Glycogen storage disease

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Glycogen storage disease
Synonyms Gycogenosis, dextrinosis
Glycogen.svg
Glycogen
Specialty endocrinology

A Glycogen storage disease (GSD, also glycogenosis and dextrinosis) is a metabolic disorder caused by enzyme deficiencies affecting either glycogen synthesis, glycogen breakdown or glycolysis (glucose breakdown), typically within muscles and/or liver cells.[citation needed]

GSD has two classes of cause: genetic and acquired. Genetic GSD is caused by any inborn error of metabolism (genetically defective enzymes) involved in these processes. In livestock, acquired GSD is caused by intoxication with the alkaloid castanospermine.[1]

Types[edit]

Type
(Eponym)
Enzyme deficiency
(Gene[2])
Incidence (births) Hypo-
glycemia
?
Hepato-
megaly
?
Hyperlip-
idemia
?
Muscle symptoms Development/ prognosis Other symptoms
GSD 0 Glycogen synthase
(GYS2)
 ? Yes No No Occasional muscle cramping Growth failure in some cases
GSD I / GSD 1
(von Gierke's disease)
Glucose-6-phosphatase
(G6PC / SLC37A4)
1 in 50,000 – 100,000[3][4] Yes Yes Yes None Growth failure Lactic acidosis, hyperuricemia
GSD II / GSD 2
(Pompe's disease )
Acid alpha-glucosidase
(GAA)
1 in 40,000 – 50,000.[5][6] No Yes No Muscle weakness *Death by age ~2 years (infantile variant) Heart failure
GSD III / GSD 3
(Cori's disease or Forbes' disease)
Glycogen debranching enzyme
(AGL)
1 in 100,000 Yes Yes Yes Myopathy
GSD IV / GSD 4
(Andersen disease)
Glycogen branching enzyme
(GBE1)
1 in 500,000[6] No Yes,
also
cirrhosis
No None Failure to thrive, death at age ~5 years
GSD V / GSD 5
(McArdle disease)
Muscle glycogen phosphorylase
(PYGM)
1 in 100,000 – 500,000[7][6] No No No Exercise-induced cramps, Rhabdomyolysis Renal failure by myoglobinuria, second wind phenomenon
GSD VI / GSD 6
(Hers' disease)
Liver glycogen phosphorylase
(PYGL)
Muscle phosphoglycerate mutase
(PGAM2)
1 in 65,000 – 85,000[8] Yes Yes Yes [9] None initially benign, growth retardation follows.
GSD VII / GSD 7
(Tarui's disease)
Muscle phosphofructokinase
(PKFM)
1 in 1,000,000[10] No No No Exercise-induced muscle cramps and weakness growth retardation In some haemolytic anaemia
GSD IX / GSD 9 Phosphorylase kinase
(PHKA2 / PHKB / PHKG2 / PHKA1)
 ? Yes Yes Yes None Delayed motor development, Growth retardation
GSD X / GSD 10 Enolase 3
(ENO3)
 ?  ?  ?  ?
GSD XI / GSD 11 Muscle lactate dehydrogenase
(LDHA)
 ?  ?  ?  ?
Fanconi-Bickel syndrome
formerly GSD XI / GSD 11, no longer considered a GSD
Glucose transporter
(GLUT2)
 ? Yes Yes No None
GSD XII / GSD 12
(Aldolase A deficiency)
Aldolase A
(ALDOA)
 ?  ? In some  ? Exercise intolerance, cramps. In some Rhabdomyolysis. Hemolytic anemia and other symptoms
GSD XIII / GSD 13 β-enolase
(ENO3)
 ?  ?  ?  ? Exercise intolerance, cramps Increasing intensity of myalgias over decades[11] Serum CK: Episodic elevations; Reduced with rest[11]
GSD XV / GSD 15 Glycogenin-1
(GYG1)
Rare[12] No No No Muscle atropy Slowly progressive weakness over decades None

Remarks:

  • Some GSDs have different forms, e.g. infantile, juvenile, adult (late-onset).
  • Some GSDs have different subtypes, e.g. GSD1a / GSD1b, GSD9A1 / GSD9A2 / GSD9B / GSD9C / GSD9D.[2]
  • GSD type 0: Although glycogen synthase deficiency does not result in storage of extra glycogen in the liver, it is often classified with the GSDs as type 0 because it is another defect of glycogen storage and can cause similar problems.
  • GSD type VIII (GSD 8): In the past it was considered a distinct condition,[13] however it is now classified with GSD type VI[14] or GSD IXa1;[15] it has been described as X-linked recessive inherited.[16]
  • GSD type XI (GSD 11): Fanconi-Bickel syndrome, hepatorenal glycogenosis with renal Fanconi syndrome, no longer considered a glycogen storage disease.[2]
  • GSD type XIV (GSD 14): Now classed as Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 1 (CDG1T), affects the phosphoglucomutase enzyme (gene PGM1).[2]
  • Lafora disease is considered a complex neurodegenerative disease and also a glycogen metabolism disorder.[17]

Diagnosis[edit]

Micrograph of glycogen storage disease with histologic features consistent with Cori disease. Liver biopsy. H&E stain.

Treatment[edit]

Treatment is depended on the type of glycogen storage disease. E.g. GSD I is typically treated with frequent small meals of carbohydrates and cornstarch to prevent low blood sugar, while other treatments may include allopurinol and human granulocyte colony stimulating factor.[18]

Epidemiology[edit]

Overall, according to a study in British Columbia, approximately 2.3 children per 100,000 births (1 in 43,000) have some form of glycogen storage disease.[19] In the United States, they are estimated to occur in 1 per 20,000–25,000 births.[3] Dutch incidence rate is estimated to be 1 per 40,000 births.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stegelmeier BL, Molyneux RJ, Elbein AD, James LF (May 1995). "The lesions of locoweed (Astragalus mollissimus), swainsonine, and castanospermine in rats". Veterinary Pathology. 32 (3): 289–98. doi:10.1177/030098589503200311. PMID 7604496. 
  2. ^ a b c d Glycogen Metabolism themedicalbiochemistrypage.org
  3. ^ a b eMedicine Specialties > Glycogen-Storage Disease Type I Author: Karl S Roth. Updated: Aug 31, 2009
  4. ^ The Association for Glycogen Storage Disease > Type I Glycogen Storage Disease Type I GSD Archived 2010-08-03 at the Wayback Machine. October 2006.
  5. ^ Ausems MG, Verbiest J, Hermans MP, et al. (September 1999). "Frequency of glycogen storage disease type II in The Netherlands: implications for diagnosis and genetic counselling". Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 7 (6): 713–716. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5200367. PMID 10482961. 
  6. ^ a b c [1]
  7. ^ http://mcardlesdisease.org/
  8. ^ eMedicine Specialties > Pediatrics: Genetics and Metabolic Disease > Metabolic Diseases > Glycogen-Storage Disease Type VI Author: Lynne Ierardi-Curto, MD, PhD. Updated: Aug 4, 2008
  9. ^ Goldman, Lee; Schafer, Andrew (2012). Goldman's Cecil medicine (24th ed.). Philadelphia: Elsevier/Saunders. p. 1356. ISBN 978-1-4377-1604-7. 
  10. ^ "Rare Disease Database". Orpha.net. Retrieved 2015-09-20. 
  11. ^ a b http://neuromuscular.wustl.edu/msys/glycogen.html#enolase
  12. ^ Malfatti E, Nilsson J, Hedberg-Oldfors C, Hernandez-Lain A, Michel F, Dominguez-Gonzalez C, Viennet G, Akman HO, Kornblum C, Van den Bergh P, Romero NB, Engel AG, DiMauro S, Oldfors A (2014) A new muscle glycogen storage disease associated with glycogenin-1 deficiency. Ann Neurol 76(6):891-898
  13. ^ Ludwig M, Wolfson S, Rennert O (October 1972). "Glycogen storage disease, type 8". Arch. Dis. Child. 47 (255): 830–833. doi:10.1136/adc.47.255.830. PMC 1648209Freely accessible. PMID 4508182. 
  14. ^ "Glycogen-Storage Disease Type VI : Article by Lynne Ierardi-Curto". eMedicine. 
  15. ^ [https://www.omim.org/entry/306000 GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE IXa1; GSD9A1] OMIM - Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man
  16. ^ "Definition: glycogen storage disease type VIII from Online Medical Dictionary". 
  17. ^ Ortolano S, Vieitez I et al. Loss of cortical neurons underlies the neuropathology of Lafora disease. Mol Brain 2014;7:7 PMC 3917365
  18. ^ "Glycogen Storage Disease Type I - NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders)". NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders). Retrieved 23 March 2017. 
  19. ^ Applegarth DA, Toone JR, Lowry RB (January 2000). "Incidence of inborn errors of metabolism in British Columbia, 1969–1996". Pediatrics. 105 (1): e10. doi:10.1542/peds.105.1.e10. PMID 10617747. 

External links[edit]

Classification
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