 2012. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "Army Information Sub-Strategy (2015 – 2018)" (PDF). British Army. November 2015. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
- "Strategic Defence and Security Review - Army: Written statement - HCWS367". Hansard. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
- Taylor, Claire (15 November 2011). "Briefing Paper SN06038 Defence Basing Review: Headline Decisions" (PDF). House of Commons Library.
- Harding, Thomas (19 October 2010). "Defence review: Army to face less pain than RAF and Navy". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
- on YouTube
- "Britain lowers its military sights". International Institute for Strategic Studies. 19 October 2010.
- Liam Fox, Secretary of State for Defence (18 July 2011). "Defence Transformation". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). House of Commons. col. 643–645.
- Chuter, Andrew (7 June 2012). "Top Officials Offer Glimpse of a Restructured British Army". Defense News. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- Defence Cuts: How The Army Will Be Overhauled Archived June 16, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
- "British Army looks to reactive and adaptive division". Jane's Defence Weekly. 49 (26): 5. 27 June 2012.
- Kirkup, James (5 March 2013). "Famed Desert Rats to lose their tanks under Army cuts". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
- "Regular army basing plan" (PDF). Ministry of Defence. 5 March 2013. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
- British Army Journal 2014 (PDF) (2014 Yearbook ed.). Newsdesk Media. 2014. p. 140. ISBN 978-1-906490-95-9. Retrieved 13 December 2014.
- "Regular Army Basing Matrix By Formation And Unit" (PDF). Army Families Federation. 2015. p. 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 August 2016. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- Beale, Jonathan (5 July 2012). "Army to lose 17 units amid job cuts". BBC News. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
- Heyman, Charles (2011). The Armed Forces of the European Union, 2012-2013. Casemate Publishers. p. 134. ISBN 978-1-84415-519-4.
- Akinyemi, Aaron (29 March 2014). "British Army has just 227 tanks left after spending cuts". International Business Times. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
- http://www.1846southall.com/The%20Royal%20Air%20Force.pdf[dead link]
- "Annual Report and Accounts 2005-06: House of Commons Defence Committee Written Questions". publications.parliament.uk. 2006. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- Transforming the British Army Annex D Archived June 16, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
- "654 Squadron's Last Parade Before Disbandment". Forces TV. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "3 Regiment Army Air Corps" (PDF). The Eagle. Wattisham Flying Station (Autumn 2014): 8. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "MOD orders new fleet of cutting-edge Apache helicopters for Army". Retrieved 15 May 2017.
- "CONTRACTS-ARMY". Retrieved 15 May 2017.
- Watt, Nicholas (30 June 2013). "Reservists to fill frontline army gaps". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 15 March 2017.
- "Summary of Army 2020 Reserve Structure and Basing Changes" (PDF). South East Reserve Forces' and Cadets' Association. 3 July 2013. Retrieved 28 July 2015.[dead link]
- HM Government (November 2015). "National Security Strategy and Strategic Defence and Security Review 2015" (PDF). p. 33. Retrieved 15 March 2017.
- McGregor, Sam (5 March 2013). "Abingdon regiment to be disbanded". The Herald Series. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- http://www.army.mod.uk/documents/general/20130703-A2020_Update.pdf[dead link]
- Army 2020 brochure Figure 6 Archived April 18, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
- "National Security Strategy and Strategic Defence and Security Review 2015" (PDF). HM Government. November 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- "Daily Hansard". HM Government. 23 November 2015. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
- "Oral evidence - SDSR 2015 and the Army - 14 Jun 2016". Retrieved 16 June 2016.
- "Oral evidence: SDSR 2015 and the Army, HC 108". Hansard. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
- "UK reorganises Foxhound units". IHS Janes. Retrieved 9 May 2017.
- Future Force 2020 Brochure
- Army 2020 July 2013 update
- Regular British Army basing plan March 2013
- Major British Army sites
- Structure of regular British Army as given by AFF
- Army Reserve changes and future basing[dead link]
- Possible British Army Combat Capability for the Future document
- Army Information Sub-Strategy (2015 – 2018)