Genital piercing

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Vulvas genital piercings: Nefertiti (middle) and Christina piercings
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Penis genital piercing: Prince Albert piercing

Genital piercing is a form of body piercing that involves piercing a part of the genitalia, thus creating a suitable place for wearing different types of jewellery. Nevertheless, the term may also be used pars pro toto to indicate all body piercings in the area of anus, perineum, genitals and mons pubis, including piercings such as anal, guiche, and pubic that do not involve perforation of genitalia. Genital piercings can be done regardless of sex, with various forms of piercings available. The main motive is beautification and individualization; in addition, some piercings enhance sexual pleasure by increasing stimulation.[1][2][3] Pre-modern genital piercings is most culturally widespread in Southeast Asia, where it has been part of traditional practice since ancient times. Records of genital piercing are found in the Kama Sutra.[4]

History[edit]

Gilt marginalia on the Boxer Codex (c.1590) with the only known illustration of the pre-colonial Visayan tugbuk and sakra genital piercing from the Philippines

The traditional prehistoric and historic practice of genital piercing is most culturally widespread in Southeast Asia (particularly in Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, and Myanmar), where the insertion of various kinds of implants into the penis were common until modern times, in addition to other ancient body modifications like tattooing, circumcision, pearling, ear piercings and ear plugs, gold teeth fillings, teeth filing, teeth blackening, and artificial cranial deformation. The primary purpose of such inserts were to enhance pleasure.[4][5][6] The practice also spread to neighboring regions, where scattered references to genital piercings exist, like the South Asian apadravya, a male genital piercing that passes vertically through the glans (unlike most Southeast Asian piercings which are inserted horizontally), in the Kama Sutra (2nd century AD).[7] Other smaller traditions of genital piercings also arose independently in other cultures (like in Central America).[4]

In the Philippines, penile piercings were widely documented by European explorers among the Visayan people.[8] Visayan penile piercings consists of a rod or bar (usually made from gold, brass, tin, or ivory; and often ornamented) called the tugbuk or tudruk that is inserted horizontally through the glans of the penis. Its ends are attached to the sakra (also transcribed as sacra or sagra), a wheel or half-ring (made from the same material as the tugbuk) that goes around the head of the penis, similar to a cock ring. The sakra comes in many variants, but is usually ornamented with blunt knobs around the circumference. The ends of the tugbuk are then secured to the sakra with plugs (also often ornamented). The Italian explorer Antonio Pigafetta who accompanied Ferdinand Magellan in the first circumnavigation of the globe describes the practice as such:[8][9][10][11][12]

The males, both large and small, have the head of their member pierced from one side to the other, with a pin of gold or of tin as thick as a goose feather, and at each end of this pin some have a star-shaped decoration like a button, and others, one like the head of a cart nail… In the middle of this pin or tube is a hole through which they urinate, and the pin and the stars always remain firm, holding the member stiff.

— Antonio Pigafetta, Relazione del primo viaggio intorno al mondo (1550-1559), [10]

The anonymously-written Boxer Codex (c.1590s) also has a similar description:

Two holes are fashioned in the round part of the hoop or ring, one on the top and the other on the bottom, through which a small bolt or pin made of the same metal as the ring is inserted and which is then thrust through the man’s member as the base of his foreskin. And thus the hoop or ring (sakra) is worn on the genital member itself in the same way a ring is worn on a finger.

— Unknown, Boxer Codex (c.1590s), [10]

These piercings were done to boys at an early age. They were meant to enhance sensation and pleasure during sexual activity for both men and women. Notably, Pigafetta describes that it was the women who controlled how the penis with the sakra is inserted. Men without penile piercings were reported to be derided by women as asog ("impotent" or "effeminate"). The practice was heavily suppressed by the Spanish clergy and eventually lost during the Spanish colonial period of the Philippines, as it was considered by the Spanish clergy to be a "sin of the flesh."[8][10][9][13][14][11]

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Indian Fakirs, one of them wearing a big piece of jewelry through an ampallang piercing, 1870–1880
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Two Kenyah-Dajaks, both with barbell-style studs in ampallang piercings – Borneo, 1920

The ampallang, a similar piercing (which also passes horizontally through the glans, but differs in that it is not attached to a ring), is found in different tribes throughout Sarawak and Sabah on the island of Borneo. Genital piercings became first introduced in western countries by ethnographic report, done by explorers such as in the 19th century. The Dutch explorer Anton Willem Nieuwenhuis described in his ethnographic record In Centraal Borneo: reis van Pontianak naar Samarinda – documenting his travel through Borneo in 1897 – the procedure of an ampallang piercing:

″The young men through the tattoo, because it is performed by them only to a limited extent, much less than women to suffer for it but they must in order to gain their full manhood, subject of another test, namely the through-hole the glans penis. This operation procedure is as follows: First, the glans made anemic by pressing between the two arms of a folded over strip of bamboo. At each of these arms are opposite each other where needed openings through which one after the round pressed glans become less sensitive to an acute kapfernen pin; formerly was used for this purpose a pointed bamboo sticks. The bamboo and the clamp is removed by means of a cord attached to pin left in the opening until the channel is healed. Later, the copper pin (utang) by another, usually through a tin, replaced, which is worn at all times, making only heavy work or strenuous operations of the metal pin a wooden square. Particularly brave men enjoy with the chief's prerogative to be allowed to wear the penis a ring in the scales of the pangolin cut and blunt teeth is occupied; sometimes they can also be crossed with the first channel, a second by the glans . Drill In addition to the Kayan themselves, engage in many Malays from the upper Kapuas this art. The pain during surgery do not seem to be very violent, and it has only rarely serious consequences, although until recovery can often take a month.″[15]Anton Willem Nieuwenhuis

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Modern: Genital piercings have become increasingly popular since the start of the 21st century:[16][17] woman with a vertical clitoral hood piercing, man with a Prince Albert piercing

Piercing the genitals became a short-lived trend at the end of the 19th century, in particular for upper classes of the society: "It was during the Victorian era that the practice of body piercing in the Western world reemerged. Many men and women of the Victorian royalty chose to receive nipple and genital piercings.″[18]

However, the popularity diminished again, with genital piercings becoming rather uncommon in the western world until the second half of the 20th century. In the 1970s, they were introduced to the emerging body modification community by the early piercings pioneers like Jim Ward and Doug Malloy, many of them associated with the legendary piercing studio The Gauntlet in Los Angeles. With the advent of Piercing Fans International Quarterly in 1977, information about genital piercings became available to a wider community. Genital piercings were later sported by the modern primitives movement that developed during the 1980s in the San Francisco Bay Area. Still, only until the 21st century, genital piercing was confined to a body modification subculture.

Just like nipple piercings,[19] genital piercings became increasingly more popular and part of mainstream culture in the second decade of the 21st century, with ″nice and normal″ people endorsing them.[20] Many celebrities such as Christina Aguilera,[21] Fantasia Barrino,[22] Pete Doherty,[23] Janet Jackson,[24] Lenny Kravitz,[25] Katarina Waters,[26] or Pete Wentz,[27] stated that they had or planned to have genital piercings. Genital piercings nowadays have a growing demand, especially in a young adult, college-aged population.[16][28][29]

With regard to (female) genital piercings, Marilyn W. Edmunds, adjunct clinical professor at the Johns Hopkins University, stated, "Women with genital piercings are no longer on the social fringe or part of the 'punk' culture who are experimenting with behaviors that are 'socially provocative.' Over the past 30 years, genital piercing has become mainstream, and women engage in it for a variety of reasons.″[30]

However, according to Chelsea Bunz, professional piercer from UK, the clearly existing rise in popularity might as well be an effect of more people openly talking about their genital piercings: ″I think genital piercing has always been popular – it's just discussed more openly these days, which makes it increasingly acceptable to the mainstream. People from all classes and professions have them (...).″[31]

Motives[edit]

Like body piercings at large, genital piercings are often done for aesthetic reasons and as an expression of personal style. In addition, some (but not all) types of genital piercing increase sensitivity and provide additional stimulation during sexual intercourse or stimulation. According to an Association of Professional Piercers expert report by Elayne Angel, body piercing pioneer, former member of The Gauntlet and inventor of several genital piercings such as the fourchette and the lorum, individual motives and preferences are quite diverse:

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Left: With only minor additional stimulation, the Christina piercing is primarily done for aesthetic reasons. Right: Beyond aesthetics, the Apadravya can enhance sexual stimulation for both partners.

"Many adults are interested in genital piercing but aren’t really sure which of the many options to select. They want to know which is the “best piercing” but there is no “one-piercing-fits-all” answer. It depends on many factors and highly individual desires and preferences (without even bringing individual anatomy in to the discussion yet). For some clients the most important aspect is that the piercing pleases their partner. Others have the priority of increasing their own sensation in a particular area or manner. Some want the one that will show the most, others to heal the fastest, yet others want one that is least likely to bleed! And on it goes. You will need to interview each client to determine the specific motivations and expectations for genital piercings. Inquire about which piercing(s) are of interest—and why? Is stimulation or aesthetics a primary motivation? Is the stimulation important more for the piercee, or does the piercee desire that sensation more for his/her partner? Then there are deeper specifics to probe (pardon the expression) such as whether the goal is increased sensation during penetration, or enhanced clitoral stimulation.[...]″[32] -– Elayne Angel

Aesthetic reasons[edit]

Motivation can be restricted purely to aesthetic taste. Like all other types of body piercing, genital piercings are decorative, appealing to the people wearing them. Violet Fenn of Metro stated, "For me personally, it was sheer aesthetics – I just like how it looks. Even if I was the only person who ever saw my piercing, I’d like it in the same way that I like having painted toenails – something pretty for my own personal pleasure.″[31]

Culture and life style[edit]

Traditional cultures[edit]

In many traditional cultures, these piercings are done as a rite of passage during adolescence and, symbolically and literally, mark the admittance to the adult world and serve as a marker of cultural identity. Similar to religiously motivated circumcision, it may be regarded as a "purification of the flesh" and a common bodily sign to members of the same faith. These traditional meanings of modifying the body were revived in contemporary western society by the modern primitive. Inspired by ethnographic accounts of tribal practices, this subculture adopted genital piercings as a matter of individuation and spirituality.[33]

Contemporary western society[edit]

For most people that seek genital piercings nowaday, a sense of uniqueness and non-conformism prevails.[34] In a 2015 study that evaluated a qualitative dataset of 484 self-reports and characteristics of men and women with genital piercings came to the conclusion that:

″Although in and of themselves, none of these findings necessarily indicates that genital piercings reinforce and validate traditional gender and sexual norms, collectively, our interpretation of these findings does seem to lean in that direction and, at minimum, provides little reason to believe that genital piercings offer any kind of resistance to these norms. Thus, while not automatically discounting the findings and arguments of prior research, we speculate that perhaps the social and cultural meanings of genital piercings have changed so that while at an earlier time, persons with genital piercings may have indeed perceived their piercings as being markers of resistance or as signs of individuality or of subcultural identity, today, genital piercings are, by and large, just another mainstream and fairly conventional type of body decoration and adornment. [...] Our research does appear consistent with the possibility that genital piercings are well on their way toward both popular and fashionable acceptance.″[35] – Jeremy N. Thomas, Professor of Sociology

Enhanced pleasure and sensation[edit]

Additionally, genital piercings can enhance sexual pleasure during masturbation, foreplay and intercourse. While female genital piercings do this only to the women wearing them, male genital piercings can enhance stimulation for both the person wearing the jewelry and their partner by stimulating both the glans of the wearer and the vaginal wall or the anus of the penetrated partner. Due to genital physiology, women seem to gain more sexual pleasure from both, their own as well as her partner's genital piercings.

For the sexual partner[edit]

This effect is in particular reported for piercings passing through the glans penis: the ampallang and apadravya piercing. Women of the Dayak in Sarawak, Borneo prefer men with an ampallang, claiming that intercourse without would be dull:

Historic photograph of a Dayak with ampallang piercing (top), detailed view of traditional jewelry (bottom)

Paolo Mantegazza stated, ″The Dayak women have a right to insist upon the ampallang and if the man does not consent they may seek separation. They say that the embrace without this contrivance is plain rice; with it is rice with salt."[36] On another account by the anthropologist Tom Harrisson, who spent much of his life in Borneo and interviewed natives about the traditional ampallang; he stated, "the function of this device is, superficially, to add to the sexual pleasure of the women by stimulating and extending the inner walls of the vagina. It is, in this, in my experience, decidedly successful."[37]

For the pierced person[edit]

For men, piercings that stimulate the sensitive urethra, either during masturbation or sexual intercourse, increase sensation.[2] Female genital piercings that are reported to enhance pleasure are the piercings that pass through or close to the clitoris, i.e. the clitoris piercing and the clitoral hood piercing.[1] In an empirical study at the University of South Alabama, the authors reported a positive relationship between vertical clitoral hood piercings and desire, frequency of intercourse, and sexual arousal.[38] However, this might depend on many factors such as placement, jewelry shape, and the individual. The triangle piercing is known to be quite pleasurable by providing stimulation of the underside of the clitoral glans, an area that is usually not stimulated at all.[39]

Potential health risks[edit]

Comparable to other piercings, improper hygiene during the piercings process carries the risk of transmitting blood borne diseases and during the healing process it might lead to infection.

Some physicians believe that male genital piercings increase the risk of STD transmission by making safer sex barriers (condoms) less effective.[40][41][42] Most professional piercers and body art enthusiasts believe these risks are over-stated or nonexistent. In two surveys, 5%–18% of men with genital piercings reported unspecified "problems using condoms" though it is unclear how many of these men used condoms regularly.[43] There is no conclusive evidence that wearers of genital piercings are more likely to contract sexually transmitted infections.[43]

Aftercare[edit]

The time to fully heal a genital piercing varies tremendously, depending on piercing site and individual characteristics: it can range from a week up to six months. Until fully healed, preparations should be made against possible causes of infection, such as proper cleaning on a daily basis. People with fresh piercings should abstain from sexual activity for the first few days and also then should use physical protection barriers such as condoms until the piercing is fully healed.

Legal considerations[edit]

Laws in other countries vary. In many European countries, minors are required to bring a signed consent form from or to be escorted by a legal guardian. Even in countries that have no laws regulating genital piercing in minors, many piercers refrain from doing them (since physiological development is not completed in minors). In the United States, it is prohibited to pierce the genitals of persons younger than 18 years.

Types of genital piercings[edit]

Male genital piercings[edit]

Possible piercing sites on the male genitalia include the glans, the skin of the penis shaft, the scrotum or the perineum.

Glans penis[edit]

Piercings through the glans of the penis include the ampallang, which passes horizontally, and the apadravya, that passes vertically through the glans. The Prince Albert piercing is situated on the ventral side (underside) of the penis immediately behind the glans, while the reverse Prince Albert piercing passes through the dorsal (top) side of the glans. The dydoe pierces through the coronal rim of the glans. With the exception of the dydoe, all these piercings traditionally pass through the urethra. This is preferred because healing time and incidence of infection are reduced by the flow of sterile urine.[44]

These piercings provide increased stimulation during intercourse to the male (who is carrying the piercing) as well as to the partner. Piercings through the head, or the glans, are the genital piercings with the best-documented historical evidence.[45]

Skin of the penis shaft and scrotum[edit]

Foreskin piercing passes through the penile prepuce on the dorsal, ventral or lateral side. It is required that the male isn't circumcised. The frenum piercing passes through the penile frenum, a small skin bridge that connects the glans with the shaft skin. This anatomical part is also often missing in circumcised men. The hafada piercing is situated on the skin of the scrotum. As an intermediate version between frenulum and hafada, the lorum piercing (low frenum) sits at the point where penis and scrotum connect. The Jacob's Ladder is a ladder from frenum to scrotum. The guiche piercing is a body piercing on the perineum. These piercings play a lesser role in adding stimulation and more or less fulfill only a decorative purpose.

Female genital piercings[edit]

In female individuals as well, various anatomical parts can be suitable for piercings. These include the mons pubis, the clitoral hood, the (inner and outer) labia and the vulval vestibule (which is the area surrounding the vaginal opening).

Clitoris and clitoral hood[edit]

The glans of the clitoris itself can be pierced. Since this anatomical part is too small in many cases, this piercing is not very common. In contrast, the clitoral hood piercing is the most common genital piercing for female bodied individuals. It can be applied horizontally and vertically. The deep hood piercing is a variation of the clitoral hood piercing that pass deeper through the clitoral hood. The Isabella piercing passes vertically through the clitoral shaft and is rather complicated to pierce.

Labia and vulval vestibule[edit]

Labia piercing can be applied to the labia majora or the labia minora. The triangle piercing is located at the ventral end of the labia minora, at the point of transition between labia and clitoral hood. It runs horizontally, partly under the clitoral shaft. The fourchette piercing passes through the dorsal rim of the vulval vestibule. A less common version of the fourchette piercing is the suitcase piercing which can be considered as a deeper version of the fourchette because it enters through the perineum. Also rather uncommon is the Princess Albertina piercing, the female version of the Prince Albert piercing, that passes through the ventral (lower) wall of the urethra.

Mons pubis[edit]

The Christina piercing is a surface piercing, situated on the upper part of the mons pubis where the outer labia meet. It is similar to the Nefertiti piercing, that can be seen as a combination between vertical clitoral hood piercing and Christina piercing.

Unisex genital piercings[edit]

Body piercings that do not involve perforation of genitalia but referred to as "genital piercings" by convention can be worn by all sexes. These include the pubic piercing, which is situated above the penis in males and on the mons pubic in females (comparable to the Christina piercing, but horizontally). The guiche piercing passes horizontally through the perineum while the anal piercing passes through the anus.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b Page, Danielle (25 April 2015). "How A Clit Piercing Affects Your Sex Life". Bustle. Retrieved 2018-03-29.
  2. ^ a b Hogan; Rinard, K.; Young, C.; Roberts, A.; Armstrong, M.; Nelius, T. (2010). "A cross-sectional study of men with genital piercings" (PDF). British Journal of Medical Practitioners. 3 (2): 315–322.
  3. ^ Van der Meer, G.; Schultz, W. W.; et al. (2008). "Intimate body piercings in women". Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology. 29 (4): 235–239. doi:10.1080/01674820802621874. PMID 19065394. S2CID 31807575.
  4. ^ a b c Brown, Donald E.; Edwards, James W.; Moore, Ruth (1988). The Penis Inserts of Southeast Asia: An Annotated Bibliography with an Overview and Comparative Perspectives. Berkeley: Center for South and Southeast Asia Studies, University of California. ISBN 9780944613054.
  5. ^ Henley, David; Porath, Nathan (3 April 2021). "Body Modification in East Asia: History and Debates". Asian Studies Review. 45 (2): 198–216. doi:10.1080/10357823.2020.1849026.
  6. ^ Hull, Terence H.; Budiharsana, Meiwita (1 January 2001). "Male circumcision and penis enhancement in Southeast Asia: Matters of pain and pleasure". Reproductive Health Matters. 9 (18): 60–67. doi:10.1016/s0968-8080(01)90091-6.
  7. ^ Bekman, Stas. "8.2 The Apadravya In The Kama Sutra". stason.org.
  8. ^ a b c Scott, William Henry (1994). Barangay: Sixteenth-century Philippine Culture and Society. Ateneo University Press. pp. 20–27. ISBN 9789715501354.
  9. ^ a b Harrisson, Tom (November 1964). "The "PALANG", its History and Proto-History in West Borneo and the Philippines". Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 37 (2 (206)): 162–174.
  10. ^ a b c d De Leon, Jay Israel (2017). "Penis Piercing and the Status of Women in Pre-colonial Visayan Societies". Hulagway: Paglikha ng Imaheng Pilipino sa Timog-Silangang Asya. UUP Lipunang Pangkasaysayan. Retrieved 10 May 2022.
  11. ^ a b Umali, Justin (3 March 2020). "High Culture: The Visayans Before Spanish Colonization Were Badasses". Esquire. Retrieved 26 July 2021.
  12. ^ "Did You Know That". Sun Star Cebu. 23 July 2013. Retrieved 12 May 2022.
  13. ^ Jocano, F. Landa (1958). "The Sulod: A Mountain People In Central Panay, Philippines". Philippine Studies. 6 (4): 401–436. JSTOR 42720408.
  14. ^ Junker, Laura L. (1999). Raiding, Trading, and Feasting: The Political Economy of Philippine Chiefdoms. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 9780824864064.
  15. ^ "Apadravya Piercing". Body-modification.com. 22 November 2010. Archived from the original on 15 January 2012.
  16. ^ a b Kasten 2007, pp. 489–500.
  17. ^ "FORUM Sexualaufklärung und Familienplanung". forum.sexualaufklaerung.de. Intimmodifikationen bei Jugendlichen
  18. ^ Larkin, B. G. (2004). "The ins and outs of body piercing". AORN Journal. 79 (2): 330–342. doi:10.1016/S0001-2092(06)60609-1. PMID 15002830.
  19. ^ Free the Nipple Ring! Why One Vogue Writer Got Pierced - Vogue
  20. ^ Nice, Normal Girls Don't Get Their Genitals Pierced - Vice Magazine
  21. ^ "Female body piercing". Body Jewelry Guide.
  22. ^ Fantasia’s Pierced Down There Archived 2017-08-29 at the Wayback Machine - Socialite Life
  23. ^ Pete Doherty's penis piercing - Female First
  24. ^ "Janet Jackson's Interview With Vibe Vixen". Brown Sista (blog). 28 March 2007. Archived from the original on 18 October 2008.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  25. ^ Brodsky, Rachel (8 August 2015). "Lenny Kravitz's Penis Piercer Is Proud to See Her Work 'Still Alive and Kicking'". Spin.
  26. ^ "Piercing genital de Karina Bacchi na Playboy causa polêmica". Terra. 6 December 2006. Archived from the original on 27 December 2016.
  27. ^ Timaya, Andrew (19 December 2016). "Top 13 celebrities with piercings in unusual places". Legit.ng. Nigeria.
  28. ^ Genital piercing increasing among Kumasi youth - Ghanaweb
  29. ^ Angel, Elayne (Winter 2004). "VCH Piercings" (PDF). The Point: The Official Newsletter of The Association of Professional Piercers. No. 31. pp. 16–17. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 November 2011.
  30. ^ Edmunds, Marilyn W. (23 March 2010). "Why Women Choose Genital Piercing". Medscape. Retrieved 2018-03-29.
  31. ^ a b Fenn, Violet (14 March 2017). "Why genital piercings aren't as scary as you think". Metro. Retrieved 2018-03-29.
  32. ^ Angel, Elayne. "An Approach to Genital Piercings" (PDF). The Point. No. 40. p. 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 November 2018.
  33. ^ Lane, David C. (2017). "Understanding body modification: A process-based framework". Sociology Compass. 11 (7): e12495. doi:10.1111/soc4.12495. ISSN 1751-9020.
  34. ^ Gallagher, Ray (26 February 2016). "What It's Like To Get An Intimate Piercing". Bustle. Retrieved 2018-03-29.
  35. ^ Thomas, Jeremy N.; Crosby, Lauren; Milford, Jessica (2015). "Gender Differences among Self-Reported Genital Piercing Stories". Deviant Behavior. 36 (6): 441–462. doi:10.1080/01639625.2014.944062. ISSN 0163-9625. S2CID 144501650.
  36. ^ Mantegazza, Paolo (2001) [1935]. The Sexual Relations of Mankind. Translated by Samuel Putnam. The Minerva Group, Inc. ISBN 978-0-89875-411-7.
  37. ^ Rowanchilde, Raven (1996). "Male genital modification". Human Nature. 7 (2): 189–215. doi:10.1007/BF02692110. ISSN 1045-6767. PMID 24203319. S2CID 206820828.
  38. ^ Millner, Vaughn S.; Eichold, Bernard H.; Sharpe, Thomasina H.; Lynn, Sherwood C. (2005). "First glimpse of the functional benefits of clitoral hood piercings". American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 193 (3): 675–676. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2005.02.130. ISSN 0002-9378. PMID 16150259.
  39. ^ Alexander, Brian (4 December 2007). "Can selfish lovers ever give as good as they get?". msnbc.com. Retrieved 2018-03-29.
  40. ^ Stirn, Aglaja (2003). "Body piercing: medical consequences and psychological motivations". The Lancet. 361 (9364): 1205–1215. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)12955-8. ISSN 0140-6736. PMID 12686054. S2CID 44892866.
  41. ^ Gokhale, R. (2001). "Genital piercing and sexually transmitted infections". Sexually Transmitted Infections. 77 (5): 393–a–394. doi:10.1136/sti.77.5.393-a. ISSN 1368-4973. PMC 1744390. PMID 11588299.
  42. ^ Tampa, Mircea; Sarbu, Maria Isabela; Limbau, Alexandra; Costescu, Monica; Benea, Vasile; Georgescu, Simona Roxana (2015). "Genital Male Piercings". Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences. 2 (1). Retrieved 2018-03-29.
  43. ^ a b Nelius, Thomas; Armstrong, Myrna L.; Rinard, Katherine; Young, Cathy; Hogan, LaMicha; Angel, Elayne (2011). "Genital Piercings: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Implications for Urologists". Urology. 78 (5): 998–1007. doi:10.1016/j.urology.2011.05.066. ISSN 0090-4295. PMID 22054364.
  44. ^ "Introduction to Male Genital Piercings". Archived from the original on 2014-09-01. Retrieved 2013-06-14.
  45. ^ The Point Archived 2012-03-25 at the Wayback Machine - An Approach to Genital Piercings Part 5

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]

General information[edit]