Health effects arising from the September 11 attacks
There has been growing concern over the health effects arising from the September 11 attacks in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan. Within seconds of the collapse of the World Trade Center, building materials, electronic equipment, and furniture were pulverized and spread over the area.
In the five months following the attacks, dust from the pulverized buildings continued to fill the air of the World Trade Center site. Increasing numbers of New York residents are reporting symptoms of Ground Zero respiratory illnesses.
Various health programs have arisen to deal with the ongoing health effects of the September 11 attacks. The World Trade Center Health Program, which provides testing and treatment to 9/11 responders and survivors, consolidated many of these after the James Zadroga Act became law in January 2011.
- 1 Exposures and conditions
- 2 Monitoring
- 3 Controversies
- 3.1 President George W. Bush's alleged manipulation of EPA statements
- 3.2 Early statement by Christine Todd Whitman
- 3.3 Alleged EPA deceptions about Ground Zero air quality
- 3.4 Alleged government downplaying of health risks
- 3.5 Handling of cleanup procedure
- 3.6 Lawsuit, settlement, and treatment costs
- 3.7 World Trade Center health administrators and controversies
- 3.8 Lawsuit by area residents
- 3.9 Ground Zero workers' and area residents' protests
- 3.10 Ground Zero workers' lawsuit
- 4 Vulnerable individuals
- 5 Documentaries
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Exposures and conditions
The dust from the collapsed towers was "wildly toxic", according to air pollution expert and University of California Davis Professor Emeritus Thomas Cahill. Much of the thousands of tons of debris resulting from the collapse of the Twin Towers was pulverized concrete, which is known to cause silicosis upon inhalation. The remainder consisted of more than 2,500 contaminants, more specifically: 50% non-fibrous material and construction debris; 40% glass and other fibers; 9.2% cellulose; and 0.8% of the extremely toxic carcinogen asbestos, as well as detectable amounts of lead and mercury. There were also unprecedented levels of dioxins and PAHs from the fires which burned for three months. Many of the dispersed substances (asbestos, crystalline silica, lead, cadmium, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) are carcinogenic; other substances can trigger kidney, heart, liver and nervous system deterioration. This was well known by the EPA at the time of collapse. A Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) funded case report performed by Mt Sinai observed carbon nanotubes in dust samples and in the lungs of several 9/11 responders.
This has led to debilitating illnesses among rescue and recovery workers, and the pulmonary fibrosis death of NYPD member Cesar Borja. Increasing numbers of cases are appearing in which first responders are developing serious respiratory ailments. Health effects also extended to some residents, students, and office workers of Lower Manhattan and nearby Chinatown.
Dr. Edwin M. Kilbourne, a high level federal scientist, issued a memo on September 12, 2001, to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention against the speedy return to buildings in the area because of possible hazards from various toxic materials.
Associate City Health Commissioner Kelly McKinney on October 6, 2001, said that proper safety protocol for WTC site workers was not being enforced.
A study of 5,000 rescue workers published in April 2010 by Dr. David J. Prezant the chief medical officer for the Office of Medical Affairs at the New York City Fire Department found that all the workers studied had impaired lung functions with an average impairment of 10 percent. The study found the impairments presented itself in the first year of after the attack with little or no improvements in the ensuing six years. 30 to 40 percent of workers were reporting persistent symptoms and 1000 of the group studied were on "permanent respiratory disability." Dr. Prezant noted the medications that are being given ease symptoms but are not a cure. Dr. Byron Thomashow, medical director of the Center for Chest Disease and Respiratory Failure at New York–Presbyterian/Columbia hospital said that "The drop-off in lung function initially is really quite significant and doesn't get better. That's not what we've generally come to expect in people with fire and smoke exposure. They usually recover."
A study published in December 2012 in The Journal of the American Medical Association observed the possible association between exposure to the World Trade Center debris and excess cancer risk. Over 55,000 individuals enrolled in the World Trade Center Health Registry, separated by rescue and/or recovery workers and non-rescue and/or recovery workers, were observed from 2003 or 2004 to December 31, 2008. The findings showed the overall incidence of all cancers among rescue and/or recovery workers was not significantly elevated, compared to non-rescue and/or recovery workers. Despite this, the incidences for prostate cancer, thyroid cancer, and multiple myeloma were significantly elevated among the rescue and/or recovery workers, in the final year of observation.
On November 28, 2006, the Village Voice reported that several dozen recovery personnel have developed cancer – as opposed to having contracted respiratory ailments, and that doctors have argued that some of these cancers developed as a result of the exposure to toxins at the Ground Zero site: "To date, 75 recovery workers at ground zero have been diagnosed with blood cell cancers that a half-dozen top doctors and epidemiologists have confirmed as having been likely caused by that exposure."
A study published two months after 9/11 found that Americans across the country experienced substantial symptoms of stress after the attacks. Two subsequent studies found that exposure to the attacks was a predictor of the development of PTSD.
Dr. Larry Norton of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Hospital said "Why isn't the whole nation mobilizing to take care of the chronic health impact of this disaster?". Dr. Norton cited the 70 percent illness rate among first responders as "a wake up call." Dr. Nathaniel Hupert of Weill Cornell Medical College, quoted by Jill Gardiner of the October 4, 2006, issue of the New York Sun said that premature deaths and other ailments of dogs in the area are "our canary in the coalmine." Richard Clapp and David Ozonoff, professors of environmental health at Boston University School of Public Health; Michael Thun, director of epidemiological research at the American Cancer Society; Francine Laden, assistant professor of environmental epidemiology at Harvard School of Public Health; Jonathan Samet, chairman of the epidemiology department at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health; and Charles Hesdorffer, associate professor of oncology at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine argue that the cancer incidence among monitored individuals cannot be called a coincidence. They assert that the Ground Zero cloud was likely the cause of the illnesses. The American College of Preventative Medicine is concerned that malignant mesothelioma will develop among persons exposed to Ground Zero air.
There is scientific speculation that exposure to various toxic products and the pollutants in the air surrounding the Towers after the WTC collapse may have negative effects on fetal development. Due to this potential hazard, a notable children's environmental health center (Columbia University Center for Children's Health) is currently analyzing the children whose mothers were pregnant during the WTC collapse, and were living or working near the World Trade Center towers. The staff of this study assesses the children using psychological testing every year and interviews the mothers every six months. The purpose of the study is to determine whether there is significant difference in development and health progression of children whose mothers were exposed, versus those who were not exposed after the WTC collapse.
Mount Sinai Medical Center is conducting an ongoing monitoring program, World Trade Center Worker and Volunteer Medical Screening Program. A leader of Mt. Sinai monitoring efforts is Stephen M. Levin, Medical Director of the Mount Sinai – Irving J. Selikoff Center for Occupational and Environmental Medicine. First responders met in a conference, November 11, 2006, in an effort to monitor responders' health. The event was organized by the World Trade Center Monitoring Program.
An ongoing Pennsylvania State University/Monmouth University study reported that respiratory illnesses grew by more than two hundred percent in the year and a half after the September 11 attacks. (This was the first study that monitored police officers at the Ground Zero site. It was published in the "Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.") In this study of 471 police officers, 19 percent of the officers in October 2001 experienced shortness of breath; 44 percent of the officers experienced shortness of breath in April 2003. The percentage of the 471 officers coughing up phlegm increased from 14 percent in October 2001 to 31 percent in 2003.
A 2006 medical study of fire fighters reported that those personnel who inhaled Ground Zero air essentially lost 12 years of lung function. Additionally, a Mount Sinai report found that 70 percent of recovery and rescue workers reported an increase in debilitated respiratory function between 2002 and 2004.
A 2008 report by New York City's Department of Health indicated that up to 70,000 people might have stress disorder due to the attack. The findings were the result of the city's health registry of September 11 first responders, residents, and others.
Apparently, out of at least 100,000 eligible, fewer than 14,000 have registered, as reported by the National Council for Occupational Safety and Health. The final registration deadline for September 11-related workers' compensation was August 14, 2007.
On July 12, 2007, Governor Eliot Spitzer extended to August 14, 2008, the filing deadline for worker's compensation claims, for people who worked or volunteered at Ground Zero. Individuals would register with the State Workers' Compensation Board.
President George W. Bush's alleged manipulation of EPA statements
President George W. Bush has been faulted by the Sierra Club for allegedly interfering with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) interpretations and pronouncements regarding air quality.
Early statement by Christine Todd Whitman
On September 18, 2001, EPA administrator Christine Todd Whitman told the public, via a press release, "We are very encouraged that the results from our monitoring of air-quality and drinking-water conditions in both New York and near the Pentagon show that the public in these areas is not being exposed to excessive levels of asbestos or other harmful substances" and that "Given the scope of the tragedy from last week, I am glad to reassure the people of New York … that their air is safe to breathe and the water is safe to drink."
Alleged EPA deceptions about Ground Zero air quality
An August 2003 report by the Office of the Inspector General of the EPA said the Bush administration pressured the EPA to remove cautionary information about the air quality at Ground Zero.
Numerous key differences between the draft versions and final versions of EPA statements were found. A recommendation that homes and businesses near ground zero be cleaned by professionals was replaced by a request that citizens follow orders from NYC officials. Another statement that showed concerns about "sensitive populations" was deleted altogether. Language used to describe excessive amounts of asbestos in the area was altered drastically to minimize the dangers it posed.
In September 2006, the U.S. House Committee on Homeland Security held a two-day hearing on illnesses caused by post-9/11 air quality. Former EPA head Christine Todd Whitman was a frequent target of criticism.
EPA scientist Dr. Cate Jenkins said on CBS television on September 8, 2006, that agency officials lied about the air quality in the weeks following September 11, 2001. She said that in her opinion the EPA knew about the toxicity of the air, and that WTC dust included asbestos and disturbingly high PH levels. She said that some of the dust was "as caustic and alkaline as Drano." Dr. Marjorie Clarke also warned of the consequences of breathing toxic dust and fumes. Yet, agencies did not heed her warnings.
The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation conducted a study of the World Trade Center site, but refused to release the results of its study, saying they were part of a criminal investigation.
On September 13, 2006, Congressmen Jerrold Nadler (NY), Anthony Weiner (NY), Bill Pascrell Jr. (NJ) filed a request with US Attorney General Alberto Gonzales to investigate whether criminal charges may be brought against Whitman for lying about air safety in the Ground Zero area.
Alleged government downplaying of health risks
Critics assert that government officials – notably Bush, Christine Todd Whitman (former head of the US EPA), and New York City mayor Rudy Giuliani – downplayed the health risks of the area and rushed to reopen the area around Ground Zero, although this posed a grave and immediate health risk to first responders. Many corporations were eager to hear the news of the New York Stock Exchange being reopened only a few days after the collapse. On June 25, 2007, Whitman testified before a House of Representatives committee chaired by Jerrold Nadler. She said that a White House official informed her that President Bush expected that the Financial District would reopen within three days, that is, by September 14. She said that she replied that this would be cumbersome, since the EPA was still judging the health situation in the area. Investigations after the attacks suggest that the Bush administration pressured Whitman and Giuliani to provide health reassurances in order to keep Wall Street operating.
Two days after the collapse of the World Trade Center, mayor Giuliani said, "The air is safe as far as we can tell, with respect to chemical and biological agents." Giuliani, in attempting to deflate New York Daily News journalist Juan Gonzalez' reportage of the 9/11 air issue, claimed that "the problems created… are not health-threatening." In the first month after the attacks, the mayor said, "The air quality is safe and acceptable."
In November 2001, Giuliani wrote to the city's Congressional delegation and urged that the city's liability for Ground Zero illnesses be limited, in total, at $350 million. Two years after Mayor Giuliani finished his term, FEMA appropriated $1 billion to a special insurance fund to protect the city against 9/11 lawsuits.
In a September 18, 2006 New York Daily News article titled, "Rudy's Black Cloud: WTC health risks may hurt Prez Bid", Sally Regenhard, mother of firefighter Christian Regenhard who died on September 11, is quoted, "There's a large and growing number of both FDNY families, FDNY members, former and current, and civilian families who want to expose the true failures of the Giuliani administration when it comes to 9/11." She told the New York Daily News that she intends to "Swift Boat" Giuliani.
Then senator Hillary Clinton contemplated calling Giuliani to testify before a Senate committee on whether the government failed to protect recovery workers from the effects of polluted Ground Zero air.
Congressman Nadler was quoted in a March 1, 2007, "New York Sun" article, "Potential Clinton-Giuliani Battle Brews Over 9/11 Health Issues." He said that he "absolutely" wishes to interview Giuliani administration officials regarding the environment in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks. He asked, "Who made decisions, if any, that resulted unnecessarily in a lot of people getting sick?"
Handling of cleanup procedure
A May 14, 2007, New York Times article, "Ground Zero Illness Clouding Giuliani's Legacy", gave the interpretation that thousands of workers at Ground Zero have become sick and that "many regard Mr. Giuliani's triumph of leadership as having come with a human cost." The article reported that he seized control of the cleanup of Ground Zero, taking control away from established federal agencies, such as the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the Army Corps of Engineers and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. He instead handed over responsibility to the "largely unknown" city Department of Design and Construction. Documents indicate that the Giuliani administration never enforced federal requirements requiring the wearing of respirators. Concurrently, the administration threatened companies with dismissal if cleanup work slowed.
Workers worked without proper respirators. They wore painters' masks or no covering. Specialists claim that the only effective protection against toxins such as airborne asbestos, is a special respirator. New York Committee for Occupational Safety and Health industrial hygienist David Newman said, "I was down there watching people working without respirators." He continued, "Others took off their respirators to eat. It was a surreal, ridiculous, unacceptable situation."
The local EPA office sidelined the regional EPA office. Dr. Cate Jenkins, a whistle-blower EPA scientist, said that on September 12, 2001, a regional EPA office offered to dispatch 30 to 40 electron microscopes to the WTC pit to test bulk dust samples for the presence of asbestos fibers. Instead, the local office chose the less effective polarized light microscopy testing method. Dr. Jenkins alleged that the local office refused, saying, "We don't want you f—ing cowboys here. The best thing they could do is reassign you to Alaska."
Lawsuit, settlement, and treatment costs
First responders and other individuals are suing the City of New York. Lawyers are criticizing the city for failing to provide proper facial ventilators to clean-up workers. On October 17, 2006, federal judge Alvin K. Hellerstein rejected New York City's motion to dismiss lawsuits that requested health payments to the first responders.
On November 19, 2010, attorneys said that plaintiffs accepted a settlement which should lead to $625 million being paid to more than 10,000 workers experiencing problems as a result of inadequate preparation to work at Ground Zero. Not all affected participated, but those who did not would be eligible for a portion of $7.4 billion provided by the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act, which the U.S. House passed in September 2010. New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg asked the Senate to do the same. The plaintiffs in the settlement would also be eligible for compensation under the Zadroga Act.
On December 22, 2010, the United States Senate passed a 9/11 Health Bill running against opposition of the Republican Party. The measure calls for providing $1.8 billion until 2015 to monitor and treat injuries stemming from exposure to toxic dust and debris at World Trade Center site. There are nearly 60,000 people enrolled in health-monitoring and treatment programs related to the 9/11 attack. The bill is formally known as the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act, named after a New York police detective who took part in the rescue efforts at ground zero and later developed breathing complications.
On October 28, 2007, Jim Riches reported that the City of New York and litigating first responders have shown interest in a legal settlement, to resolve lawsuits against the city. The settlement would yield a financial settlement apportioned in the following manner: forty percent to lawyers, and sixty percent to litigants.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health issued a study on July 17, 2007, indicating that the estimates for monthly costs of treating Ground Zero workers had increased from around $6 million per month to $20 million per month by the end of 2007. The causes of the increased expense lie in the increasing numbers of workers getting sick and the worsening illnesses of workers. This indicated that the planned U.S. House appropriation legislation (of $50 million) for the sick workers, for the coming year, would be inadequate. The number of workers that have registered with area hospitals' Ground Zero programs has reached 37,000. With about 500 new workers registering each month, the institute estimated that the number of registrants could reach 65,000 in two years. (The institute is overseen by the Department of Health and Human Services.) 40 percent of the World Trade Center workers being monitored by a Mount Sinai Hospital study lack health insurance.
In June 2008, New York City argued in federal court that 30 percent of the September 11 plaintiffs did not have serious injuries. This is part of a larger debate over the number of people sickened by the collapse of the Twin Towers.
World Trade Center health administrators and controversies
On June 11, 2007, Mayor Bloomberg appointed Jeffrey Hon as World Trade Center health coordinator. Hon had previously worked as the spokesman for the American Red Cross September 11 Recovery Program. People have offered conflicting statements, however, regarding Hon's role. In an interview with the New York Daily News Hon said that his role was to correct inconsistencies in city agencies and to handle related pension issues. Yet, Mayor Bloomberg said that Hon's role would not involve handling pension-related issues. A press release also indicated that the coordinator will "provide a central repository of WTC health information and ensure effective communication with those who may be experiencing 9/11-related health effects."
Dr. John Howard was appointed the medical administrator of the federal James Zadroga Act fund. On July 22, 2011, Howard's report on a study of a link between particulate exposure in the aftermath and cancer was released. The report said that there was insufficient evidence of a link between particulate exposure and cancer. The report's findings meant that many first responders to the attacks would be limited in their access to funds for medical treatment. Three New York Congressional delegation Representatives, Peter T. King, Carolyn B. Maloney and Jerrold Nadler, said that they believed that further studies would indicate a link between exposures and cancer.
Lawsuit by area residents
Lower Manhattan and Brooklyn residents brought a 111-page lawsuit against the EPA for purported deception of the public about hazards of Ground Zero air and dust. A major force behind this effort is Brooklyn resident Jenna Orkin of the World Trade Center Environmental Organization. On February 2, 2006, Federal Court Judge Deborah Batts issued an 83-page statement, indicating that there are sufficient grounds for the case to proceed. She also rejected granting Whitman immunity from the lawsuit.
On December 10, 2007, legal proceedings began in a case on the question of responsibility of government officials in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001, attacks. Former EPA Director Whitman is among the defendants in the suit; plaintiffs in the suit allege that Whitman is at fault for saying that the downtown Manhattan air was safe in the aftermath of the attacks.
On April 22, 2008, the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit ruled that EPA head Whitman could not be held liable for saying to World Trade Center area residents that the air was safe for breathing after the buildings collapse. The appeals court said that Whitman had based her information on contradictory information and statements from President Bush. The U.S. Department of Justice had argued that holding the agency liable would establish a risky legal precedent because future public officials would be afraid to make public statements. Judge Deborah Batts had previously declined to dismiss Whitman as a defendant, saying that her actions were "conscience-shocking".
An arbitrator has said that most of the complainants that did not participate in an earlier fund (created by Congress) would be granted settlement awards. The awards would total $500 million. This resolution would involve all but 3 of the nearly 100 litigants.
Ground Zero workers' and area residents' protests
On January 30, 2007, Ground Zero workers and groups such as Sierra Club and Unsung Heroes Helping Heroes met at the Ground Zero site and urged President George W. Bush to spend more money on aid for sick Ground Zero workers. They said that the $25 million that Bush promised for the ill workers was inadequate. A Long Island iron-worker, John Sferazo, at the protest rally said, "Why has it taken you 5½ years to meet with us, Mr. President?"
Area residents joined the protest. Mariama James, who lives within blocks of the Ground Zero site, said that she became ill after cleaning the Ground Zero debris and dust from her apartment. "Recovery workers aren't the only people that were affected by this disaster," she said. "There are other people in need of treatment and monitoring."
Ground Zero workers' lawsuit
Families of Ground Zero workers have filed a mass lawsuit against the city. Andrew Carboy of the firm, Sulivan, Pappain, Block, McGrath and Cannovo said of the deaths of Cesar Borja, James Zadroga, and Mark DeBiase, "If Borja, Zadroga and now DeBiase isn't a wakeup call for the city, I don't know what will wake them."
By June 2007, the number of people filing claims against the city, regarding exposure to Ground Zero toxins, reached 10,000. Attorney David Worby is leading a class action lawsuit representing 8,000 people. By September 2007, the number of plaintiffs in the case reached 10,000. "I started this suit on behalf of one cop that got sick." He continued, "Nobody would touch the case with a 10-foot pole because it was considered unpatriotic to say anything against the cleanup or the EPA.
Deceased first responders, workers, volunteers and office workers
- Sister Cindy Mahoney, hospice volunteer
- Mark DeBiase, communications worker
- James Zadroga, NYPD officer (The causes of Zadroga's death are under dispute. He was originally determined to have died from 9/11 dust. However, the City medical examiner asserted that Zadroga died from self-injection of drugs. On the other hand, a third doctor backs the original claim of WTC dust responsibility. James' father, Joseph, said that the medical examiner reported no "track marks on his arms or body.")
- NYPD officer Cesar Borja (Although Officer Borja was referred to in the press as a "first responder", The New York Times reported in February 2007 that Borja actually did not go on duty near the World Trade Center site until late December 2001. He did work traffic and security posts at the site, 12 hours per day.)
- NYPD Detective Robert Williamson
- Felicia Dunn-Jones, attorney (she was added to the official 9/11 list of fatalities)
- NYPD Officer Kevin Hawkins
- NYPD Officer Frank Macri
The lead researcher of a New York State Department of Health study informed The New York Post of a study documenting at least 204 deaths of rescue and recovery workers since September 11, 2001. The researchers for the study confirmed 98 deaths with death certificates. The researchers showed that 77 persons died of illnesses, including 55 from lung and various other cancers. Kitty Gelberg, New York state Bureau of Occupational Health's chief epidemiologist said, "We're not saying they are all World Trade Center related; we're just saying this is what people are dying from." Many of the 55 responders who died from cancer had cancer before September 11, 2001, but most of the cancer patients developed the disease afterward.
The 98 deaths include:
- 55 cancers
- 21 traumatic injuries (motor-vehicle crashes, gunshots and five homicides, including four cops killed in the line of duty)
- 12 heart disease, including 10 heart attacks
- 2 sarcoidosis
- 1 polyneuropathy (neorological disorder)
- 1 pneumonia
- 1 granuloma pneumonitis
- 1 alcoholism
- 1 amyloidosis (bone marrow disorder)
- 1 kidney disease
|This section needs expansion with: additional information about circumstances of each responder's death. You can help by adding to it. (November 2016)|
In particular, first responders, New York Police Department and Fire Department of New York members that reported to Ground Zero, have asserted that they are victims of diseases associated with the toxic cloud from the pulverized buildings and equipment. (See article: Rescue and recovery effort after the September 11 attacks.) NYPD Detective James Zadroga, 34, was the first 9/11 responder whose 2006 death was directly linked with toxic Ground Zero substances. Gerard Breton, a pathologist of the Ocean County, New Jersey medical examiner's office (which conducted an autopsy), reported that "It is felt with a reasonable degree of medical certainty that the cause of death in this case was directly related to the 9/11 incident."
In addition to first responders that responded to the initial attack on the World Trade Center many assisted during recovery operations. Cesar Borja, a veteran of the NYPD, died, falling ill from lung disease. He had spent 16-hour days at the smoldering wreckage of Ground Zero. Detective Robert Williamson, 46, died from pancreatic and lung cancer on May 13, 2007. He worked for 16-hour days, without taking days off, in performing recovery work at the Ground Zero site. After the clean up effort, he was among individuals that lobbied Governor George Pataki to sign a bill permitting retirees suffering from Ground Zero illnesses to have their illnesses reclassified and to receive additional pension benefits. His family and union believe that his cancers were directly caused by exposure to Ground Zero dust at the World Trade Center site.
Twenty year veteran of the NYPD, Officer Kevin Hawkins, 41, died in May 2007 from kidney cancer, soon after filing for a Ground Zero disability pension. He had worked two months at the Ground Zero site.
On September 3, 2007, NYPD Officer Frank Macri died of lung cancer that spread throughout his body, including to his spine. Macri's lungs were filled with dust when the towers collapsed and he later spent two months working on the site. The long hours on the site gave him vomiting spells and he was diagnosed with an already rapidly progressing stage four cancer only one year after the attack, despite being a non-smoker and cancer free before the attacks. In 2011, a lower court ruled that 9/11 toxins were the likely cause of Macri's death. In 2012, the New York Supreme Court ruled that Macri's widow is entitled to line-of-duty death benefits of his full salary.
- Detective Thomas F. Weiner, Jr. New York City Police Department, New York
- Detective William B. Titus, Jr. New York City Police Department, New York
- Police Officer Edward M. Ferraro, New York City Police Department, New York
- Police Officer James J. Godbee, New York City Police Department, New York
- Police Officer Ronald E. Weintraub, New York City Police Department, New York
- Police Officer Gary Mausberg, New York City Police Department, New York
- Police Officer Vito Mauro, New York City Police Department, New York
- Police Officer David Mahmoud, New York City Police Department, New York
- Police Officer Frank Macri, New York City Police Department, New York
- Detective John F. Kristoffersen, New York City Police Department, New York
- Police Officer Louise M. Johnston, New York City Police Department, New York
- Police Officer Richard Jakubowsky, New York City Police Department, New York
- Police Officer Richard G. Holland, New York City Police Department, New York
- Detective William J. Holfester, New York City Police Department, New York
- Detective Alick W. Herrmann, New York City Police Department, New York
- Police Officer Robert B. Helmke, New York City Police Department, New York
- Detective Kevin Hawkins, New York City Police Department, New York
- Sergeant Claire T. Hanrahan, New York City Police Department, New York
- Police Officer Robert C. Grossman, New York City Police Department, New York
- Detective John E. Goggin, New York City Police Department, New York
- Captain Edward C. Gilpin, New York City Police Department, New York
- Captain Barry Galfano, New York City Police Department, New York
- Detective Carmen M. Figueroa, New York City Police Department, New York
- Inspector Donald G. Feser, New York City Police Department, New York
- Police Officer Robert M. Ehmer, New York City Police Department, New York
- Police Officer Renee Dunbar, New York City Police Department, New York
- Detective Corey J. Diaz, New York City Police Department, New York
- Sergeant Garrett Danza, New York City Police Department, New York
- Detective Kevin A. Czartoryski, New York City Police Department, New York
- Police Officer Daniel C. Conroy, New York City Police Department, New York
- Sergeant Charles J. Clark, New York City Police Department, New York
- Lieutenant Steven L. Cioffi, New York City Police Department, New York
- Officer Madeline Carlo, New York City Police Department, New York
- Deputy Chief Steven Bonano, New York City Police Department, New York
- Frank M. Bolusi, New York City Police Department, New York
- Ronald G. Becker, Jr., New York City Police Department, New York
- Karen E. Barnes, New York City Police Department, New York
- Alex W. Baez, New York City Police Department, New York
- Detective Sandra Y. Adrian, New York City Police Department, New York
- Officer Charles D. Cole, Jr., Nassau County Police Department, New York
- Officer Thomas G. Brophy, New York City Police Department, New York
- Special Agent William Sheldon, ATF
- Investigator Paul R. Stuewer, New York State Police, New York
Surviving first responders and their advocates are asserting that their illnesses have resulted from exposure to toxins at Ground Zero. The Patrolmen's Benevolent Association of the City of New York (PBA) filed a lawsuit to secure benefits for Officer Christopher Hynes, 36. In March 2004 he was diagnosed as having sarcoidosis. However, the NYPD has refused to bestow line-of-duty injury status to him. Hynes had worked for 111 hours at Ground Zero and its vicinity. He claims that he was never given a proper respirator for his work at Ground Zero. He has had difficulty in paying medical bills because of the denial of line-of-duty status. One medical provider sued him for $3,094 for medical bills. The provider eventually settled out of court for $1,625. The PBA noted that firefighters, by contrast, have been given line-of-duty status for their injuries.
Hundreds of volunteer firefighters, construction workers, health professionals, clergy, and other individuals descended upon the scene in the days immediately following the attacks. These individuals volunteered directly at the Ground Zero site or cared for traumatized responders. Among individuals in the latter group, newspaper accounts have cited South Carolinian Episcopal nun, Sister Cindy Mahoney’s death as a fatality of Ground Zero illness. Mahoney spent several months attending to first responders’ spiritual needs. Two weeks prior to her death, she was cut off from her insurance. She choked to death on November 1, 2006, following five years of lung troubles.
Sen. Hillary Clinton on Sister Mahoney and Ground Zero illness: “We know that so many are now suffering health effects from breathing the toxic air at Ground Zero … Yet there are still some who doubt the link. By raising attention to her own devastating illness, Sister Mahoney will continue as she did in life, to help those affected by 9/11.”
Communications recovery worker Mark DeBiase, aged 41, died on April 9, 2006, from a Ground Zero illness. He worked without protective gear for restoring communications at the site. "DeBiase's work was so crucial in emergency workers to communicate that he was shuttled between locations in a military helicopter," according to his father, Angelo DeBiase.
Manuel Checo is one of many janitors that performed cleanup work who now suffer from World Trade Center cough. He spent six months at the site. Compounding janitorial workers’ troubles, three-quarters of them lack health insurance.
Financial district personnel
Civil rights attorney Felicia Dunn-Jones, 42, died February 10, 2002, from sarcoidosis. The city's chief medical examiner belatedly attributed her death to her being engulfed in the dust cloud from the collapse of the Twin Towers, one block from her office.
Educators and students
Students and staff at Stuyvesant High School returned to the school which lies within one-third of a mile north of the World Trade Center site, while fires were still burning at Ground Zero. Alumni are circulating a petition for greater attention to health problems related to the Ground Zero air. There is a debate over whether the 2002 Class President Amit Friedlander's developing cancer is related to Ground Zero air.
In addition, the students and staff members at the Murry Bergtraum High School returned to the building a couple of days after the attack, with the air system in the school severely affected and damaged from the debris and dust from the World Trade Center site (the school is three-quarters of a mile east of the site). Several teachers, particularly from the business department, and students have developed asthma and other breathing problems because of the lack of unpolluted air and the failure to clean the school's central air system thoroughly years after the attack.
- Fallout: The Health Impact of 9/11
- Dust to Dust: The Health Effects of 9/11
- The Toxic Clouds of 9/11: A Looming Disaster
- Toxic Legacy
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to health effects arising from the September 11 attacks.|
|Wikinews has related news:|
- Casualties of the September 11 attacks
- Collapse of the World Trade Center
- EPA 9/11 pollution controversy
- James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act
- Rescue and recovery effort after the September 11 attacks
- World Trade Center Health Program
- Barry, Ellen (October 14, 2006). "Lost in the Dust of 9/11". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 4, 2010.
- "World Trade Center Health Program FAQ". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved July 2, 2012.
- Armour, Stephanie (June 25, 2006). "9/11 Health Troubles?". USA Today. Retrieved May 4, 2010.
- Anita Gates, "Buildings Rise from Rubble while Health Crumbles", The New York Times, September 11, 2006, reporting on the documentary by Heidi Dehncke-Fisher, "Dust to Dust: The Health Effects of 9/11"
- "What was Found in the Dust". The New York Times. September 5, 2006. Retrieved 2006-09-08.
- Dr. Dennis Charney, in the September 2006 edition of Environmental Health Perspectives, the journal of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
- Wu M, Gordon RE, Herbert R, Padilla M, Moline J, et al. (2009). "Case Report: Lung Disease in World Trade Center Responders Exposed to Dust and Smoke: Carbon Nanotubes Found in the Lungs of World Trade Center Patients and Dust Samples". Environmental Health Perspectives. 118 (4): 499–504. PMC . PMID 20368128. doi:10.1289/ehp.0901159.
- Schapiro, Rich (April 12, 2006). "WTC air doomed ex-cop". New York Daily News. Retrieved 2006-09-08.
- NOTE: son's name spelt differently -ASSOCIATED PRESS, Bush May Meet With Dead Officer’s Son, The New York Times, January 30, 2007
- Carl Campanile, "Kin Suing City over 'WTC toxin' Death" "New York Post" January 29, 2007, p. 2
- Jeff Stier, "The Mystery of Lung Disease", New York Sun', February 20, 2007
- Depalma, Anthony (May 13, 2006). "Tracing Lung Ailments That Rose With 9/11 Dust". The New York Times. Retrieved May 4, 2010.
- "Updated Ground Zero Report Examines Failure of Government to Protect Citizens". Sierra Club. 2006. Archived from the original on June 11, 2010. Retrieved 2006-09-08.
- Juan Gonzalez, "Clearing the Air with Truth", New York Daily News, September 5, 2001.
- Grady, Denise (2010-04-07). "Lung Function of 9/11 Rescuers Fell, Study Finds". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- Li, J; Cone, JE; Kahn, AR; Brackbill, RM; Farfel, MR; Greene, CM; Hadler, JL; Stayner, LT; Stellman, SD (2012). "Association between World Trade Center exposure and excess cancer risk". JAMA. American Medical Association. 308 (23): 2479–88. PMID 23288447. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.110980. Retrieved December 20, 2012.
- Lombardi, Kristen (2006-11-21). "Death by Dust". Village Voice. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- Schuster, Mark A.; Stein, Bradley D.; Jaycox, Lisa H.; Collins, Rebecca L.; Marshall, Grant N.; Elliott, Marc N.; Zhou, Annie J.; Kanouse, David E.; Morrison, Janina L.; Berry, Sandra H. (15 November 2001). "A National Survey of Stress Reactions after the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks". New England Journal of Medicine. 345 (20): 1507–1512. doi:10.1056/NEJM200111153452024.
- Schlenger, William E.; Caddell, Juesta M.; Ebert, Lori; Jordan, B. Kathleen; Rourke, Kathryn M.; Wilson, David; Thalji, Lisa; Dennis, J. Michael; Fairbank, John A.; Kulka, Richard A. (7 August 2002). "Psychological Reactions to Terrorist Attacks". JAMA. 288 (5): 581. doi:10.1001/jama.288.5.581.
- Galea, Sandro; Ahern, Jennifer; Resnick, Heidi; Kilpatrick, Dean; Bucuvalas, Michael; Gold, Joel; Vlahov, David (28 March 2002). "Psychological Sequelae of the September 11 Terrorist Attacks in New York City". New England Journal of Medicine. 346 (13): 982–987. doi:10.1056/NEJMsa013404.
- "Top Doctors Say Trade Center Dust Could Cause Cancer". Retrieved June 15, 2015.
- BBC News online Friday, April 26, 2002, 16:19 GMT 17:19 UK "Ground Zero cancer fears"
- "CCCEH Study of the Effects of 9/11 on Pregnant Women and Newborns". World Trade Center Pregnancy Study. Columbia University. 2006. Retrieved 2006-09-08.
- "World Trade Center Health Program - The Mount Sinai Hospital". The Mount Sinai Hospital. Retrieved June 15, 2015.
- "Testimony of Stephen Levin, Feb. 11, 2002". Retrieved June 15, 2015.
- "9/11 responders seek options for care - Newsday.com". 2006-11-14. Archived from the original on November 14, 2006. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- Carl Campanile, "9/11 is Still Taking Cops' Breath Away", New York Daily News, April 16, 2007, p. 2
- ABC News. "9/11 First Responders Gravely Ill". ABC News. Retrieved June 15, 2015.
- "Study: 70,000 may suffer post-9/11 stress disorder". 2015-11-07. Archived from the original on November 7, 2015. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "3 Months Remain for 9/11-Related Workers’ Compensation Program - Tort Deform". Retrieved June 15, 2015.
- Depalma, Anthony (2007-07-13). "Albany: Extension for 9/11 Compensation". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Ground Zero Report > Sierra Club". Archived from the original on June 11, 2010.
- EPA,OIG, US. "EPA's Office of Inspector General" (PDF). www.epa.gov. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- Laurie Garrett (August 23, 2003). "EPA Misled Public on 9/11 Pollution". Newsday. Archived from the original on November 20, 2006.
- Devlin Barrett (September 8, 2006). "EPA, NYC Blamed for 9/11 Health Problems". Associated Press.
- "Insider: EPA Lied About WTC Air". CBS News. September 8, 2006.
- "World Trade Center Environmental Organization". Retrieved June 15, 2015.
- Juan Gonzalez, "Fallout: The Hidden Consequences of 9/11", In These Times, September 10, 2002 http://www.alternet.org/911oneyearlater/14073/
- "Press Release of Representative Jerrold Nadler". 2012-07-15. Archived from the original on July 15, 2012. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- Persons interviewed in Dust to Dust:The Health Effects of 9/11.
- Juan Gonzalez, "Former head of EPA Whitman doesn't second guess opening up lower Manhattan after 9/11", New York Daily News, June 26, 2007, p. 5
- "The poisonous legacy of 9/11". www.newstatesman.com. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- Ben Smith, Rudy's Black Cloud: WTC Health Risks May Hurt Prez Bid." New York Daily News, September 18, 2006, p. 14
- Kahan, Wayne Barrett with special research assistance by Alexandra (2007-07-31). "Rudy Giuliani's Five Big Lies About 9/11". Village Voice. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "The 9/11 Cover-Up | DiscoverMagazine.com". Discover Magazine. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "village voice > nyclife > Press Clips: Dishonorable Non-Mention: Juan Gonzalez and the Daily News' 9/11 Pulitzer by Keach Hagey". 2008-02-13. Archived from the original on February 13, 2008. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- Depalma, Anthony (2007-05-14). "Ground Zero Illnesses Clouding Giuliani’s Legacy". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- Wallsten, Peter (April 8, 2007). "Giuliani foes plan to use 9/11 against him". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on June 21, 2007. Retrieved May 4, 2010.
- "Potential Clinton-Giuliani Battle Brews Over 9/11 Health Issues". Retrieved June 15, 2015.
- Russell Berman, "Potential Clinton-Giuliani Battle Brews Over 9/11 Health Issues", New York Sun', March 1, 2007
- Depalma, Anthony (2006-06-23). "9/11 Suit Tests New York Stand on Immunity". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- Anthony DePalma, "Ruling Opens a Door for Thousands of Ground Zero Lawsuits", The New York Times, October 18, 2006, B1.
- Solomon, Jesse (November 19, 2010). "9/11 workers approve settlement with New York City". CNN. Retrieved 2010-11-23.
- Hernandez, Raymond (December 22, 2010). "Senate Passes 9/11 Health Bill as Republicans Back Down". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-12-23.
- "Ducking WTC Air Blame? - Free Market News Network". 2007-10-29. Archived from the original on October 29, 2007. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- Depalma, Anthony (2007-07-18). "Big Cost Increase Is Predicted to Treat Ground Zero Workers". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- Depalma, Anthony (2008-06-25). "City Questions 9/11 Workers’ Claims of Illness". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- Jordan Lite and Michael Saul, Daily News, June 12, 2007, p. 4
- Distribution, Media-Newswire.com - Press Release. "Media-Newswire.com - Press Release Distribution - PR Agency". media-newswire.com. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- Hartocollis, Anemona (2011-07-26). "Not Enough Evidence to Link 9/11 and Cancer, Report Finds". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- Lombardi, Kristen (2006-02-14). "Truth Out". Village Voice. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Christie lied, panel is told". NY Daily News. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- The Associated Press April 22, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/us/AP-EPA-Sept-11-Lawsuit.html?_r=1&scp=2&sq=whitman&st=nyt&oref=slogin
- "Most September 11th Lawsuits Settled For $500 Million - NY1.com". 2012-08-20. Archived from the original on August 20, 2012. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- Emi Endo, "Sick 9/11 workers protest at Ground Zero" Newsday, January 31, 2007 http://www.newsday.com/news/nationworld/nation/am-groundzero0201,0,1528416.story?coll=ny-main-bigpix
- "Congresswoman Carolyn Maloney". Congresswoman Carolyn Maloney. Retrieved June 15, 2015.
- "The 9/11 Cover-Up | DiscoverMagazine.com". Discover Magazine. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "City says drug use, not dust killed 9/11 hero James Zadroga. "New York Daily News" http://www.nydailynews.com/news/2007/10/26/2007-10-26_city_says_drug_use_not_dust_killed_911_h-2.html
- "Police Officer Cesar A. Borja". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- Chan, Sewell; Baker, Al (2007-02-13). "Weeks After a Death, Twists in Some 9/11 Details". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Police Officer Frank Macri". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Cancer ends his fitness life after toil at the Pit". NY Daily News. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Another of the Forgotten Victims". 2009-01-31. Archived from the original on January 31, 2009. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- Susan Edelman, "Charting post-9/11 deaths", New York Post, January 6, 2008, p. 2
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 7, 2015. Retrieved 2006-11-18. or Devlin Barrett, "Ground Zero workers seek answers: Autopsy links cop's death to dust", Chicago Sun-Times, April 21, 2006.
- ADAM LISBERG, NICOLE BODE and DAVID SALTONSTALL, "Look me in the eye & save WTC heroes" New York Daily News January 25, 2007 http://www.nydailynews.com/news/local/story/491657p-414162c.html
- Reuven Blau, "'Hero Times 2' Detective A Cancer Victim", The Chief, May 25, 2007, p. 1
- SARAH NETTER, "Nanuet man dies at 46; Ground Zero-link suspected", The Journal News, May 15, 2007, http://www.thejournalnews.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070515/NEWS03/705150364/1019/NEWS03 Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Earth Times: show/60706.html". Retrieved June 15, 2015.
- "Cop's ray of hope in fight with cancer". NY Daily News. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Court: 9/11 toxins likely caused cop's fatal cancer". NY Daily News. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- Report, Post Staff (2012-12-13). "NY top court extends 9/11 benefits for 3 police officers". New York Post. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Detective Thomas F. Weiner, Jr.". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Retrieved 2016-11-29.
- "Detective William B. Titus, Jr.". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Retrieved 2016-11-29.
- "Police Officer Edward M. Ferraro". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Police Officer James J. Godbee". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Police Officer Ronald E. Weintraub". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Retrieved 2016-11-29.
- "Police Officer Gary Mausberg". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Police Officer Vito Mauro". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Police Officer David Mahmoud". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Archived from the original on March 9, 2015. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Police Officer Frank Macri". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Detective John F. Kristoffersen". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Police Officer Louise M. Johnston". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Police Officer Richard Jakubowsky". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Police Officer Richard G. Holland". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Detective William J. Holfester". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Detective Alick W. Herrmann". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Police Officer Robert B. Helmke". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Detective Kevin Hawkins". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Sergeant Claire T. Hanrahan". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Police Officer Robert C. Grossman". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Detective John E. Goggin". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Captain Edward C. Gilpin". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Captain Barry Galfano". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Detective Carmen M. Figueroa". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Inspector Donald G. Feser". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Police Officer Robert M. Ehmer". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Archived from the original on March 9, 2015. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Police Officer Renee Dunbar". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Detective Corey J. Diaz". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Sergeant Garrett Danza". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Detective Kevin A. Czartoryski". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Archived from the original on March 9, 2015. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Police Officer Daniel C. Conroy". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Sergeant Charles J. Clark". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Lieutenant Steven L. Cioffi". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Police Officer Madeline Carlo". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Deputy Chief Steven Bonano". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Police Officer Frank M. Bolusi". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Archived from the original on September 6, 2012. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Police Officer Ronald G. Becker, Jr.". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Police Officer Karen E. Barnes". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Sergeant Alex W. Baez". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Detective Sandra Y. Adrian". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Police Officer Charles D. Cole, Jr.". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Police Officer Thomas G. Brophy". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Special Agent William C. Sheldon". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Investigator Paul R. Stuewer". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Retrieved 2016-11-29.
- "PBA SUES TO BOO$T '9/11 AIR VICTIM' | By DAVID SEIFMAN | New York News | New York City News | NY News". 2007-09-29. Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "NY1: Law Enforcement". 2007-09-27. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- Dave Goldiner, "Lung illness take an Angel of Ground Zero." "New York Daily News." November 3, 2006, p. 4
- SEWELL CHAN, "Officer Who Epitomized Ills of Ground Zero Workers Dies", January 24, 2007, A, Page 17
- Barry, Ellen (2006-10-14). "Lost in the Dust of 9/11". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- Maggie Haberman, "Post-9/11 death is a homicide", New York Post, May 24, 2007, 4
- Maggie Westfeldt, "One more 9/11 victim to be named on 6th anniversary of attacks", Newsday, September 8, 2007 http://www.newsday.com/news/local/wire/newyork/ny-bc-ny--anothervictim0908sep08,0,7252878.story
- "AsthmaMoms World Trade Center: Environmental Health Articles 2001". 2012-02-02. Archived from the original on February 2, 2012. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- StuyHealth. "StuyHealth: March 2006". Retrieved June 15, 2015.
Ground Zero environmental advocacy organizations
- 9/11 Environmental Action
- World Trade Center Environmental Organization
- "Beyond Ground Zero" a group of community-based organizations assisting low-income residents and workers.
- Feal Good Foundation, a non-profit organization, whose aim is to disseminate information about the health problems of September 11 responders
- 9/11 Health Now
- Wayne Barrett and Dan Collins, Grand Illusion: The Untold Story of Rudy Giuliani and 9/11 (2006), ISBN 0-06-053661-6
- Juan Gonzalez, Fallout: The Environmental Consequences of the World Trade Center Collapse (2002), ISBN 1-56584-754-7
- Steve Centore, One of Them: A First Responder’s Story (2008), ISBN 0-9801274-0-8;
- Fallout: The Health Impact of 9/11 – produced by Linda Sills and the BBC, aired in May 2006 on BBC World.
- 911: Dust and Deceit at the WTC – produced by Penny Little and People to People TV.
- Sicko – produced by Michael Moore and Dog Eat Dog Films, theatrically released on June 29, 2007, by The Weinstein Company.
- Surveillance for World Trade Center Disaster Health Effects Among Survivors of Collapsed and Damaged Buildings – Centers for Disease Control
- World Trade Center Response – National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
- Centers for Disease Control press release, First Reports of Health Effects in World Trade Center Rescue and Recovery Workers Find High Rates of Respiratory and Mental Health Problems
- Natural Resources Defense Council site on the Environmental Impacts of the World Trade Center Attacks
- Katie Couric's September 2006 60 Minutes report on Ground Zero illness
- Transcript of Living on Earth radio program on health effects of the cleanup
- World Trade Center Residential Dust Cleanup Program: Final Report Environmental Protection Agency