Chloris (bird)

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Chloris
European Greenfinch male female.jpg
European Greenfinch (Chloris chloris) Male above, female below
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Fringillidae
Subfamily: Carduelinae
Genus: Chloris
Cuvier, 1800
Species

See text

Synonyms

Chloris Cuvier, 1800 (but see text)
Chloris C.L.Brehm, 1856 (non Cuvier, 1800: preoccupied)
Chloris A.E.Brehm, 1857 (non Cuvier, 1800: preoccupied)

Chloris is a genus of small passerine birds, the greenfinches, in the subfamily Carduelinae within the Fringillidae. The species have a Eurasian distribution except for the European greenfinch that also occurs in North Africa.

These finches all have large conical bills and yellow patches on the wing feathers

The greenfiches were formerly placed in the genus Carduelis. Molecular phylogenetic studies showed that the greenfinches form a monophyletic group that is not closely related to the species in Carduelis and instead is sister to a clade containing the desert finch (Rhodospiza obsoleta) and the Socotra golden-winged grosbeak (Rhynchostruthus socotranus).[1] The greenfinches were therefore moved to the resurrected genus Chloris which had originally been introduced by the French naturalist Georges Cuvier in 1800.[2][3] The name is from Ancient Greek khloris, the European greenfinch, from khloros, "green".[4]

Extant Species[edit]

The genus contains five species:[3]

Image Scientific name Common Name Distribution
Chloris ambigua, captive.jpg Chloris ambigua Black-headed greenfinch Yunnan, northern Laos, eastern Myanmar and adjacent areas of Vietnam, Thailand and Northeast India
Carduelis chloris 3 (Marek Szczepanek).jpg Chloris chloris European greenfinch Europe, north Africa and south west Asia
Carduelis sinica minor s2.JPG Chloris sinica Grey-capped greenfinch East Asia.
Chloris monguilloti Vietnamese greenfinch Vietnam
Yellow-fronted-greenfinch 30101927211 o 01.jpg Chloris spinoides Yellow-breasted greenfinch northern regions of the Indian subcontinent.


Fossil species[edit]

Restoration of the extinct Chloris aurelioi, described September 23, 2010

References[edit]

  1. ^ Zuccon, Dario; Prŷs-Jones, Robert; Rasmussen, Pamela C.; Ericson, Per G.P. (2012). "The phylogenetic relationships and generic limits of finches (Fringillidae)" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 62 (2): 581–596. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.10.002. PMID 22023825. 
  2. ^ Cuvier, Georges (1800). Leçons d'anatomie comparée. Volume 1. Paris: Baudouin. Table 2.  The year on the title page is An VIII.
  3. ^ a b Gill, Frank; Donsker, David (eds.). "Finches, euphonias". World Bird List Version 5.2. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 5 June 2015. 
  4. ^ Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. p. 102. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.