Grand Orient of Italy
|Type||Freemasonic Grand Lodge|
Via San Pancrazio 8,
The Grand Orient of Italy (GOI) (Italian: Grande Oriente d'Italia) is an Italian masonic grand lodge founded in 1805; the viceroy Eugene of Beauharnais was instrumental in its establishment. It was based at the Palazzo Giustiniani, Rome, Italy from 1901 until 1985 and is now located at the Villa del Vascello. Its current Grand Master is Italian journalist Stefano Bisi.
The international influence of the Grand Orient has decreased since it lost the official recognition of the "Home Grand Lodges" (of England, Ireland, and Scotland) owing to alleged corruption, although it remains regular in government and practice.
Past Grand Masters included:
- Giuseppe Garibaldi,
- Adriano Lemmi,
- Sculptor Ettore Ferrari,
- Mayor of Rome Ernesto Nathan
Recognition by the United Grand Lodge of England (UGLE) is a key factor in maintaining the status of a Regular Masonic jurisdiction. The Grand Orient of Italy was once a significant player within international Freemasonry, and in 1972 it was recognised as regular by the UGLE. However, this recognition was withdrawn in 1993, due to accusations of corruption and Mafia involvement. Today the Regular Grand Lodge of Italy is the only Italian Grand Lodge recognized by the UGLE, or the other home constitutions of Ireland and Scotland. However, the Grand Orient is fully recognised by a large majority of the other regular masonic jurisdictions, both in Europe and worldwide.
This situation is highly unusual, in that most regular authorities recognise the Grand Orient, but its status is complicated by the lack of recognition from the three most senior jurisdictions, which normally give a lead in terms of international recognition. To further complicate the situation, the United Grand Lodge of England has publicly stated that the Grand Orient of Italy is regular in both origins and practices, but that it must remain unrecognised due to the issues surrounding alleged corruption.
Propaganda Due, the lodge that investigative journalists have identified as being implicated in the murder of Roberto Calvi, was originally chartered by the Grand Orient, although the Grand Orient revoked its charter in 1974.
List of Grand Masters
Prior to Gustavo Raffi's grand mastership two terms of five years was the maximum tenure for a grand master. This, however was changed during Raffi's time, and his three-term grand mastership which began in 1999 ended in 2014.
|1||Eugène de Beauharnais
|1805||1814||Paris, France||Viceroy of Italy (1805–1814)|
|20 December 1859||20 May 1860 †||Genoa, Piedmont-Sardinia||Patriot|
|21 May 1860||3 October 1861||Bologna, Papal States||Naturalist, patriot|
|8 October 1861||31 January 1862||Castelnuovo, Piedmont-Sardinia||Italy Ambassador to Austria-Hungary (1885–1887)|
|1 March 1862||6 August 1863||Aidone, Kingdom of Naples||Minister of Justice (1862)|
|6 August 1863||24 May 1864||Palestro, Lombardy-Venetia||Teacher|
|24 May 1864||8 August 1864||Nice, Piedmont-Sardinia||Member of the Chamber of Deputies (1861–1882)|
|8||Francesco De Luca
|September 1864||20 June 1867||Cardinale, Kingdom of Naples||Member of the Chamber of Deputies (1861–1874)|
|21 June 1867||2 August 1867||Aidone, Kingdom of Naples||Minister of Justice (1867)|
|2 August 1867||7 September 1870||Milan, Lombardy-Venetia||Member of the Chamber of Deputies (1860–1874)|
|7 September 1870||11 May 1880 †||Prato, Tuscany||Founder of P2; Senator of the Kingdom (1876–1880)|
|12 May 1880||16 January 1885||Bologna, Papal States||Lawyer|
|17 January 1885||31 May 1896||Livorno, Tuscany||Banker, businessman|
|1 June 1896||14 February 1904||London, UK||Co-founder of Dante Alighieri Society; later Mayor of Rome (1907–1913)|
|15 February 1904||25 November 1917||Rome, Papal States||Sculptor|
|26 November 1917||22 June 1919||London, UK||Co-founder of Dante Alighieri Society; later Mayor of Rome (1907–1913)|
|23 June 1919||23 aprile 1927||Lamporecchio, Italy||Lawyer|
|12 January 1930||22 June 1930 †||Milan, Italy||Member of the Chamber of Deputies (1904–1929)|
|23 June 1930||29 November 1931||Naples, Italy||Member of the Chamber of Deputies (1913–1929)|
|32 August 1932||19 August 1940 †||Livorno, Italy||Surgeon|
|17||Davide Augusto Albarin
|19 August 1940||10 June 1944||Paris, French Empire||Anti-fascist activist|
|18 September 1945||5 November 1948 †||Messina, Italy||Journalist, politician|
|19 March 1949||21 April 1953 †||Bologna, Italy||Lawyer|
|4 October 1953||27 September 1956||Rome, Italy||Businessman, engineer|
|30 November 1957||28 May 1960 †||Lanciano, Italy||Lawyer|
|29 May 1960||28 April 1961||Villar Pellice, Italy||Surgeon|
|17 July 1961||21 March 1970||Ravenna, Italy||Writer, politician|
|22 March 1970||18 November 1978||Florence, Italy||Writer, politician|
|18 November 1978||27 March 1982||Urbino, Italy||Businessman, military officer|
|28 March 1982||10 March 1990||Villaputzu, Italy||Businessman, politician|
|27||Giuliano Di Bernardo
|11 March 1990||16 April 1993||Penne, Italy||Philosopher, writer|
|18 December 1993||21 March 1999||Naples, Italy||Lawyer|
|21 March 1999||6 April 2014||Bagnacavallo, Italy||Lawyer|
|6 April 2014||Incumbent||Siena, Italy||Journalist, writer|
- "Nel 1805 fu costituito il Grande Oriente d’Italia." Tran. "In 1805 the Grand Orient of Italy was founded." La storia 1805-1860 Archived 2007-12-20 at the Wayback Machine., from the GOI Official website
- Headquarters detailed.
- See section "Government", on GOI about us page.
- See Members & Lodges.
- Ponziano, Giorgio (March 30, 2012). "Tremila massoni al Palacongresso" [Three thousand Masons at Palacongresso]. Italia Oggi (in Italian). Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved June 11, 2012.
- Garibaldi — the mason Translated from Giuseppe Garibaldi Massone by the Grand Orient of Italy
- Entry “Giuseppe Mazzini” in Volume III K – P of 10,000 Famous Freemasons, William R. Denslow, 1957, Macoy Publishing & Masonic Supply Co., Inc.
- Ernesto Nathan Archived 2011-05-24 at the Wayback Machine., Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
- Centuries of Secrecy, Time, June 8, 1981
- What was the P2 Lodge?, Anti-masonry Frequently Asked Questions, Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-12-05. Retrieved 2012-12-05. UGLE: Recognised Grand Lodges in Europe
- "Grand Lodge of Albania is recognised". United Grand Lodge of England. Retrieved 3 April 2018.
UGLE...has publicly stated that it accepts the Grand Orient’s regularity of origin...
- Enrico Simoni, Bibliografia della Massoneria in Italia, Foggia, Edizioni Bastogi, 1° volume 1992 (3471 schede), 2° volume 1993 (indici sistematici degli articoli delle Riviste massoniche del dopoguerra; 3762 schede), 1° volume di aggiornamento 1997 (schede da 3472 a 4584), 3° volume 2006 (indici sistematici degli articoli della "Rivista della Massoneria Italiana" e della "Rivista Massonica"; 1870-1926; 6478 schede), 2° volume di aggiornamento 2010 (schede da 4585 a 6648)