Hans Globke

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Hans Globke
Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F015051-0001, Hans Globke.jpg
German Chancellery Chief of Staff
In office
28 October 1953 – 15 October 1963
ChancellorKonrad Adenauer
Preceded byOtto Lenz
Succeeded byLudger Westrick
Personal details
Hans Josef Maria Globke

(1898-09-10)10 September 1898
Düsseldorf, Rhine Province, Kingdom of Prussia, German Empire
Died13 February 1973(1973-02-13) (aged 74)
Bonn, West Germany
Political partyCDU
Spouse(s)Augusta Vaillant
OccupationLawyer, politician
Known forAdvisor to Konrad Adenauer

Hans Josef Maria Globke (10 September 1898 – 13 February 1973) was a German lawyer, high-ranking civil servant and politician, who was Under-Secretary of State and Chief of Staff of the German Chancellery in West Germany from 28 October 1953 to 15 October 1963. In 1936, Globke wrote a legal annotation on the antisemitic Nuremberg Race Laws that did not express any objection to the discrimination against Jews, placing the Nazi Party on a firmer legal ground and setting the path to the Holocaust during World War II.[1][2] By 1938, Globke had been promoted to Ministerialdirigent in the Office for Jewish Affairs in the Ministry of the Interior, where he produced the Namensänderungsverordnung [de], a law that forced Jewish men to take the middle name Israel and Jewish women Sara for easier identification.[2] In 1941, he issued another statute that stripped Jews in occupied territories of their statehood and possessions.[2] Globke was identified as the author of an interior ministry report from France, written in racist language, that complained of "coloured blood into Europe" and called for the "elimination" of its "influences" on the gene pool.[2]

Globke later had a controversial career as Secretary of State and Chief of Staff of the West German Chancellery. In this role, he was responsible for running the Chancellery, recommending the people who were appointed to roles in the government, coordinating the government's work, and for the establishment and oversight of the West German intelligence service and for all matters of national security.[3]

A strident anti-communist, Globke became a powerful éminence grise of the West German government, and was widely regarded as one of most influential public officials in the government of Chancellor Konrad Adenauer. Globke had a major role in shaping the course and structure of the state and West Germany's alignment with the United States. He was also instrumental in West Germany's anti-communist policies at the domestic and international level and in the western intelligence community, and was the German government's main liaison with NATO and other western intelligence services, especially the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). During his lifetime, his role in the Nazi state was only partially known.

Early life and education[edit]

Globke was born in Düsseldorf, Rhine Province, the son of the cloth wholesaler Josef Globke and his wife Sophie (née Erberich), both Roman Catholics and supporters of the Centre Party.[3] Shortly after Hans's birth, the family moved to Aachen, where his father opened a draper's shop. [4] When he finished his secondary education at the elite Catholic Kaiser-Karl-Gymnasium in 1916, he was drafted, serving until the end of World War I in an artillery unit on the Western Front. After World War I, he studied law and political science at the University of Bonn and the University of Cologne.[5] In 1922 Globke qualified as a doctor of law (Dr. jur.) at the University of Giessen, with a dissertation on The immunity of the members of the Reichstag and the Landtag (German: Die Immunität der Mitglieder des Reichstages und der Landtage). In the same year, his father died and Globke became the main wage-earner for the family.

While studying, Globke, a practising Catholic, joined the Bonn chapter of the Cartellverband (KdStV), the German Catholic Students' Federation. His close contacts with fellow KdStV members and his membership from 1922 in the Catholic Centre Party played a significant role in his later political life.

In 1934, he married Augusta Vaillant, with whom he had two sons and one daughter.[6]

Career before Nazism[edit]

Hans Globke's Reich Citizenship Law on 15 September 1935. It includes the Law for the protection of German blood and German honor as well as the Law for the protection of the hereditary health of the German people.

Globke finished his Assessorexamen in 1924 and briefly served as a judge in the police court of Aachen. He became vice police-chief of Aachen in 1925 and governmental civil servant with a rank of Regierungsassessor (District Assessor) in 1926. In December 1929, Globke entered the Higher Civil Service in the Prussian Ministry of the Interior.[5]

In November 1932, about two months before Hitler became chancellor, Globke wrote a set of rules to make it harder for Germans of Jewish ancestry in Prussia to change their last names to less obviously Jewish names, followed by guidelines for their implementation in December 1932.[7] An excerpt stated:

Every name change makes it harder to determine family ties, true marital status and ancestry. Therefore the name can only be changed if an important reason exists.

This unequal treatment of the Jews in the final phase of the Weimar Republic, in which Globke played a major role, is considered by researchers and in the earlier case law of East Germany to be a precursor to name-related discrimination during the National Socialist era,[8] and a sign of Globke's anti-Semitic tendencies.[9]

Career during Nazism[edit]

After the seizure of power by the Nazi Party in early 1933, Globke was involved in the drafting of a series of laws aimed at the co-ordination (German: Gleichschaltung) of the legal system of Prussia with the Reich. In December 1933, he was appointed to the upper government council, which Globke later said had been postponed due to his doubts over the legality of the so-called Prussian coup of 1932, which was well known in the Ministry. Globke helped to formulate the Enabling Act of 1933, which effectively gave Adolf Hitler dictatorial powers. He was also the author of the law of 10 July 1933 concerning the dissolution of the Prussian State Council and of further legislation that co-ordinated all Prussian parliamentary bodies.[10]

On 1 November 1934, following the unification of the Prussian Ministry of the Interior with the Reich Ministry of the Interior, Globke took a position as a speaker in the newly formed Reich and Prussian Ministry of the Interior under Reich Interior Minister Wilhelm Frick, where he worked until 1945. In 1938 Globke received his final promotion of the Nazi period, to the ministerial council.

Measures to exclude and persecute Jews[edit]

From 1934 onwards, Globke continued to be responsible mainly for name changes and civil status issues; from 1937, international issues in the field of citizenship and option contracts were added to his brief. As a co-supervisor, he also dealt with "general race issues", immigration and emigration, and matters related to the anti-Semitic "racial shame" (German: Rassenschande) laws covering sexual relations between Aryans and non-Aryans. He co-authored the official legal commentary on the new Reich Citizenship Law, one of the Nuremberg Laws introduced at the Nazi Party Congress in September 1935, which revoked the citizenship of German Jews,[10][11] as well as various legal regulations, such as an ordinance that required Jews with non-Jewish names to take on the additional first names Israel or Sara, an "improvement" of public records that later facilitated to a great extent the rounding up and deportation of Jews during the Holocaust.[12] Globke's work also included the elaboration of templates and drafts for laws and ordinances. In this context, he had a leading role in the preparation of the first Ordinance on the Reich's civil law (enacted on 14 November 1935), The Law for the Defense of German Blood and Honor (enacted 18 October 1935), and the Civil Status Act (enacted on 3 November 1937). The "J" which was imprinted in the passports of Jews was designed by Globke.[13]

Globke, Wilhelm Frick and Wilhelm Stuckart performing Nazi salute, 1941

Globke also served as chief legal adviser to the Office for Jewish Affairs in the Ministry of Interior, headed by Adolf Eichmann, that performed the bureaucratic implementation of the Holocaust.[14]

In 1938, Globke was appointed Ministerialrat (Undersecretary) for his "extraordinary efforts in drafting the law for the Protection of the German Blood".[15] On 25 April 1938, Globke was praised by the Reich Interior Minister Wilhelm Frick as "the most capable and efficient official in my ministry" when it came to drafting anti-Semitic laws.[15]

He applied for membership of the Nazi Party for career reasons in 1940, but the application was rejected on 24 October 1940 by Martin Bormann, reportedly because of his former membership of the Centre Party, which had represented Roman Catholic voters in Weimar Germany.[16]

At the Nuremberg trials, he appeared at the Ministries Trial as a witness for both the prosecution and the defence. When questioned in the trial of his former superior Wilhelm Stuckart, he confirmed that he knew that "Jews were being put to death en masse". He had known at that time that "the extermination of the Jews was systematic", but, he said, restricting his statement, "not that it referred to all Jews".[17]

During the war[edit]

Globke and Reich Interior Minister Wilhelm Frick in Bratislava, Slovak State, September 1941

At the beginning of the war, Globke was responsible for the new German imperial borders in the West that were the responsibility of the Reich Ministry of the Interior. He made several trips to the conquered territories. The historian Peter Schöttler suspected that Globke was probably the author of a memorandum to Hitler in June 1940 discussing the idea of State Secretary Wilhelm Stuckart proposing a far-reaching annexation of the East French and Belgian territories, which would have involved the deportation of about 5 million people.[18]

At the beginning of September 1941, Globke accompanied Interior Minister Frick and State Secretary Stuckart on an official visit to Slovakia, which at that time was a client state of the German Reich. Immediately following this visit, the government of Slovakia announced the introduction of the so-called Jewish Code, which provided the legal basis for the later expropriations and deportations of Slovak Jews. In 1961, Globke denied there was any connection between the two events and the allegation that he had participated in the creation of the Code. Clear evidence for it was never verified.[19] According to CIA documents, Globke was possibly also responsible for the deportation of 20,000 Jews from Northern Greece to Nazi extermination camps in Poland.[20][21]

Globke submitted a final application for Nazi Party membership, but the application was rejected in 1943, again due to his former affiliation to the Centre Party.[22]

On the other hand, Globke maintained contacts with military and civilian resistance groups. He was the informant of the Berlin Bishop Konrad von Preysing[2] and had knowledge of the coup preparations by the opponents of Hitler Carl Friedrich Goerdeler and Ludwig Beck. According to reports by Jakob Kaiser and Otto Lenz, in the event that the attempt to overthrow the National Socialist regime had succeeded, Globke was earmarked for a senior ministerial post in an imperial government formed by Goerdeler.[23] However, no evidence ever emerged to support Globke's later assertion that the National Socialists wanted to arrest him in 1945, but were prevented by the advance of the Allies.

Post-war period[edit]

Immediately after the war, his close friend Herbert Engelsing and friends from the Catholic church helped to promote Globke to the British, ensuring his political survival.[24] Although the British had doubts, the need for Globke's expertise after the war became so great that they were willing to take a chance in employing him in the drafting of election law.[25] Once freed from British obligation on 1 July 1946, he was appointed as the city treasurer in Aachen, a position he held for three years.[25]

During the process of denazification, Globke stated that he had been part of the resistance against National Socialism, and was therefore classified by the Arbitration Chamber on 8 September 1947 in Category V: Persons Exonerated.[26] Globke was a witness for both the defence and the prosecution at the Wilhelmstraße trial. At Stuckart's trial, he testified as a witness for the defendant, "I knew that the Jews were mass murdered".[27]

Career in the Adenauer government[edit]

Globke's trial in absentia in East Germany, July 1963
Globke and Bishop Aloisius Joseph Muench, nuncio to post-war West Germany.

In the post-war era Globke rose to become one of the most powerful people in the German government. In 1949, Konrad Adenauer appointed Globke to be one of his closest aides, with his appointment to the position of undersecretary at the German Chancellery, despite protests from the opposition parties and the Central Intelligence Agency.[2] This was not in itself unusual; the historian Gunnar Take, from the Institute of Contemporary History in Munich, established that only three out of 50 officials of the interior ministry who were of working age during the Nazi era had been anti-fascists.[2] In 1951, he issued a statute that restored back pay, pensions, and advancement to civil servants who had served under the Nazi regime, including himself. John Le Carré wrote that these were "rights as they would have enjoyed if the Second World War hadn't taken place, or if Germany had won it. In a word, they would be entitled to whatever promotion would have come their way had their careers proceeded without the inconvenience of an Allied victory".[28] At the end of October 1953, following Otto Lenz's election to the Bundestag in the election of the previous month, Globke succeeded Lenz as Secretary of State at the Federal Chancellery,[29] wielding a great deal of power behind the scenes and therefore an important pillar of Konrad Adenauer's "chancellor democracy" (German: Kanzlerdemokratie).

Globke served as Chief of Staff of the Chancellery from 1953 to 1963. As such he was one of the closest aides to Chancellor Adenauer, with significant influence over government policy. He advised Adenauer on political decisions during joint walks in the garden of the Chancellor's office,[30] such as the reparations agreement with Israel. His areas of responsibility and his closeness to the Chancellor arguably made him one of the most powerful members of the government; he was responsible for running the Chancellery, recommending the people who were appointed to roles in the government, coordinating the government's work, for the establishment and oversight of the West German intelligence service and for all matters of national security.[3] He was the German government's main liaison with NATO and other western intelligence services, especially the CIA. He also maintained contact with the party apparatus and became "a kind of hidden secretary general" to the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), and contact with the Chancellor usually had to go through him.[31] As Adenauer and everyone else knew of his previous career, the Chancellor could be assured of his absolute loyalty.

Globke's key position as chief of staff to Adenauer, responsible for matters of national security, made both the West German government and CIA officials wary of exposing his past, despite their full knowledge of it. This led, for instance, to the withholding of Adolf Eichmann's alias from the Israeli government and Nazi hunters in the late 1950s, and CIA pressure in 1960 on Life magazine to delete references to Globke from its recently obtained Eichmann memoirs.[32][33][34]

Globke left office together with the Adenauer administration in 1963, and was awarded the Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany by President Heinrich Lübke. He remained active as an adviser for Adenauer and the CDU during the 1960s. After retirement Globke decided to move to Switzerland. However, the Swiss government declared him an unwanted foreigner and denied him entry.[2] Globke was buried in the central cemetery in Bad Godesberg in the district of Plittersdorf.[35]

Gehlen organisation[edit]

In 1950, Globke began working with Reinhard Gehlen,[36] who Globke considered a close friend with complimentary views.[37] An obsessive anti-communist,[38] Gehlen was a former intelligence officer who had held the rank of lieutenant-general in the Heer during World War II.[2] Gehlen was then the director of Foreign Armies East,[39] a military intelligence organisation that operated against the Soviet Union on the Eastern Front.[40] Gehlen had created the Gehlen Organization, known as The Org, in 1946 to spy on the Soviet Union, with approval and funding from the CIA.[36]

In April 1956, on orders from Adenauer, Globke established the Federal Intelligence Service (BND, Bundesnachrichtendienst), the successor organisation to the Gehlen Organisation.[41]

Nazi past[edit]

Political debate[edit]

In a parliamentary debate on 12 July 1950, Adolf Arndt, the spokesman for the Social Democratic Party (SPD), read an excerpt from the commentaries on the Nuremberg Laws in which Globke discusses whether or not "racial shame" committed abroad could be punished. Federal Interior Minister Gustav Heinemann (CDU) referred in his answer to the exonerating testimony of the Nuremberg prosecutor Robert Kempner, that Globke had served with his willingness to testify. Although Globke was controversial because of his Nazi past, Adenauer was loyal to Globke until the end of his term in 1963. On one hand, he commented on the debate over Globke's participation in the drafting of the Nuremberg race laws with the words "do not throw dirty water away, as long as you do not have clean" (German: Man schüttet kein schmutziges Wasser weg, solange man kein sauberes hat). On the other hand, he said in a newspaper interview on 25 March 1956 that claims Globke was a willing helper of the Nazis lacked any basis. Many people, including from the ranks of the Catholic Church, certified that Globke had repeatedly campaigned on behalf of persecuted people.[42]

However, loyalty to Globke increasingly proved to be a burden on Adenauer's government, especially after 1960, when the Israeli intelligence service Mossad tracked Adolf Eichmann down in Argentina.[43][44] Eichmann was living in Buenos Aires and working at Mercedes-Benz, and the German Federal Intelligence Service (BND) had been aware since 1952 that he lived there.

Whether or not Globke knew of Adolf Eichmann's whereabouts in Argentina at the end of the 1950s was still the subject of political debate in 2013.[45][clarification needed]

West German investigation[edit]

The former administrative officer of Army Group E in Thessaloniki, Max Merten, had accused Globke of being heavily responsible for the Holocaust in Greece, as he could have prevented the deaths of 20,000 Jews in Thessaloniki when Eichmann contacted the Reich Interior Ministry and asked for Globke's permission to kill them.[46] When these accusations became known, they prompted preliminary criminal proceedings to be initiated against Globke by Fritz Bauer, the chief public prosecutor of Hesse. The investigation was transferred to the public prosecutor's office in Bonn in May 1961 after an intervention by Adenauer, where it was closed due to lack of evidence.[46][47]

Trial in East Berlin[edit]

Hilde Benjamin (right) and Friedel Malter watch the second day of the Globketrial trial [de] against Hans Globke

In the early 1960s, there was a vigorous campaign in East Germany, led by the Politburo member Albert Norden of the Ministry of State Security, against the so-called "author of the Nuremberg Blood Laws" as well an "agitator and organiser of the persecutions of the Jews". Norden's goal was to prove that Globke was in contact with Eichmann.[48] In a 1961 memorandum, Norden stated that "in collaboration with [Erich] Mielke, certain materials should be procured or produced. We definitely need a document that somehow proves Eichmann's direct cooperation with Globke".[49]

Globke became a central target of Soviet propaganda, not so much because of his career during the Nazi era, but because of his powerful position in the West German government and his trenchant anti-communist stance.[citation needed] In 1963, East Germany convicted him in a show trial in absentia;[50][51] however, such East German trials were not recognised outside of the Soviet bloc, least of all by West Germany.[52] On the 10 July 1963, the affair was denounced by the West German Government as a show trial.[53] The fact that much of the criticism of Globke came from the Soviet bloc, and that it mixed genuine information with false accusations,[54] made it easier for the West Germans and the Americans to dismiss it as communist propaganda.

Scholarly investigation[edit]


In 1961, civil activist Reinhard Strecker [de] wrote a book, Hans Globke – File Extracts, documents based on Strecker's research in Polish and Czech archives, which was published by the Bertelsmann affiliate Rütten & Loening.[55] Globke tried to block further publication in court with an interim injunction. The BND, under the leadership of Gehlen, spent 50,000 marks trying to take the book off the market. When a court then discovered two minor mistakes (the publisher had caused one of them by abbreviation) and imposed a restraining order, Bertelsmann caved in, and cancelled a new edition of the book. The government is thought by historians to have threatened that no official agency would have acquired a book from the publisher again.[56]

Adolf Eichmann[edit]

In June 2006, it was announced that the Adenauer Government had informed the CIA of the location of Adolf Eichmann in March 1958. However, according to US historian Timothy Naftali, through contacts at the highest level, it had also ensured that the CIA did not use that knowledge. Neither the federal government nor the CIA passed the new information on to the Israeli government.[57][58][59][60] Naftali suggested that Adenauer had wanted to prevent pressure on Globke regarding Eichmann. Eichmann had previously given extensive interviews on his life to Dutch journalist and former SS agent Willem Sassen, on which his memoirs were to be based. Since 1957, Sassen's attempts to sell this material to US magazine Life had been unsuccessful. This changed with the spectacular kidnapping of Eichmann by Mossad in May 1960, made possible by an unofficial tip-off by the Hessian Attorney General Fritz Bauer, and the preparation of the Eichmann trial in Israel. Life published extracts from Sassen's material about Eichmann in two articles, on 28 November and 5 December 1960. His family wanted to use the royalties from the articles to fund his defence in court. However the federal government, already worried about the campaign in East Berlin, contacted the CIA to ensure that any material regarding Globke was removed from the Life coverage. In an internal memo dated 20 September 1960, CIA chief Allen Dulles mentioned "a vague mention of Globke, which Life omits at our demand".[61][62]

Globke's estate[edit]

In 2009, a monograph by the historian Erik Lommatzsch was published by Campus-Verlag. Lommatzsch had investigated Globke's estate in the archive of the Konrad Adenauer Foundation.[63] However, Globke's actual relationship to National Socialism and his influence on the government of Adenauer are not really clarified, which, according to reviewer Hans-Heinrich Jansen, "in view of the sourcing, which for many central issues, turned out to be slim, after all" is not conclusively possible.[64] The background of the Stasi campaign against Globke remains largely unknown;[65] however, this aspect of Lommatzsch's biography was in any case only intended as a digression,[66] since it requires separate treatment. However, Lommatzsch mentions a number of examples of Globke campaigning for the persecuted, his commentary on the Nuremberg Laws was aimed at defusing the regulations, and he had not played the dominant role in the postwar period the Adenauer opponents had assumed.[67]

The effects of the German-German system conflict on dealing with Nazi perpetrators under a pan-German perspective has only begun.[68][69]

Various federal agencies have been investigated in relation to their Nazi past, with and without government support, including the Federal Foreign Office. A research deficit in the processing of NS continuity in the Federal Republic of Germany still exists in particular at the German Chancellery.[70][71] A subsidy program worth a total of €4m was included in the 2017 federal budget, which is intended to process the Nazi past of central authorities, especially the federal ministries, across departments.[72] The concrete conceptual and content-related design of the research program is currently being discussed by the Federal Commissioner for Culture and the Media, the Federal Archives and representatives of science[73] for example a collective biography of all state secretaries, in which Globke would be "only one of many".[74]

Research into Gehlen organisation[edit]

In 2011, the German historian Klaus-Dietmar Henke [de] began research into the Federal Intelligence Service archives, the successor organisation to The Org,[75] and concluded that Gehlen, under the cloak of anti-communist activities, had been supplying Globke with briefings on a wide range of domestic German targets.[76] Henke discovered that Gehlen methodically collected intelligence on senior members of the Social Democratic Party (SPD), the Fourth Estate, other intelligence agencies, Nazi victims associations and members of the nobility and the church.[75] In the early years of the German Federal Republic, it was important for Adenauer and Globke to be fully aware of the activities of the opposition.[75] Globke and Gehlen met daily and developed a successful symbiotic relationship, that ensured Adenauer remained in power.[75][77] According to Henke, the organisation "was able to work, in effect, fully under the radar. And in effect, it was an instrument for keeping a stranglehold on power and a personal tool for Globke".[2] Globke and Gehlen used the organisation's network to have unfriendly journalists removed from their posts, place propaganda in more friendly newspapers, and acquire information that could be used against Globke and Adenauer's rivals.[2] In 1960, the organisation provided a briefing to Globke on the SPD politician and future Chancellor of Germany Willy Brandt that stated:

"This pig has things on his record from his time in the safety of western exile and with the Red Orchestra that could bring him down at any point of our choosing. We’ve got the material, but we have time, too."[2]

Awards and honours[edit]

Before 1945[edit]

After 1945[edit]


  • Globke, Hans (1922). Die Immunität der Mitglieder des Reichstages und der Landtage. Gießen, Germany: o. O. o. J. OCLC 718905013.

See also[edit]


  • M Strecker, Reinhard (1961). Dr. Hans Globke : Aktenauszüge : Dokumente (in German). Hamburg: Rütten & Loening. OCLC 469095729.
  • Teitelbaum, Raul; Shumacher, Yvette (January 2011). "Hans Globke and the Eichmann Trial: A Memoir". Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs. 5 (2): 79–86. doi:10.1080/23739770.2011.11446462. S2CID 170576185.
  • Tetens, T H (1961). The new Germany and the old Nazis. New York: Random House. OCLC 939251662. LCN 61-7240.


  1. ^ Klaus, Wiegrefe (15 April 2011). "West Germany's Efforts to Influence the Eichmann Trial". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Moody, Oliver (4 March 2021). "Hans Globke, Hitler's former henchman, was true architect of modern Germany". News International. The Times. Retrieved 20 August 2021.
  3. ^ a b c Bernard A. Cook (2001). Europe Since 1945: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. p. 513. ISBN 978-0-8153-4057-7. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
  4. ^ Oliver Moody (4 March 2021). "The Spider in the Web: The Hans Globke Story (Pt 1)". The Times (Podcast). News International. Event occurs at 7:37. Retrieved 22 August 2021.
  5. ^ a b Oliver Moody (4 March 2021). "The Spider in the Web: The Hans Globke Story (Pt 1)". The Times (Podcast). News International. Event occurs at 10:18. Retrieved 22 August 2021.
  6. ^ Wirtz, Susanne. "Biography Hans Globke". LeMO biographies, Living Museum Online. Foundation House of History of the Federal Republic of Germany. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  7. ^ Oliver Moody (4 March 2021). "The Spider in the Web: The Hans Globke Story (Pt 1)". The Times (Podcast). News International. Event occurs at 10:22. Retrieved 22 August 2021.
  8. ^ RÜTER, C. F.; DE MILDT, D.W.; GOMBERT, L. HEKELAAR. "Verdict of the OG of the GDR on the case Globke" (PDF). University of Amsterdam. K.G. Saur Verlag. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  9. ^ Wagner-Kern, Michael (December 2002). Staat und Namensänderung : die öffentlich-rechtliche Namensänderung in Deutschland im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert [State and name change. The change of public name in Germany in the 19th and 20th century]. Tübingen: Mohr Siebrek Ek. ISBN 978-3-16-147718-8. Archived from the original (pdf) on 7 August 2018. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  10. ^ a b Wistrich, Robert (2002). Who's Who in Nazi Germany. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-26038-8.
  11. ^ Bartosz Wieliński (2006). "CIA kryła Eichmanna". Gazeta Wyborcza (in Polish) (8 June 2006). Retrieved 8 June 2006.
  12. ^ Germany, SPIEGEL ONLINE, Hamburg (31 March 2011). "A Triumph of Justice: On the Trail of Holocaust Organizer Adolf Eichmann". Der Spiegel.
  13. ^ Vgl. Strecker (Hrsg.): Dr. Hans Globke. Aktenauszüge, Dokumente. Hamburg 1961, S. 144 ff.
  14. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2008.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  15. ^ a b Tetens, Tete Harens (1962). The New Germany and the old Nazis. London: Secker & Warburg. p. 39. OCLC 492471086. Retrieved 20 February 2021.
  16. ^ Norbert Jacobs (1992). "Der Streit um Dr. Hans Globke in der öffentlichen Meinung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1949–1973". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  17. ^ Ueberschär, Gerd R. (4 April 1956). "Böse Erinnerungen" (in German). No. 14. Frankfurt: Spiegel-Verlag. Der Spiegel. p. 192. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  18. ^ Schöttler, Peter (2003). "A kind of "General plan West": The Stuckart memorandum of 14 June 1940 and the plans for a new Franco-German border during the Second World War". Social History. NF 18 (3): 88, 92 f. and 106.
  19. ^ Bevers, Jürgen (April 2009). The man behind Adenauer Hans Globkes ascent from Nazi lawyer to the grey eminence of the Bonn Republic Der Mann hinter Adenauer Hans Globkes Aufstieg vom NS-Juristen zur Grauen Eminenz der Bonner Republik (in German). Berlin: Verlag GmbH. pp. S. 44 f. ISBN 978-3-86153-518-8. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  20. ^ "E EICHMANN TRIAL" (PDF). Central Intelligence Agency. 6 April 1961. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  21. ^ Wolfgang Breyer (2003). "Dr. Max Merten – a military official of the German Wehrmacht in the field of tension between legend and truth, German: Dr. Max Merten – ein Militärbeamter der deutschen Wehrmacht im Spannungsfeld zwischen Legende und Wahrheit" (PDF). Inauguraldissertation. Retrieved 13 March 2018.[permanent dead link]
  22. ^ Ernst Klee: Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich. Wer war was vor und nach 1945. 2. Auflage. Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2005, S. 187.
  23. ^ Hans Gotto; Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung (1980). Der Staatssekretär Adenauers : Persönlichkeit u. polit. Wirken Hans Globkes (in German). Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta. ISBN 9783129129203. OCLC 634996868. Affidavit by Jakob Kaiser, 31 December 1945. Affidavit by Otto Lenz, 3 January 1946. Statement by Konrad Cardinal von Preysing, 18 January 1946
  24. ^ Bevers, Jürgen (2009). "German". Der Mann hinter Adenauer: Hans Globkes Aufstieg vom NS-Juristen zur Grauen Eminenz der Bonner Republik (in German). Ch. Links Verlag. p. 108. ISBN 978-3-86153-518-8.
  25. ^ a b Rogers, Daniel E. (May 2008). "Restoring a German Career, 1945–1950: The Ambiguity of Being Hans Globke". German Studies Review. The Johns Hopkins University Press on behalf of the German Studies Association. 32 (2): 303–324. JSTOR 27668518.
  26. ^ Lommatzsch., Erik (14 September 2009). Hans Globke (1898–1973) Beamter im Dritten Reich und Staatssekretär Adenauers [H. G., Official in the Third Reich and Adenauer's State Secretary] (PDF). Campus Verlag GmbH. pp. S. 108–111. ISBN 978-3-593-39035-2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 March 2018. Retrieved 6 March 2018.
  27. ^ The judgment in the Wilhelmstrasse process. P. 167.
  28. ^ Le Carré, John, The Pigeon Tunnel, Viking Press, 2016, pg. 26
  29. ^ "Cabinet Minutes of 27 October 1953". German Federal Archives (in German). Retrieved 22 August 2021.
  30. ^ Oliver Moody (5 March 2021). "The Spider in the Web: The Hans Globke Story (Pt 2)". The Times (Podcast). News International. Event occurs at 8:00. Retrieved 22 August 2021.
  31. ^ Rogers, Daniel E. (May 2008). "Restoring a German Career, 1945-1950: The Ambiguity of Being Hans Globke". German Studies Review (in German). The Johns Hopkins University Press on behalf of the German Studies Association. 31 (2): 303–324. JSTOR 27668518.
  32. ^ Yen, Hope (6 June 2006). "Papers: CIA knew of Eichmann whereabouts". Associated Press. Retrieved 7 June 2006.[dead link]
  33. ^ Shane, Scott (6 June 2006). "Documents Shed Light on CIA's Use of Ex-Nazis". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 June 2006.
  34. ^ Weber, Gaby (4 March 2011). "Die Entführungslegende oder: Wie kam Eichmann nach Jerusalem?". Deutschlandradio. Retrieved 5 March 2011.
  35. ^ Gutman, Israel (1990). Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. Vol. 2. New York: Macmillan. p. 589. ISBN 9780028645278. OCLC 877181705.
  36. ^ a b Schwarz, Hans-Peter (1995). Konrad Adenauer : a German politician and statesman in a period of war, revolution and reconstruction. Vol. 1: From the German Empire to the Federal Republic, 1876–1952. Berghahn: Providence, R.I. ; Oxford. p. 132. ISBN 9781571818706. OCLC 1101257908.
  37. ^ Henke, Klaus-Dietmar (October 2018). Geheime Dienste die politische Inlandsspionage der Organisation Gehlen 1946-1953. Veröffentlichungen der Unabhängigen Historikerkommission zur Erforschung der Geschichte des Bundesnachrichtendienstes 1945-1968, Bd. 10. (in German) (1st ed.). Berlin: Ch. Links Verlag. p. 215. ISBN 9783962890230. OCLC 1057697967.
  38. ^ Frei, Norbert (11 June 2019). "Die Vorliebe des BND für illegales Schnüffeln im Inland" (in German). Südwestdeutsche Medien Holding. Süddeutsche Zeitung. Retrieved 23 August 2021.
  39. ^ Höhne, Heinz; Zolling, Hermann (1972). The General Was a Spy: The Truth about General Gehlen and His Spy Ring. New York: Coward, McCann & Geoghegan. p. 10. ISBN 0698104307.
  40. ^ Thomas, David (April 1987). "Foreign Armies East and German Military Intelligence in Russia 1941-45". Journal of Contemporary History. Sage Publications, Ltd. 22 (2): 261–301. doi:10.1177/002200948702200204. S2CID 161288059.
  41. ^ Höhne, Heinz; Zolling, Hermann (1972). The General Was a Spy: The Truth about General Gehlen and His Spy Ring. New York: Coward, McCann & Geoghegan. p. 248. ISBN 0698104307.
  42. ^ Chronik 1956. Chronik Verlag im Bertelsmann Lexikon Verlag, 1989, 1996 C, S. 58.
  43. ^ Klaus Wiegrefe: Der Fluch der bösen Tat. Die Angst vor Adolf Eichmann. Der Spiegel, 11. April 2011
  44. ^ Willi Winkler: Holocaust-Prozess: Adolf Eichmann. Als Adenauer in Panik geriet Süddeutsche Zeitung, 29. März 2011
  45. ^ Aufklärung über die Beziehungen von Bundesregierung und Bundesnachrichtendienst zu Adolf Eichmann Antwort der Bundesregierung auf die Kleine Anfrage der Abgeordneten Claudia Roth (Augsburg), Ekin Deligöz, Katja Dörner, weiterer Abgeordneter und der Fraktion BÜNDNIS 90/DIE GRÜNEN. BT-Drucksache 17/13563 vom 13. Mai 2013. pdf. Abgerufen am 16. September 2016.
  46. ^ a b Genocidium – Der Fall Globke, Fritz Bauer Archiv, abgerufen am 15. September 2016
  47. ^ Jürgen Bevers: Der Mann hinter Adenauer. Hans Globkes Aufstieg vom NS-Jursiten zur Grauen Eminenz der Bonner Republik. Berlin: Christoph Links Verlag 2009, S. 170 f.
  48. ^ Kirsten Bönker; Julia Obertreis; Sven Grampp (23 September 2016). "2". Television Beyond and Across the Iron Curtain. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 36. ISBN 978-1-4438-1643-4. Retrieved 20 February 2021.
  49. ^ Lemke, Michael (1993). "Kampagnen gegen Bonn: Die Systemkrise der DDR und die Westpropaganda der SED 1960–1963" (PDF). Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte. Leibniz Institute of Contemporary History. 41: 153–174. Retrieved 20 February 2021.
  50. ^ United States. Central Intelligence Agency (1963). Daily Report, Foreign Radio Broadcasts. p. 9. Retrieved 9 March 2021.
  51. ^ Mary Fulbrook (28 September 2018). Reckonings: Legacies of Nazi Persecution. Oxford University Press. p. 242. ISBN 978-0-19-881123-7. Retrieved 9 March 2021.
  52. ^ "Poslanecká sněmovna Parlamentu České republiky, Čtvrtek 24. září 1964" (in Czech). Chamber of Deputies of the Parliament of the Czech Republic. Retrieved 21 September 2013.
  53. ^ "Bonn Denounces Globke Trial in East Germany As Communist Maneuver". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. New York: Jewish Telegraphic Agency Archives. 10 July 1963. Retrieved 20 February 2021.
  54. ^ Klaus, Wiegrefe (15 April 2011). "West Germany's Efforts to Influence the Eichmann Trial". Spiegel-Verlag. Der Spiegel. Retrieved 27 August 2021.
  55. ^ Reinhard-M. Strecker (Hrsg.): Dr. Hans Globke. Aktenauszüge, Dokumente. Rütten & Loening, Hamburg 1961 (dnb)
  56. ^ Otto, Köhler (16 June 2006). "Eichmann, Globke, Adenauer – CIA File Findings Why the right hand of the Federal Chancellor had to be spared". der Freitag Mediengesellschaft. der Freitag Mediengesellschaft mbH & Co. KG. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
  57. ^ Timothy, Naftali (6 June 2006). "New Information on Cold War CIA Stay-Behind Operations in Germany and on the Adolf Eichmann Case S. 4 ff" (PDF). Federation of American Scientists. University of Virginia. Retrieved 22 February 2018.
  58. ^ Scott, Shane (7 June 2006). "C.I.A. Knew Where Eichmann Was Hiding, Documents Show". New York Times. Retrieved 22 February 2018.
  59. ^ Jennifer, Abramsohn (10 June 2006). "This is German history". Deutsche Welle Politik (in German). Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 22 February 2018.
  60. ^ Kleine-Brockhoff, Von Riedl (13 June 2006). "Among friends German:Unter Freunden". Die Zeit (in German). Nr. 25/2006. Retrieved 22 February 2018.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: location (link)
  61. ^ Timothy, Naftali (6 June 2006). "New Information on Cold War CIA Stay-Behind Operations in Germany and on the Adolf Eichmann Case S. 6 u. 16" (PDF). Federation of American Scientists. University of Virginia. Retrieved 22 February 2018.
  62. ^ Blasius, von Rainer (7 June 2006). "Nationalsozialismus: Nazi-Verbrecher gedeckt, Staatssekretär geschützt" [National Socialism: Nazi criminals covered, Secretary of State protected]. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (in German). Retrieved 22 February 2018.
  63. ^ Lommatzsch, Erik (2009). Hans Globke (1898–1973), Beamter im Dritten Reich und Staatssekretär Adenauers [H. G., Official in the Third Reich and Adenauer's State Secretary]. Frankfurt am Main/New York: Campus Verlag GmbH. ISBN 978-3-593-39035-2.
  64. ^ E. Lommatzsch: Hans Globke. H-Soz-Kult. Department of History at the Humboldt University in Berlin. 14 September 2009. ISBN 9783593390352. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
  65. ^ Kellerhoff, Sven Felix (1 October 2009). "Symbolfigur der frühen Bundesrepublik von Hitler zu Adenauer – Eine neue Biografie zeichnet ein differenzierteres Bild von Hans Globke" [Symbols of the early Federal Republic from Hitler to Adenauer - A new biography depicts a new image of Hans Globke]. Die Welt (in German). Axel Springer SE. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
  66. ^ Lommatzsch, Erik (2009). Hans Globke (1898–1973), Beamter im Dritten Reich und Staatssekretär Adenauers (H. G., Official in the Third Reich and Adenauer's State Secretary). Frankfurt am Main/New York: Campus Verlag GmbH. pp. 310–322. ISBN 978-3-593-39035-2.
  67. ^ Lommatzsch, Erik. "Hans Globke und der Nationalsozialismus. Eine Skizze" [Hans Globke and National Socialism. A sketch] (PDF). Konrad Adenauer Foundation (in German). Germany: 2018, Konrad Adenauer Foundation. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
  68. ^ Weinke, Annette (4 August 2004). "Die Verfolgung von NS-Tätern im geteilten Deutschland" [The Prosecution of Nazi Perpetrators in Divided Germany [Review]]. Sehepunkte. Rezensionsjournal für die Geschichtswissenschaften (Review Journal of History Sciences (in German). 3 (4). Retrieved 27 February 2018.
  69. ^ Wentker, Hermann (2002). "Die juristische Ahndung von NS-Verbrechen in der Sowjetischen Besatzungszone und in der DDR" [(The legal sanction of Nazi crimes in the Soviet occupation German zone and in the German Democratic Republic)] (pdf). Critical justice de:Kritische Justiz (in German). Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft mbH. pp. 60–78. Retrieved 27 February 2018.[permanent dead link]
  70. ^ Mentel, Christian; Weise, Niels. "Die zentralen deutschen Behörden und der Nationalsozialismus – Stand und Perspektiven der Forschung" [Central German Authorities and National Socialism – Status and Perspectives of Research] (PDF). Institut für Zeitgeschichte (in German). Institute for Contemporary History Munich 2018. Retrieved 6 March 2018.
  71. ^ Maisch, Andreas (16 March 2015). "Das Kanzleramt verschludert die NS-Aufarbeitung (The Chancellor's Office Wraps Up the Nazi Review)". Die Welt. Die Welt. Retrieved 6 March 2018.
  72. ^ "Grütters: Deutlich höhere Förderung kultureller Institutionen und Projekte des Bundes für 2017 erreicht" [Grütters: Significantly higher support for cultural institutions and federal projects for 2017 reached]. Der Bundesregierung (in German). 2018 Press and Information Office of the Federal Government. 6 July 2016. Retrieved 6 March 2018.
  73. ^ "Antwort der Bundesregierung auf die Kleine Anfrage zu den Plänen der Bundesregierung zur Untersuchung der Geschichte des Bundeskanzleramtes" [Response of the Federal Government to the small question on the Federal Government's plans to investigate the history of the Federal Chancellery] (PDF). Sigrid Hupach (in German). German Federal Government. 23 August 2016. Retrieved 6 March 2018.
  74. ^ "Kanzleramt lässt seine NS Vergangenheit untersuchen" [Chancellery permits its Nazi past to be investigated]. Der Spiegel (in German). SPIEGELnet GmbH. 30 April 2016. Retrieved 6 March 2018.
  75. ^ a b c d Reinecke, Stefan (4 December 2013). "Eine neue Zeitrechnung im Verhalten des BND" (in German). taz, die tageszeitung Verlagsgenossenschaft eG. Die Tageszeitung Archive. Retrieved 22 August 2021.
  76. ^ Oliver Moody (5 March 2021). "The Spider in the Web: The Hans Globke Story (Pt 2)". The Times (Podcast). News International. Event occurs at 15:00. Retrieved 22 August 2021.
  77. ^ Oliver Moody (5 March 2021). "The Spider in the Web: The Hans Globke Story (Pt 2)". The Times (Podcast). News International. Event occurs at 19:25. Retrieved 23 August 2021.
  78. ^ Oberstes Gericht der DDR, Urteil vom 23. Juli 1963, Az.: 1 Zst (I) 1/63 – auf eigenen Antrag. Prof. Dr. C.F. Rüter: DDR-Justiz und NS-Verbrechen, Bd.III, Verfahren NR.1068.
  79. ^ für 25-jährige Beamtentätigkeit unter Anrechnung des Militärdienstes
  80. ^ verliehen von der Antonescu-Regierung
  81. ^ "Reply to a parliamentary question" (PDF) (in German). p. 26. Retrieved 2 October 2012.

External links[edit]