Spitzer in 2004
|54th Governor of New York|
January 1, 2007 – March 17, 2008
|Preceded by||George Pataki|
|Succeeded by||David Paterson|
|63rd Attorney General of New York|
January 1, 1999 – December 31, 2006
|Preceded by||Dennis Vacco|
|Succeeded by||Andrew Cuomo|
Eliot Laurence Spitzer
June 10, 1959
New York City, New York, U.S.
(m. 1987; div. 2013)
After serving for six years as a prosecutor with the office of the Manhattan District Attorney, Spitzer worked as an attorney in private practice with several New York law firms. He was then elected to two four-year terms as the Attorney General of New York, serving from 1999 to 2006; during this period, Spitzer became known as the "Sheriff of Wall Street" for his efforts to curb corruption in the financial services industry. Spitzer was elected Governor of New York in 2006 and served as the 54th Governor of New York from January 1, 2007 until his resignation on March 17, 2008 in the midst of a prostitution scandal.
Since 2008, Spitzer has worked as a television host and an adjunct instructor; he also ran unsuccessfully for New York City Comptroller in 2013, engaged in real estate activity, and made private investments in a start-up company.
Early life and education
Eliot Laurence Spitzer was born in 1959 in the Bronx, New York City, the son of Anne (née Goldhaber), an English literature professor, and Bernard Spitzer, a real estate mogul. His paternal grandparents were Galician Jews, born in Tluste, Poland, now Ukraine. His maternal grandparents, born in the 1890s, were Jewish emigrants from Ottoman-era Palestine (now Israel). Spitzer is the youngest of three children. He was raised in the affluent Riverdale section of the Bronx. His family was not religious, and Spitzer did not have a bar mitzvah.
He is a 1977 graduate of Horace Mann School. After scoring 1590 out of 1600 on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), he attended Princeton University and graduated with an A.B. from the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs in 1981 after completing a 151-page-long senior thesis titled "Revolutions in Post-Stalin Eastern Europe: A Study of Soviet Reactions". He then received his Juris Doctor at Harvard Law School. At Princeton, he was elected chairman of the undergraduate student government and graduated in 1981. He has said he received a perfect score on the Law School Admission Test (LSAT), and went on to attend Harvard Law School, where he met and married Silda Wall. Spitzer was an editor of the Harvard Law Review.
Upon receiving his Juris Doctor, Spitzer clerked for Judge Robert W. Sweet of the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York, then joined the law firm of Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison. He stayed there for less than two years before leaving to join the New York County District Attorney's office.
Spitzer joined the staff of Manhattan District Attorney Robert Morgenthau, where he became chief of the labor-racketeering unit and spent six years (1986–1992) pursuing organized crime. Spitzer's biggest case came in 1992, when he led the investigation that ended the Gambino crime family's organized crime control of Manhattan's trucking and garment industries. Spitzer devised a plan to set up his own sweatshop in the city's garment district, where he turned out shirts, pants and sweaters, and hired 30 laborers. The shop manager eventually got close to the Gambinos, and officials were able to plant a bug in their office. The Gambinos, rather than being charged with extortion—which was hard to prove—were charged with antitrust violations. Joseph and Thomas Gambino, the latter being an extremely high-ranking member, and two other defendants took the deal and avoided jail by pleading guilty, paying $12 million in fines and agreeing to stay out of the business.
Spitzer left the District Attorney's office in 1992 to work at the law firm of Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom. From 1994 to 1998 he worked at the law firm Constantine and Partners on a number of consumer rights and antitrust cases.
New York State Attorney General
In February 1991 Robert Abrams, a Democrat and the longstanding New York State Attorney General, announced his intention to run for the U.S. Senate seat for New York then occupied by incumbent Republican U.S. Senator Al D'Amato. When he announced his intention the Senate election was almost two years in the future. Abrams won the nomination in the Democratic primary but narrowly lost to D'Amato in the general election in November 1992. Ten months later, in September 1993, Abrams announced that he would resign his position as Attorney General as of December 31, 1993, although he still had one year remaining in his term. To fill this vacancy the New York State Legislature elected Assemblyman G. Oliver Koppell to serve out the remainder of the Attorney General's term during 1993.
Thirty-four-year-old Spitzer decided to run as a Democratic candidate in the 1994 election for Attorney General, as did Koppell, Brooklyn Family Court Judge Karen Burstein, and Kings County DA Charles J. Hynes. At the time, Spitzer was a young and relatively unknown defense attorney representing white-collar criminals. When he announced his campaign Spitzer suggested that, if elected, he would use the state's antitrust laws to pursue corporate polluters. Spitzer was the only candidate to support the death penalty. In a televised debate among the candidates, Spitzer was criticized for financing his campaign using $3 million of his own and family money. Despite heavy funding from his own family, he placed last among the four Democratic candidates for the nomination, receiving just 19% of the vote. Burstein, the only woman and gay candidate, won the primary with 31% of vote. Burstein subsequently lost in the general election to Republican Dennis Vacco, part of a nationwide Republican sweep, that included the election of Republican George Pataki as the new Governor of New York displacing the Democratic incumbent, Governor Mario Cuomo.
Four years later, Spitzer again wanted to run for Attorney General and on May 6, 1998, he announced he would run for the office for a second time. On May 28, he emerged as the front-runner among the Democratic candidates, ranking first at the Democratic convention with 36% of the vote. He also had the most amount of money, with over $2 million. In September, he won the Democratic primary election with 42% of the vote. He defeated State Senator Catherine Abate (27%), Koppell (22%), and former Governor's Counsel Evan Davis (9%). In the general election Spitzer would face the incumbent, Dennis Vacco, a Republican.
In late October 1998, Spitzer conceded that his father had lent him most of the campaign money he raised. According to The New York Times, after "repeatedly contending that he alone paid his campaign bills this year and in 1994, [Spitzer] acknowledged [that] his father, a wealthy real estate developer, [played] an extensive role in helping to finance his campaigns." He financed the campaigns from two sets of loans—both from J.P. Morgan & Company—that amounted to $4.3 million in 1994 and $4.8 million in 1998. Spitzer said, "I have worked long, long hours for my dad and for various businesses. Look, I'm not saying that I am underpaid. But any effort to challenge the propriety of that fee is way off base."
On October 28, The New York Times endorsed Spitzer, opining that both candidates were flawed but adding that "Vacco's performance and his key policy positions make him an even worse choice [than Spitzer]". In November, Spitzer went on to defeat Republican incumbent Dennis Vacco by a small margin of victory of 0.6%. Spitzer did not win a single county in Upstate New York and won a total of six counties statewide (New York (81%), Bronx (80%), Kings (75%), Queens (67%), Westchester (52%), and Rockland (48%)).
2002 reelection campaign
As Attorney General, Spitzer stepped up the profile of the office. Traditionally, state attorneys general have pursued consumer rights cases, concentrating on local fraud while deferring national issues to the federal government. Breaking with this traditional deference, Spitzer took up civil actions and criminal prosecutions relating to corporate white-collar crime, securities fraud, Internet fraud, and environmental protection. The New York Attorney General's office has Wall Street (and thus many leading corporate and financial institutions) within its jurisdiction. Also, the New York Attorney General wields greater than usual powers of investigation and prosecution of corporations under New York State's General Business Law. In particular, under the Martin Act of 1921, the New York Attorney General has the power to subpoena witnesses and company documents pertaining to investigations of fraud or illegal activity by a corporation. Spitzer used this statute to allow his office to prosecute cases which have been described as within federal jurisdiction. Spitzer used this authority in his civil actions against corporations and criminal prosecutions against their officers. It proved useful in the wake of several U.S. corporate scandals that began with the collapse of Enron in 2001. Several of these corporations, as well as the brokerage houses that sold their stock, were accused of having inflated stock values by unethical means throughout the 1990s. When inquiries into these allegations by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and Congress failed, Spitzer's office used its subpoena power to obtain corporate documents, building cases against the firms both in courtrooms and in public opinion.
In 2004, The Nation endorsed Spitzer as a possible Democratic candidate for vice president, stating that he was "the single most effective battler against corporate abuses in either political party". He was, however, not chosen.
Loan investigation controversy
The New York State Senate Investigations committee considered investigating a controversial multi-million-dollar loan the governor's father Bernard Spitzer gave him when he ran for attorney general in 1998, a loan the younger Spitzer paid back. Senate Investigations Committee chairman George Winner told the New York Post that subpoenas should be used to find out about the loans. Winner wrote to Senate Elections Committee chairman Senator Joseph Griffo that an article profiling Spitzer in New York magazine "outlined what may have been a willful effort by Eliot Spitzer and his father to circumvent campaign-contribution limits in New York state law and then conceal their actions." In 1998, Spitzer claimed that he secured the $5 million loan by mortgaging apartments his father had given him, but later revealed that his father was paying off the loans and, therefore, financing his campaign.
2006 gubernatorial campaign
On December 8, 2004, Spitzer announced his intention to seek the Democratic nomination for governor of New York. While long rumored, Spitzer's announcement was unusually early—nearly two years before the election. As a result of Spitzer's relative speed in bringing state Democrats to his side, he gained the respect of Democratic leaders nationwide. New Mexico Governor Bill Richardson dubbed Spitzer the "future of the Democratic Party" at a fund raiser held in June 2005 for Spitzer's gubernatorial campaign.
In January 2006, Spitzer selected New York State Senate minority leader David Paterson as his choice for lieutenant governor and running mate. After announcing his candidacy, Spitzer was endorsed by numerous New Yorkers, including state Comptroller Alan Hevesi and two former New York City mayors, David Dinkins and Ed Koch. On May 30, 2006, Spitzer and Paterson won the endorsement of the New York State Democratic party. A June 2006 Quinnipiac University Polling Institute poll showed him leading Nassau county executive Thomas Suozzi 76–13 percent. On July 25, 2006, he faced Suozzi in a gubernatorial debate held at Pace University in Manhattan, discussing issues such as public authorities and Medicaid. When asked about marijuana, Spitzer stated that he disagrees with medicinal use of the drug, claiming that other medicines were more effective. In the Democratic primary held on September 12, 2006, Spitzer handily defeated Suozzi, securing his party's nomination with 81 percent of the vote.
Spitzer was elected governor on November 7, 2006, when he defeated Republican John Faso and Libertarian John Clifton, among others, with 69 percent of the vote. He won with the largest margin of victory ever in a New York gubernatorial race.
Governor of New York
During the traditional midnight ceremony on January 1, 2007, Spitzer was sworn in as Governor of New York. A public ceremony was held at 1 p.m. on the same day that featured brass and percussion players from the Empire State Youth Orchestra. Bucking tradition, the ceremony was held outdoors—the first outdoor inauguration ceremony in New York for over a century. After taking the oath of office, he attended a concert at the Times Union Center in his honor, headlined by James Taylor and Natalie Merchant.
Legislative measures supported
- Jonathan's Law. In May 2007, Governor Spitzer signed this legislation concerning parental and guardian access to files and records concerning their children and child abuse investigations.
- The Reproductive Health and Privacy Protection Act, an abortion rights measure introduced by Spitzer in 2007.
Roadblocks to reform
Spitzer's reform-based platform, and his pledge "to change the ethics of Albany", hit an early roadblock when his ideas on how to fill vacancies in the executive department were defeated by the state legislature. According to the New York State Constitution, it is the duty of the state legislature to fill executive vacancies. The governor was criticized as unreasonable for admonishing the legislature when it took constitutional actions. The appointment of state assemblyman Thomas DiNapoli to succeed the disgraced Alan Hevesi as New York State Comptroller was a serious blow to the new governor. Spitzer had backed an outside panel to draft a list of qualified candidates; the legislature resisted Spitzer's desires when these included no legislators. Some Assembly Democrats were alienated over the incident, and questioned Spitzer's refusal of extending patronage to party members seeking local[vague] political appointments.[verification needed] Spitzer's choice was New York City Finance Commissioner Martha Stark, who was selected by a panel that consisted of former State Comptroller Edward Regan, former State Comptroller Carl McCall and former New York City Comptroller Harrison J. Goldin. On February 7, 2007, when the Legislature voted, Stark was one of two names put into nomination, along with Assemblyman Thomas DiNapoli of Long Island, Assembly Leader Sheldon Silver's choice. The final vote was 150 for DiNapoli and 56 for Stark. Stark's main support came from Democrats in the Senate, along with Republicans in both chambers.[verification needed]
Spitzer traveled to the home districts of Democratic assemblymen William B. Magnarelli and George S. Latimer (in Syracuse and Westchester County respectively), and publicly criticized them for their votes on DiNapoli; he had plans to exert similar pressure on other of his party's legislators.
One of Spitzer's key campaign pledges was to reform the state budget process. While the state did pass a budget on schedule in 2007, the ultimate results fell short of what many reformers hoped Spitzer would achieve. The New York Post opined, "Spitzer promised reform, and delivered something completely different" and termed the budget itself "bitterly disappointing."
Spitzer's budget quickly turned into a deficit, as by the end of October it was projected the state would run a deficit exceeding $4 billion for the year. During Spitzer's first year the state payroll increased, aggravating the budget problem. Despite increasing the public sector payroll, in late 2007 New York State started leading the nation in lost jobs. The 2008–09 budget includes measures to counter financial effects of the crisis in the financial sector starting in the second half of 2007.
Spitzer was criticized by members of the New York State Legislature for failing to compromise on issues during his first few months as governor. In one exchange, according to the New York Post, Spitzer told New York State Assembly Minority Leader James Tedisco: "Listen, I'm a f---king steamroller and I'll roll over you and anybody else". Spitzer's reputation as a "steamroller" was shared by a plurality of New Yorkers in a Quinnipiac University poll, but by a 3-to-1 margin they believed the tactic had been unsuccessful and had only added to political gridlock.
Tedisco later accused Spitzer of cutting $300,000 of state funding for health care and education grants in the Schenectady area as retaliation for Tedisco's opposition to the Spitzer plan to allow illegal immigrants New York State driver's licenses. Tedisco accused the Governor of "dirty tricks" and "bullying".
In the wake of the political surveillance controversy involving Bruno, Spitzer was accused of pandering to special interest groups to solidify his base of support. "The governor who took office vowing to clean up Albany has lost so much public support that he is reduced to feathering the nest of the unions and other liberals," wrote Michael Goodwin of the Daily News.
Proposal to legalize same-sex marriage
In April 2007, Spitzer proposed a bill that would legalize same-sex marriage in New York. State Senate Majority Leader Joe Bruno announced his opposition to the proposal. This legislation passed in the State Assembly on June 19, 2007, but was denied in the State Senate and was returned to the Assembly.
Use of State Police for surveillance / "Troopergate"
On July 23, 2007, New York Attorney General Andrew Cuomo's office admonished the Spitzer administration for ordering the State Police to keep special records of Senate majority leader Joseph Bruno's whereabouts when he traveled with police escorts in New York City.
A 57-page report issued by the Attorney General's office concluded that Spitzer engaged in creating media coverage concerning Senator Bruno's travel. The investigation looked into both Bruno's travel and the Senate leader's allegation that Spitzer used State Police to spy on him. Cuomo concluded that "These e-mails show that persons in the governor's office did not merely produce records under a FOIL request, but were instead engaged in planning and producing media coverage concerning Senator Bruno's travel on state aircraft before any FOIL request was made." It also suggests that the governor's staff lied when they tried to explain what they had done and forced the State Police to go far beyond their normal procedures in documenting Bruno's whereabouts.
The report cleared Bruno of any misuse of the state's air fleet, which had been alleged. The report criticized Spitzer's office for using State Police resources to gather information about Bruno's travel and releasing the information to the media. The findings of the report were endorsed by Spitzer's own Inspector General, Kristine Hamann.
Spitzer responded at a July 23 press conference that "As governor, I am accountable for what goes on in the executive branch and I accept responsibility for the actions of my office" and that his administration had "grossly mishandled" the situation. Spitzer subsequently announced that he would indefinitely suspend his communications director, Darren Dopp, and reassign another top official. When questioned about his promise to bring ethical responsibility to state politics, Spitzer responded by saying "I will not tolerate this behavior", "ethics and accountability must and will remain rigorous in my administration," and that "I have always stated that I want ethics and integrity to be the hallmarks of my administration. That is why I requested that the State Inspector General review the allegations with respect to my office, and that is why we have fully cooperated with both inquiries."
The investigations of the event, dubbed "Troopergate" by media outlets, were not affected by Spitzer's resignation. As of March 2008, four probes by the state Attorney General's office, the State Senate Investigations Committee, the Albany County District Attorney's Office, and the New York Commission on Public Integrity were ongoing.
Driver's licenses for illegal immigrants
On September 21, 2007, Spitzer issued an executive order directing that state offices allow illegal immigrants to be issued driver's licenses effective December 2007. Applicants for driver's licenses would not be required to prove legal immigration status and would be allowed to present a foreign passport as identification. In October 2007, after meeting with the Department of Homeland Security, Spitzer altered the plan so that licenses issued to migrant workers would look different from other licenses and that the new licenses would not allow access to airplanes and federal buildings.
On October 22, 2007, the State Senate passed legislation that would have overturned Spitzer's plan to allow driver licenses to be obtained by undocumented immigrants. The bill passed by a margin of 39 to 19, receiving bipartisan support. Eight Democrats from moderate districts broke with Spitzer on the vote. After the vote, The New York Times called this issue "Mr. Spitzer's single most unpopular decision since he took office".
Following the State Senate's vote, Spitzer revised his plan again, proposing the issuance of a third type of driver's license. This driver's license would be available only to United States citizens who are New York State residents, and would be valid for crossing the Canada–US border. Spitzer also announced that the expiration dates of temporary visas would be printed on the driver's licenses of individuals living in the country with them.
On November 14, the day following the release of a poll showing the proposal as extremely unpopular with voters, Spitzer announced he would withdraw the plan, acknowledging that it would never be implemented. The decision drew derision from the press, as the Associated Press termed this reversal a "surrender." WCBS-TV labeled him "Governor Flip-Flop." State Senator Rubén Díaz of the Bronx said he was "betrayed" by Spitzer's abandonment of the plan.
Approval rating as governor
As of November 13, 2007, Spitzer's approval rating as governor was 33 percent, a further decline from his 44% approval rating of October 24, 2007. A later poll showed that New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg would defeat Spitzer were he to seek reelection. Two polls in December 2007 showed further erosion in Spitzer's public standing.
On March 10, 2008, The New York Times reported that Spitzer had patronized a high-priced escort service called Emperors Club VIP and met for two hours with a $1,000-an-hour call girl. This information originally came to the attention of authorities from a federal wiretap. During a six month span, Spitzer had at least seven or eight liaisons with women from the agency and paid more than $15,000. According to published reports, investigators alleged that Spitzer paid up to $80,000 for prostitutes over a period of several years while he was attorney general, and later as governor. Spitzer first drew the attention of federal investigators when his bank reported suspicious money transfers under the anti-money laundering provisions of the Bank Secrecy Act and the Patriot Act. The resulting investigation was triggered by the belief that Spitzer might have been hiding bribe proceeds and led to the discovery of the prostitution ring.
Later on March 10, Spitzer held a press conference apologizing to his family and to the public. He added, "'I must now dedicate some time to regain the trust of my family'".
Following Spitzer's March 10 press conference, New York State Assembly Republican Minority Leader James Tedisco and Republican New York Congressman Peter King separately called for his resignation. Tedisco later announced that he would initiate impeachment proceedings in the State Assembly if Spitzer did not resign.
In the wake of the revelations and amid threats of impeachment, Spitzer announced on March 12, 2008, that he would resign his post as governor at noon on March 17, 2008. Spitzer said at a news conference in Manhattan:
I cannot allow for my private failings to disrupt the people's work. Over the course of my public life, I have insisted—I believe correctly—that people take responsibility for their conduct. I can and will ask no less of myself. For this reason, I am resigning from the office of governor.
Post-resignation life and career
In 2011, The Guardian summarized Spitzer's history as follows:
Long before there was Barack Obama there was Spitzer. While Obama toiled unknown in Illinois, the Bronx-born Spitzer won himself a national reputation as the "Sheriff of Wall Street". He was New York's tough-talking attorney-general, who fought banking corruption, enforced environment law and won rights for low-paid workers. He used that fame to enter politics and in 2006 became governor of New York: a perfect springboard for the White House. Before America fell in love with its first black president, people wondered if it was willing to embrace its first Jewish one. Spitzer could have made history.
Instead he left office in disgrace three years ago amid a flood of tabloid headlines that recounted salacious details from his repeated use of a high-end escort service. Spitzer was dubbed the "Luv Guv" and forced into a political wilderness. Rarely in American politics was a fall from grace so spectacular, so complete and so clearly down to a self-inflicted human flaw.
Prostitution scandal developments
On July 16, 2008, The New York Times published an article that explained how Spitzer used campaign funds to pay for two Mayflower Hotel bookings, $411.06 apiece, where he was alleged to have met with prostitutes. While it remains unclear if Spitzer stayed in the hotel on the nights he booked, The Times has stated that Spitzer met with prostitutes in early 2008. Spitzer declined to comment on the issue.
In November 2008, prosecutors who were in charge of the case announced that Spitzer would not face criminal charges for his involvement in the sex ring. They cited that no evidence of misuse of public funds was found and therefore it would not serve the public interest to press charges against Spitzer. Spitzer offered an apology, saying, "I appreciate the impartiality and thoroughness of the investigation by the U.S. Attorney's Office, and I acknowledge and accept responsibility for the conduct it disclosed."
In September 2009, Spitzer joined the faculty of the City College of New York as an adjunct instructor of political science and taught an undergraduate course called "Law and Public Policy".
Spitzer continued to make public appearances and engage in media commitments following his resignation. The Washington Post published a Spitzer opinion piece in November 2008 conveying his analysis of the financial crisis of 2008 and suggested remedies. Spitzer concluded the piece by saying that he hoped the Obama Administration would make the right policy choices, "although mistakes I made in my private life now prevent me from participating in these issues as I have in the past."
Spitzer became a regular columnist for Slate magazine and in December 2008 Slate published the first of a new series of columns by Spitzer dedicated to the economy. On August 22, 2011, The New York Times reported that Spitzer has been sued for a combined $90 million over an August 22, 2010 Slate column about Wall Street firm Marsh & McLennan by two former executives of the company, claiming that they were libeled by the column. The lawsuit by one of the executives was dismissed the following year.
He also made a number of television appearances in 2009 and 2010, including Real Time with Bill Maher and Campbell Brown (CNN program), as well as appearing as a substitute anchor on MSNBC. On June 24, 2010, CNN announced that Spitzer would be joining the network to host a "round-table" discussion program alongside center-right commentator Kathleen Parker. Parker Spitzer, compared by some media outlets to the defunct Crossfire, replaced Campbell Brown in the 8:00 p.m. ET timeslot on weeknights starting in October. In February 2011, CNN announced that Parker was leaving the show, which was renamed In the Arena on February 28, 2011. On July 6, 2011, CNN announced it was canceling In the Arena and shifting Anderson Cooper 360° to the 8 p.m. time slot.
On March 30, 2012, Spitzer joined Al Gore's cable television network, Current TV, in the wake of the sudden firing of Keith Olbermann from the network, and immediately began hosting his own program Viewpoint with Eliot Spitzer. On January 6, 2013, Spitzer announced that he had left both Viewpoint and Current TV, and that he would not be joining Current TV in its latest venture with Al Jazeera. "Moving forward, their mission will be different," he said. He also stated: "For me, journalism has been more a matter of projecting a particular approach to covering policies, to covering issues. It was a continuation of what I tried to do in government. And that doesn't fit with their vision of what they are going to do."
2013 campaign for NYC Comptroller
On July 7, 2013, Spitzer announced he was running for New York City Comptroller, and would start a petition the following day. 3,750 valid signatures from registered voters from his party were required by July 11 to register for the race but Spitzer was able to submit over 27,000 signatures to the city Board of Elections before the deadline. Spitzer commented that he was asking for forgiveness, and hopeful that voters could forgive him. Spitzer lost the primary on September 10, 2013, to Scott Stringer.
Real estate career
Following his father's illness and death in 2014 and with politics behind him, Spitzer came to lead his family's real estate business, Spitzer Enterprises, despite having avoided the role for much of his life. Spitzer sold his company's apartments in The Corinthian and the Crown Building for a large profit, which he used to fund a $700 million project of three waterfront buildings in South Williamsburg, Brooklyn.
2016 extortion scandal
In February 2016, Spitzer was investigated by the New York City Police Department after being accused of assault by Svetlana Travis-Zakharova, a woman from Russia, in an incident that supposedly occurred at the Plaza Hotel on February 13, 2016. The New York Daily News reported Spitzer had been accused of attacking the woman, who tried to kill herself by slitting her wrists after the incident. Ms. Travis subsequently recanted her accusations and no charges were filed.
Within a month, Travis—who left for Russia in February—turned from an alleged victim into a suspect. On October 10, she was arrested upon landing at JFK International Airport. On October 12, Travis-Zakharova, 26, faced state charges of grand larceny by extortion, while also being investigated for prostitution. Over two years, prosecutors claimed, she had collected around $50,000 from Spitzer in exchange for keeping "intimate details" of their relationship secret from his relatives. The money was allegedly deposited into a bank in Russia.
Also on October 12, Travis faced forgery and identity theft charges, from an unrelated incident, after purportedly signing a high-end apartment lease under a different name, costing the victim—a 67-year-old New Jersey man—$18,000. The bail was set at $1 million.
Silda Wall and Eliot Spitzer married on October 17, 1987. Together, they have three daughters: Elyssa (b. 1990), Sarabeth (b. 1993), and Jenna (b. 1995). Silda Wall Spitzer stood beside her husband when he announced his resignation as New York governor following his prostitution scandal. On May 31, 2013, Spitzer and his wife were reported to be living apart. At the close of 2013, Spitzer and his wife announced the end of their marriage.
Spitzer reportedly had a romantic relationship with Lis Smith, a 31-year-old spokeswoman for then-New York City Mayor-elect Bill de Blasio. She had been Spitzer's spokeswoman during his 2013 run for comptroller.
- Client 9: The Rise and Fall of Eliot Spitzer – film about Spitzer
- Inside Job – documentary on the 2008 financial crisis
- The Good Wife – fictional television drama partly inspired by events associated with Spitzer and his wife
- Zipper – 2015 film, a political thriller that thinly dramatizes the Eliot Spitzer scandal.
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-  | March 12, 2008 | Spitzer Resigns After Sex Scandal, Pressure | 
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- NY Attorney General Race – Nov 03, 1998. Our Campaigns.
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- Dicker, Fredric. "GOP PUTS HEAT ON ELIOT'S $5M LOAN" Archived August 19, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, New York Post, July 23, 2007. Retrieved July 28, 2007.
- "State Senate GOP Seek Spitzer Loan Records". Associated Press. July 23, 2007.[verification needed]
- "Richardson praises Eliot Spitzer as "future" of Democratic Party". Associated Press. June 2, 2005. Archived from the original on August 13, 2006. Retrieved November 4, 2006.
- Hakim, Danny (May 30, 2006). "Convention Notebook; Controversy Over Ground Zero's Fate Is Front and Center in Buffalo". The New York Times. Retrieved November 4, 2006.
- "Faso Convention Bubble Goes Flat in Gov Race, Quinnipiac University New York State Poll Finds; Spitzer Still Has 40-Point Lead Over Faso, Suozzi". Associated Press. June 21, 2006. Archived from the original on September 9, 2006. Retrieved November 4, 2006.
- Robin, Josh (July 25, 2006). "Spitzer, Suozzi Face-Off in Sole Gubernatorial Debate". NY1. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved November 4, 2006.
- Gray, Geoffrey (August 14, 2006). "Spitzer Chokes on Pot Deal". New York. Archived from the original on December 4, 2008. Retrieved November 4, 2006.
- Hakim, Danny (October 7, 2006). "Spitzer Vows to Push for Gay Marriage". The New York Times. Retrieved November 4, 2006.
- Plotch, Philip Mark. Politics Across the Hudson: The Tappan Zee Megaproject. Rutgers University Press, New Jersey (2015). p. 114. ISBN 978-0-8135-7249-9.
- Cooper, Michael (January 1, 2007). "Amid Champagne and Cheers, Spitzer Is Sworn in as Governor". The New York Times.
- "Spitzer, Sworn in as New York Governor, Vows Historic Reform", Bloomberg, January 1, 2007. Retrieved July 27, 2007.
- NICHOLAS CONFESSORE (November 27, 2007). "After a Rough Start, Spitzer Rethinks His Ways - The New York Times". Nytimes.com. Retrieved February 23, 2019.
- Cara Matthews, ROC. "Reproductive-rights bill moves forward in Assembly". Democratandchronicle.com. Retrieved February 23, 2019.
- DANNY HAKIM (April 25, 2007). "Spitzer Seeks Overhaul of New York's Abortion Law - The New York Times". Nytimes.com. Retrieved February 23, 2019.
- DANNY HAKIM (April 26, 2007). "Spitzer Pushing Bill to Shore Up Abortion Rights - The New York Times". Nytimes.com. Retrieved February 23, 2019.
- Cooper, Michael (February 8, 2007). "Legislators Pick a Comptroller, Defying Spitzer". The New York Times. Retrieved February 12, 2007.
- Fenner, Austin and Mahoney, Joe. "Bulldog Spitzer rips pol". Retrieved June 1, 2016.[dead link], Daily News, February 12, 2007. Retrieved July 28, 2007.
- Hakim, Danny. "On Tour to Talk Up Budget Plan, Spitzer Stays on Attack", The New York Times, February 13, 2007. Retrieved July 28, 2007.
- "ELIOT'S EDUCATION" Archived May 19, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, New York Post, April 3, 2007. Retrieved July 28, 2007.
- "State payroll jumps with Spitzer". December 13, 2007.
- "2008–09 Executive Budget, Eliot Spitzer" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 11, 2008.. Retrieved March 14, 2008.
- Dicker, Fredric. Full Steam Ahead for Spunky Spitz Archived July 24, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, New York Post, February 1, 2007. Retrieved July 28, 2007.
- "Spitzer Knew About Troopergate And Should Testify, New York State Voters Tell Quinnipiac University Poll; Comptroller Should Share Pension Decisions, Voters Say". Archived from the original on January 26, 2008. Retrieved October 12, 2007.
- Dicker, Fredric U., Young & Poor Hit Hardest, New York Post.
- Tedisco Accuses Spitzer of 'Dirty Tricks,' 'Bullying' Archived October 25, 2007, at the Wayback Machine October 17, 2007
- Goodwin, Michael, Cornered by Troopergate, Spitzer is showing his desperation, Daily News.
- Spitzer, Elliot (February 14, 2008). "Predatory Lenders' Partner in Crime; How the Bush Administration Stopped the States From Stepping in to Help Consumers". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 30, 2008.
- "Spitzer unveils gay marriage bill; Senate leader balks". Associated Press. April 27, 2007.
- "Bill Summary – A08590".
- Hakim, Danny. "Spitzer's Staff Misused Police, Report Finds", The New York Times, July 23, 2007. Retrieved July 28, 2007.
- Precious, Tom (July 23, 2007). "Cuomo criticizes Spitzer for using State Police to monitor Bruno". The Buffalo News.
- Gormley, Michael. "Report: NY Governor's Office Leaked Data", The Guardian, July 23, 2007. Retrieved July 28, 2007. Archived March 23, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
- Gormley, Michael (July 24, 2007). "Spitzer aides linked to Bruno leaks". Utica Observer-Dispatch. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved July 28, 2007.
Cuomo concluded: "These e-mails show that persons in the governor's office did not merely produce records under a FOIL request, but were instead engaged in planning and producing media coverage concerning Senator Bruno's travel on state aircraft before any FOIL request was made."
- Faiola, Anthony. "N.Y. Governor Moves to Limit Ethics Scandal", The Washington Post, Page A06, July 25, 2007. Retrieved July 28, 2007.
- Matthews, Cara. "Cuomo: Spitzer aides used state police to try to damage Bruno"[permanent dead link], The Ithaca Journal, July 23, 2007. Retrieved July 28, 2007.
- Mansfield, Melissa (July 23, 2007). "Spitzer punishes aides after AG report". Newsday.
- Gershman, Jacob. "Spitzer Faces Probe in Senate", New York Sun, July 24, 2007. Retrieved July 28, 2007.
- Goldenberg, Sally. "Report: Governor's office compiled, leaked data on Bruno", Staten Island Advance, July 23, 2007. Retrieved July 28, 2007.
- Jochnowitz, Jay. ""AG report faults Spitzer aides in Bruno scheme"". Archived from the original on May 14, 2008. Retrieved March 14, 2008., Albany Times-Union, July 23, 2007. Retrieved July 28, 2007.
- Freifeld, Karen. "Spitzer Troopergate Subpoenas Still Stand, Judge Told". Bloomberg. March 13, 2008.
- "Eliot Spitzer's tumultuous reign". Daily News. March 13, 2008.
- Spector, Joseph. "Troopergate In Court". Journal News. March 13, 2008.
- "Department of Motor Vehicles Changes License Policy to Include More New Yorkers and Implements New Regime of Anti-Fraud Measures to Strengthen the Security of the System". press release. Office of the Governor of New York. September 21, 2007. Archived from the original on October 30, 2007. Retrieved November 10, 2007.
- Bernstein, Nina (September 22, 2007). "Spitzer grants undocumented immigrants easier access to driver's licenses". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 24, 2010. Retrieved November 14, 2007.
- Madore, James T. (November 9, 2007). "Spitzer defends license plan over Democrat fears". Newsday. Archived from the original on November 11, 2007. Retrieved November 10, 2007.
- Confessore, Nicholas (October 23, 2007). "Senate Votes to Stop Spitzer Plan to Give undocumented Immigrants Driver's Licenses". The New York Times. Retrieved November 10, 2007.
- Confessore, Nicholas (October 23, 2007). "Why Some Democrats Defected on Spitzer Driver's License Plan". The New York Times. Retrieved November 10, 2007.
- Confessore, Nicholas (October 31, 2007). "Visa data to be included on driver's licenses again". The New York Times. Retrieved November 14, 2007.
- Barrett, Devlin (November 14, 2007). "Spitzer Dropping His Driver's License Plan". The New York Times. Retrieved November 14, 2007.
- Issenberg, Sasha (November 1, 2007). "Clinton backs N.Y. driver's license plan for undocumented immigrants". The Boston Globe. Retrieved November 10, 2007.
- Kramer, Marcia (November 15, 2007). "Just Call Him...Gov. Flip-Flop". Local News. WCBS-TV. Archived from the original on November 14, 2007. Retrieved November 26, 2007.
- Barrett, Devlin (November 15, 2007). "Gov. Spitzer Surrenders on License Fight". Associated Press.
- Lovett, Kennth; Geoff Earle (November 15, 2007). "Hill's 'Stand?' Well, today is Thursday". New York Post. Retrieved November 26, 2007.
- Mahoney, Joe (November 13, 2007). "Governor Eliot Spitzer's approval rating plummets over license plan". Daily News. Retrieved March 11, 2008.
- "Results of SurveyUSA News Poll #12789". SurveyUSA. October 24, 2007.
- Dicker, Fredric U.; Seifman, David (November 6, 2007). "Mike's secret bid to run vs. Spitzer". Daily News.
- Miller, Kyle (December 17, 2007). "Two polls show Spitzer's public image still suffering". Legislative Gazette. Archived from the original on March 8, 2008.
- Feuer, Alan (March 7, 2008). "Four Charged With Running Online Prostitution Ring". The New York Times.
- Pitney, Nico (March 10, 2008). "Spitzer As Client 9: Read Text Messages From Spitzer To Prostitute". Huffington Post.
- Wemple, Erik (March 5, 2008). "Spitzer Missed Lesson of D.C. "Madam"". Washington City Paper.
- "Spitzer apologizes to family, public". WNBC. March 10, 2008. Archived from the original on March 12, 2008. Retrieved March 10, 2008.
- "Online Hooker Ring Busted". The Smoking Gun. March 6, 2008. Archived from the original on March 12, 2008.
- Kessler, Robert. "Eliot Spitzer met with call girls 7 or 8 times". Newsday. March 11, 2008. Archived March 14, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
- "GOP Pol: Resign Or Else". WNBC. March 11, 2008. Archived March 12, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
- Alberts, Sheldon (March 12, 2008). "Spitzer resigns amid sex scandal". Canwest News Service. The Gazette. Archived from the original on March 15, 2008.
- "Disgraced NY Governor won't Need New Job". Associated Press, March 12, 2008
- 80G 'Addicted to Love' Gov" Archived March 13, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, New York Post, March 12, 2008.
- Hosenball, Mark (March 15, 2008). "Unintended consequences: Spitzer got snagged by the fine print of the Patriot Act". Newsweek.
- Brian Ross (March 10, 2008). "It Wasn't the Sex; Suspicious $$ Transfers Led to Spitzer".
- Hakim, Danny; Rashbaum, William (March 10, 2018). "Spitzer Is Linked to Prostitution Ring". The New York Times. Retrieved April 24, 2019.
- "Republicans Set Deadline For Governor's Ousting: 'I've Asked Him To Resign'". WCBS-TV. March 11, 2008. Archived March 12, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
- Perks, Ashley (January 27, 2009). "Maffei's new flack: 'I'm not just a Spitzer sob story'". TheHill.
- "FOXNews.com - Mrs. Spitzer a Behind-The-Scenes Force - Local News - News Articles - National News - US News". www.foxnews.com.
- "Text of Governor Spitzer's resignation letter". Archived from the original on March 20, 2008.
- Harvie, Maureen. "Why Have There Been So Few Black Governors?". news.wypr.org.
- Harris, Paul (February 27, 2011). "Eliot Spitzer: Wall Street's fallen angel" – via www.theguardian.com.
- Hakim, Danny (June 16, 2008). "Spitzer Charged Campaign for Hotel Bills, Raising Question About His Funds". The New York Times.
- Hakim, Danny; William K. Rashbaum (November 6, 2008). "No Federal Prostitution Charges for Spitzer". The New York Times. Retrieved November 15, 2008.
- "A Special Private Conversation with Gov. Eliot Spitzer" (PDF). City College of New York. April 28, 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 28, 2011. Retrieved August 23, 2011.
- Peters, Jeremy (September 2, 2009). "Eliot Spitzer Has a New Job: Adjunct Instructor of Political Science". The New York Times. Retrieved September 29, 2016.
- Eliot, Spitzer (November 16, 2008). "How to Ground the Street". The Washington Post.
- Spitzer, Eliot (December 3, 2008). "Too Big Not To Fail". Slate.com.
- Peters, Jeremy W. (August 22, 2011). "Spitzer and Slate Face Defamation Lawsuit". The New York Times. Retrieved August 23, 2011.
- Kaplan, Thomas (September 28, 2012). "Federal Judge Dismisses Lawsuit Against Ex-Gov. Spitzer". The New York Times. Retrieved December 21, 2012.
- Steinberg, Joseph (April 7, 2009). "An Intimate Evening With Eliot Spitzer". EO-NY. Archived from the original on April 22, 2009.
- "US: Former governor Eliot Spitzer joins CNN". The Spy Report. Media Spy. June 25, 2010. Retrieved June 25, 2010.
- Stelter, Brian (July 6, 2011). "CNN Cancels 'In the Arena' With Eliot Spitzer". The New York Times. Retrieved August 23, 2011.
- Gore, Al, and Joel Hyatt, "Open letter to the viewers of Current" Archived March 31, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, Current TV, March 30, 2012.
- Stelter, Brian (January 6, 2013). "Eliot Spitzer Ends His Show on Current TV". The New York Times. Retrieved January 7, 2013.
- "Spitzer Submits Signatures to Get on NYC Ballot". Associated Press. Retrieved July 12, 2013.
- Barbaro, Michael; Chen, David W. (July 7, 2013). "Asking Forgiveness, Spitzer Will Run for City Comptroller". The New York Times. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
- Bycoffe, Aaron (September 10, 2013). "Live Results: New York City Primary Elections". The Huffington Post.
- Bagli, Charles V. (June 15, 2015). "Spitzer Charges Into His Family's Real Estate Business". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331.
- "Ex-Gov. Spitzer being investigated for assaulting woman". NY Daily News. Retrieved February 15, 2016.
- McKinley, Jesse (July 15, 2016). "Eliot Spitzer Sues Woman Who Accused Him of Assault". The New York Times. Retrieved September 29, 2016.
- Hays, Tom (October 12, 2016). "Woman charged in ex-NY governor extortion plot held on bail". Associated Press. Retrieved October 12, 2016.
- Ford, James (October 11, 2016). "Bail set at $1M for woman accused of extorting money from ex-NY Gov. Eliot Spitzer". PIX11. Retrieved October 12, 2016.
- Brito, Chris (October 10, 2016). "Woman accused of extorting money from former NY Gov. Eliot Spitzer". PIX11. Retrieved October 12, 2016.
- Callahan, Maureen (March 10, 2013). "Silda Spitzer still with husband Eliot five years after 'Luv Guv' scandal". New York Post.
- "Former New York governor Eliot Spitzer, wife split". USA TODAY.
- Rogers, Christopher (May 31, 2013). "Eliot Spitzer & Wife Silda Living Apart Five Years After Cheating – Report". Hollywood Life.
- Draznin, Haley; Catherine E. Shoichet (December 24, 2013). "Eliot Spitzer and his wife announce the end of their marriage". CNN. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
- "Former NY gov Eliot Spitzer announces end of his marriage". Fox News. New York Post. December 25, 2013. Archived from the original on December 25, 2013. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
- Grynbaum, Michael M. (December 24, 2013). "Spitzer and His Wife Say Their Marriage is over". The New York Times.
- Bellafante, Ginia (January 17, 2014). "A Tabloid Bashing, and a Lost Job With the Mayor". The New York Times.
Ms. Smith was prepared for the negative press attention she knew she would receive as Mr. Spitzer's girlfriend, she told me. 'But what has been so hurtful is that so much of the viciousness has come from women,' she said, citing not just the tabloids but a patronizingly maternal piece in Time citing the foolishness of her choice, as if erotic selection always conformed to rational sense.
Biographies and profiles:
- "TIME Crusader of the Year 2002: Eliot Spitzer", by Adi Ignatius, December 21, 2002 issue of Time
- "Corruption probe hits US insurers" – BBC News Online, October 15, 2004.
- "Spoiling for a Fight: The Rise of Eliot Spitzer" by Brooke A. Masters (Times Books, July 2006)
- "The Small Laws: Eliot Spitzer and the Way to Insurance Market Reform," by Sean M. Fitzpatrick, 74 Fordham L. Rev. 3041 (2006)
- Eliot Spitzer on "Politicking with Larry King"
- Kugel, Allison (December 13, 2010). "Eliot Spitzer Talks Re-Building His Image and Not Regretting Tough Decisions". PR.com.
- Frontline: The Wall Street Fix – from the PBS-series Frontline, dated April 16, 2003.
- NOW with Bill Moyers: New York Attorney General Eliot Spitzer – Streaming video and transcripts of Spitzer's multiple interviews on the PBS series NOW with Bill Moyers.
- "The Pollution Buster" – Interview with Elizabeth Kolbert in Fall 2004 issue of OnEarth Magazine, publication of the Natural Resources Defense Council
- Eliot Spitzer: Geithner, Bernanke "Complicit" in Financial Crisis and Should Go – video report by Democracy Now!
- Big Think Interview With Eliot Spitzer – video interview with BigThink.com, dated January 28, 2010.
- "The Sheriff of Wall Street" 2004 video interview with Eliot Spitzer, on "The Open Mind"
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Eliot Spitzer in the Newseum archive of front page images from 2008-03-13.
- Breaking Legal News – Eliot L. Spitzer Collection of News of Eliot Spitzer
- "Corruption probe hits US insurers" – BBC coverage of Spitzer's probe of insurance industry practices, October 15, 2004.
- "Spitzer targets music companies" – BBC coverage of Spitzer's prosecution of payola, October 22, 2004
- Greg Palast, Eliot's Mess
- Greg Palast interview on Spitzer scandal timing
- Attorney General Watch – blog of the American Enterprise Institute, a conservative think tank, critical of Eliot Spitzer and other state attorneys general.
- "Not Spitzer's Job" – article by Alan Reynolds, senior fellow of the Cato Institute, a libertarian think-tank. Reprinted from The Wall Street Journal
- The Passion of Eliot Spitzer: Is he telling the truth as he tries to "take people out"? by Kimberley A. Strassel, The Wall Street Journal, May 2006
- Eliot Spitzer's Real Agenda... is Eliot Spitzer By Kimberley A. Strassel, The Wall Street Journal, May 2006
- "Power Corrupts: Elliot [sic] Spitzer's Record as N.Y. Attorney General" By Alan Reynolds, Cato-at-liberty, March 8, 2008.
- FBI affidavit regarding the Emperor's Club VIP scandal
- "Predatory Lenders' Partner in Crime". Spitzer, Eliot, The Washington Post, February 14, 2008.
- Eliot Spitzer serves as TipRanks board member. TipRanks provides online investing tools allowing private investors to see the measured performance of financial analysts.
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