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Henrietta Lacks

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Henrietta Lacks
A black-and-white photo of Lacks smiling
Henrietta Lacks circa 1945–1951
Born Loretta Pleasant
(1920-08-01)August 1, 1920
Roanoke, Virginia
Died October 4, 1951(1951-10-04) (aged 31)
Baltimore, Maryland
Monuments Henrietta Lacks Health and Bioscience High School; historical marker at Clover, Virginia
Occupation Tobacco farmer
Height around 5 ft tall[1]
Spouse(s) David Lacks (1941–1951; her death)
Children Lawrence Lacks
Elsie Lacks
David "Sonny" Lacks, Jr.
Deborah Lacks Pullum
Zakariyya Bari Abdul Rahman (born Joseph Lacks)
Parent(s) Eliza (1886–1924) and John Randall Pleasant I (1881–1969)

Henrietta Lacks (born Loretta Pleasant; August 1, 1920 – October 4, 1951[2]) was an African American woman who was the progenitor of the HeLa cell line, one of the most important cell lines in medical research ever discovered.[a] She was the unwitting donor of these cells from a cancerous tumor biopsied during treatment for her cervical cancer at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, U.S. in 1951. These cells were then cultured by George Otto Gey to create the cell line known as HeLa, a line which is still used for medical research.[4]

The descendant of slaves and their white masters, Henrietta grew up in rural Virginia. After giving birth to two of their children, she married her cousin David "Day" Lacks. In 1941 the young family moved to Turner Station in Baltimore County, Maryland so Day could work in Bethlehem Steel at Sparrows Point. After Henrietta had given birth to their fifth child she was diagnosed with cancer.[5] Tissue samples from her tumors were taken during treatment and these samples were then subsequently cultured into the HeLa cell line.

Even though some information about the origins of HeLa's immortalized cell lines was known to researchers after 1970, the Lacks family was not made aware of the lines' existence until 1975. In the intervening years, with knowledge of the cell lines' genetic provenance becoming public, the usage of the cells for medical research and for commercial purposes continues to raise concerns about privacy and patients' rights.

Personal life[edit]

Henrietta Lacks was born Loretta Pleasant on August 1, 1920,[2][6] in Roanoke, Virginia, to Eliza and Johnny Pleasant.[7] Her family is uncertain how her name changed from Loretta to Henrietta, but she was nicknamed Hennie.[2] When Lacks was four years old in 1924, her mother died giving birth to her tenth child.[7] Unable to care for the children alone after his wife's death, Lacks' father moved the family to Clover, Virginia, where the children were distributed among relatives. Lacks ended up with her grandfather, Tommy Lacks, in a two-story log cabin that was once the slave quarters on the plantation that had been owned by Henrietta's white great-grandfather and great-uncle.[2] She shared a room with her nine-year-old cousin and future husband, David "Day" Lacks (1915–2002).[7]

Like most members of her family living in Clover, Lacks worked as a tobacco farmer starting from an early age. In 1935, when Lacks was 14 years old, she gave birth to a son, Lawrence Lacks. In 1939, her daughter Elsie Lacks (1939–1955) was born. Both children were fathered by Day Lacks. Elsie Lacks had developmental disabilities and was described by the family as "different" or "deaf and dumb."[2]

On April 10, 1941, Day and Henrietta Lacks were married in Halifax County, Virginia.[2] Later that year, their cousin, Fred Garrett, convinced the couple to leave the tobacco farm in Virginia and move to Maryland where Day Lacks could work at Bethlehem Steel in Sparrow's Point. Not long after they moved to Maryland, Garrett was called to fight in World War II. With the savings gifted to him by Garrett, Day Lacks was able to purchase a house at 713 New Pittsburgh Avenue in Turner Station. Now part of Dundalk, Maryland, Turner Station was one of the oldest and largest African American communities in Baltimore County at that time.[8][9]

Living in Maryland, Henrietta and Day Lacks had three more children, David "Sonny" Lacks, Jr. (b. 1947), Deborah Lacks Pullum (born Deborah Lacks; 1949–2009), and Zakariyya Bari Abdul Rahman (born Joseph Lacks; 1950). Lacks gave birth to her last child at the Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore in November 1950, four and a half months before she was diagnosed with cervical cancer.[2] Around the same time, Elsie Lacks was placed in the Hospital for the Negro Insane, later renamed Crownsville Hospital Center, where she died in 1955.[2]

Illness[edit]

Diagnosis and treatment[edit]

On January 29, 1951, Lacks went to Johns Hopkins, the only hospital in the area that treated black patients, because she felt a "knot" in her womb.[10] She had previously told her cousins about the "knot" and they assumed correctly that she was pregnant. But after giving birth, Lacks had a severe hemorrhage. Her primary care doctor tested her for syphilis, which came back negative, and referred her back to Johns Hopkins. There, her doctor, Howard W. Jones, took a biopsy of the mass on Lacks's cervix for laboratory testing. Soon after, Lacks was told that she had a malignant epidermoid carcinoma of the cervix.[b][12] In 1970, physicians discovered that she had been misdiagnosed and actually had an adenocarcinoma.[c] This was a common mistake at the time and the treatment would not have differed.[14]

Lacks was treated with radium tube inserts as an inpatient and discharged a few days later with instructions to return for X-ray treatments as a follow-up. During her treatments, two samples were taken from Lacks's cervix without her permission or knowledge; one sample was of healthy tissue and the other was cancerous.[15] These samples were given to George Otto Gey, a physician and cancer researcher at Johns Hopkins. The cells from the cancerous sample eventually became known as the HeLa immortal cell line, a commonly used cell line in contemporary biomedical research.[2]

Death and burial[edit]

On August 8, 1951, Lacks, who was 31 years old, went to Johns Hopkins for a routine treatment session and asked to be admitted due to continued severe abdominal pain. She received blood transfusions and remained at the hospital until her death on October 4, 1951.[16] A partial autopsy showed that the cancer had metastasized throughout her entire body.[2][17]

Lacks Town Road in Clover, Virginia, near where Lacks grew up and is buried

Lacks was buried in an unmarked grave in the family cemetery in a place called Lackstown in Halifax County, Virginia. Lackstown is the name that was given to the land in Clover, Virginia that was originally owned by white, land- and slave-owning members of the Lacks family before the Civil War. Later generations gave the land to the many black members of the Lacks family who were descendants of African slaves and their white owners.[2]

Lacks' exact burial location is unknown, but the family believes that it is within a few feet of her mother's grave site, which for decades, was the only one in the family to have been marked with a tombstone.[2][17][18] In 2010, Roland Pattillo, a faculty member of the Morehouse School of Medicine who had worked with George Gey and knew the Lacks family,[19] donated a headstone for Lacks.[20] This prompted her family to raise money for a headstone for Elsie Lacks as well, which was dedicated on the same day.[20] The headstone of Henrietta Lacks is shaped like a book and contains an epitaph written by her grandchildren that reads:[2]

Henrietta Lacks, August 1, 1920 - October 4, 1951
 In loving memory of a phenomenal woman,
wife and mother who touched the lives of many.
Here lies Henrietta Lacks (HeLa). Her immortal
 cells will continue to help mankind forever.
Eternal Love and Admiration, From Your Family[21]

Medical and scientific research[edit]

Dividing HeLa cells in culture. The cells can be seen metaphase and telophase, different stages of cell division.
See also: HeLa

George Otto Gey, the first researcher to study Lacks's cancerous cells, observed that her cells were unique in that they reproduced at a very high rate and could be kept alive long enough to allow more in-depth examination.[22] Until then, cells cultured for laboratory studies only survived for a few days at most, which wasn't long to perform a variety of different tests on the same sample. Lacks's cells were the first to be observed that could be divided multiple times without dying, which is why they became known as "immortal." After Lacks' death Gey had Mary Kubicek, his lab assistant, take further HeLa samples while Henrietta's body was at Johns Hopkins' autopsy facility.[23] The roller-tube technique[d] was the method used to culture the cells obtained from the samples that Kubicek collected.[25] Gey was able to start a cell line from Lacks's sample by isolating one specific cell and repeatedly dividing it, meaning that the same cell could then be used for conducting many experiments. They became known as HeLa cells, because Gey's standard method for labeling samples was to use the first two letters of the patient's first and last names.[2]

The ability to rapidly reproduce HeLa cells in a laboratory setting has led to many important breakthroughs in biomedical research. For example, by 1954, Jonas Salk was using HeLa cells in his research to develop the polio vaccine.[17] To test his new vaccine, the cells were mass-produced in the first-ever cell production factory.[26] Additionally, Chester M. Southam, a leading virologist, injected HeLa cells into cancer patients, prison inmates, and healthy individuals in order to observe if cancer could be transmitted as well as to examine if one could become immune to cancer by developing an acquired immune response.[27]

HeLa cells were in high demand and put in to mass production. They were mailed to scientists around the globe for "research into cancer, AIDS, the effects of radiation and toxic substances, gene mapping, and countless other scientific pursuits".[17] HeLa cells were the first human cells successfully cloned in 1955,[28] and have since been used to test human sensitivity to tape, glue, cosmetics, and many other products.[2] Since the 1950s, scientists have grown 20 tons of her cells,[29] and there are almost 11,000 patents involving HeLa cells.[2]

In the early 1970s, a large portion of HeLa cells became contaminated by other cell cultures. As a result, members of Henrietta Lacks's family received solicitations for blood samples from researchers hoping to learn about the family's genetics in order to replace the contaminated cells.[30][31]

Alarmed and confused, several family members began questioning why they were receiving so many telephone calls requesting blood samples. In 1975 the family also learned through a chance dinner-party conversation that material originating in Henrietta Lacks was continuing to be used for medical research.[17] The family had never discussed Henrietta's illness and death among themselves in the intervening years but with the increased curiosity about their mother and her genetics they now began to ask questions.[2]

Consent issues and privacy concerns[edit]

Neither Henrietta Lacks nor her family gave her physicians permission to harvest her cells. At that time, permission was neither required nor customarily sought.[32] The cells were used in medical research and for commercial purposes.[17][2] In the 1980s, family medical records were published without family consent. A similar issue was brought up in the Supreme Court of California case of Moore v. Regents of the University of California in 1990. The court ruled that a person's discarded tissue and cells are not their property and can be commercialized.[33]

In March 2013, researchers published the DNA code, or genome, of a strain of HeLa cells, the Lacks family discovered this when the author Rebecca Skloot informed them.[30] There were objections from the Lacks family on the genetic information that was available for public access. Jeri Lacks Whye, a grandchild of Henrietta Lacks, said to the New York Times', "the biggest concern was privacy - what information was actually going to be out there about our grandmother, and what information they can obtain from her sequencing that will tell them about her children and grandchildren and going down the line". That same year another group working on a different HeLa cell line's genome under NIH funding submitted it for publication. In August 2013, an agreement was announced between the family and the National Institutes of Health that gave the family some control over access to the cells' DNA code of the genomes found in the two studies along with a promise of acknowledgement in scientific papers. In addition, two family members will join the six-member committee which will regulate access to the code.[34][30]

Recognition[edit]

A historical marker memorializing Henrietta Lacks in Clover, Virginia

In 1996, the Morehouse School of Medicine held the first of its HeLa Women's Health Conferences. These conferences are held for the purpose of honoring Henrietta Lacks, the cell line named for her, and "in recognition of the valuable contribution made by African Americans to medical research and clinical practice"[35] with Dr. Pattillo leading the annual events.[20][36] Lacks's contributions continue to be celebrated at yearly events in Turner Station.[37][38] At one such event in 1997, then-U.S. Congressman from Maryland, Robert Ehrlich, presented a congressional resolution recognizing Lacks and her contributions to medical science and research.[39]

In 2010, the Johns Hopkins Institute for Clinical and Translational Research established the annual Henrietta Lacks Memorial Lecture Series.[40] This annual event[41] honors Henrietta Lacks and the HeLa cells' global impact on medicine and research.

In 2011, Morgan State University in Baltimore City, Maryland granted Lacks a posthumous honorary doctorate in public service.[42] Also in 2011, the Evergreen School District in Vancouver, Washington named their new high school focused on medical careers the Henrietta Lacks Health and Bioscience High School, becoming the first organization to publicly memorialize her by naming a school in her honor.[43][44]

In 2014, Lacks was inducted into the Maryland Women's Hall of Fame.[45][46]

In popular culture[edit]

The HeLa cell line was first brought to popular attention by two articles written in March 1976 by Michael Rogers, one in the Detroit Free Press[47] and one in Rolling Stone.[48] In 1998, Adam Curtis directed a BBC documentary about Henrietta Lacks called The Way of All Flesh.[49]

Rebecca Skloot documented extensive histories of both the HeLa cell line and the Lacks family in two articles published in 2000[18] and 2001[50] and in her 2010 book The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks.

HBO announced in 2010 that Oprah Winfrey and Alan Ball were developing a film project based on Skloot's book,[20] and in 2016 filming commenced.[51][52] with Winfrey in the leading role of Deborah Lacks, Henrietta's daughter.[53][54] NBC's Law & Order aired its own fictionalized version of Lacks's story in the 2010 episode "Immortal," which Slate referred to as "shockingly close to the true story"[55] and the musical groups Jello Biafra and the Guantanamo School of Medicine and Yeasayer both released songs about Henrietta Lacks and her legacy.[56][57]

Members of the Lacks family authored their own stories for the first time in 2013 when Lacks's oldest son and his wife, Lawrence and Bobbette Lacks, wrote a short digital memoir called "Hela Family Stories: Lawrence and Bobbette" with first-hand accounts of their memories of Henrietta Lacks while she was alive and of their own efforts to keep the youngest children out of unsafe living environments following their mother's death.[58]

See also[edit]

List of contaminated cell lines

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The HeLa cell line is an immortal cell line, its cells will and can grow indefinitely.[3]
  2. ^ Squamous cell carcinomas are caused by the Human papilloma virus or HPV. It is a cancer of the squamous cells, a type of epithelial cell, and is the second most-common type of skin cancer. They are found on the neck, head, cervix, anus as well as other body sites.[11]
  3. ^ Adenocarcinomas are a type of cancerous tumor or an abnormal growth of epithelial tissue. 10% to 15% of cancers of the cervix are adenocarcinomas, the rest more commonly being squamous cell carcinomas.[13]
  4. ^ The roller-tube technique was invented by George Gey in his lab at the University of Pittsburgh. "And then there was the roller drum, the invention that churned in the enormous incubator room Gey built to keep the cell cultures warm. The huge metal drum with holes covering its inner surface gyrated like a cement mixer 24 hours a day. And tucked within each hole, at the bottom of Gey’s home-blown-glass roller tubes, were tiny pieces of tissue bathed in nutrient-rich fluids, gathering the nourishment necessary for survival. As the drum rotated one turn every hour, the cells surfaced, free to breathe and excrete until the liquid bathed them again. If all went well, the cells adhered to the walls of the tubes and began to flourish." - Rebecca Skloot
    This method of growing tissue cultures was also used in the development of Jonas Salk's polio vaccine and by John Enders in his Nobel prize-winning polio research.[24]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Skloot, Rebecca (2010), The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks, New York City: Random House, p. 2, ISBN 978-1-4000-5217-2 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Batts, Denise Watson (2010-05-10). "Cancer cells killed Henrietta Lacks – then made her immortal". The Virginian-Pilot. pp. 1, 12–14. Retrieved 2012-08-19.  Note: Some sources report her birthday as August 2, 1920, vs. August 1, 1920.
  3. ^ Zielinski, Sarah (2010-01-02). "CRACKING THE CODE OF THE HUMAN GENOME Henrietta Lacks' 'Immortal' Cells". Smithsonian. Retrieved 2016-12-31. 
  4. ^ Grady, Denise (2010-02-01). "A Lasting Gift to Medicine That Wasn't Really a Gift". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-08-19. 
  5. ^ Skloot, Rebecca (2010), The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks, New York City: Random House, p. 17, ISBN 978-1-4000-5217-2 
  6. ^ Skloot 2010, p. 18.
  7. ^ a b c Skloot, Rebecca (February 2010). "Excerpt From The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks". oprah.com. Retrieved 2013-08-09. 
  8. ^ "Turner's Station African American Survey District, Dundalk, Baltimore County 1900–1950" (PDF). Baltimore County. Retrieved 2012-08-19. 
  9. ^ "Baltimore county architectural survey African American Thematic Study" (PDF). Baltimore County Office of Planning and The Landmarks Preservation Commission. Retrieved 2012-08-19. 
  10. ^ Skloot 2010, p. 13.
  11. ^ "Squamous Cell Carcinoma". Skin Cancer Foundation. Retrieved 2016-12-31. 
  12. ^ Skloot 2010, p. 27.
  13. ^ World Cancer Report 2014. World Health Organization. 2014. pp. Chapter 5.3. ISBN 92-832-0429-8. 
  14. ^ Skloot 2010, pp. 172.
  15. ^ Skloot 2010, p. 33.
  16. ^ Skloot 2010, p. 86.
  17. ^ a b c d e f Smith, Van (2002-04-17). "Wonder Woman: The Life, Death, and Life After Death of Henrietta Lacks, Unwitting Heroine of Modern Medical Science". Baltimore City Paper. Archived from the original on 2004-08-14. Retrieved 2016-09-19. 
  18. ^ a b Skloot, Rebecca (April 2000). "Henrietta's Dance". Johns Hopkins Magazine. Johns Hopkins University. Retrieved 2016-10-12. 
  19. ^ Skloot, page 231
  20. ^ a b c d Batts, Denise Watson (2010-05-30). "After 60 years of anonymity, Henrietta Lacks has a headstone". The Virginian-Pilot. pp. HR1,7. Retrieved 2012-08-19. 
  21. ^ McLaughlin, Tom (2010-05-31). "An epitaph, at last | South Boston Virginia News". TheNewsRecord.com. Retrieved 2012-12-21. 
  22. ^ Skloot, Rebecca (March 2001). "An Obsession With Culture". University of Pittsburgh/PITT Magazine. Retrieved 2016-12-31. By 1950, when Henrietta Lacks walked into Hopkins Hospital complaining of abnormal bleeding, George and Margaret Gey had spent almost thirty years trying to establish an immortal human cell line. ... 
  23. ^ Gold, Michael (1986). A Conspiracy of Cells: One Woman's Immortal Legacy-And the Medical Scandal It Caused. SUNY Press. p. 20. 
  24. ^ Skloot, Rebecca (March 2001). "An Obsession With Culture". University of Pittsburgh/PITT Magazine. Retrieved 2016-12-31. 
  25. ^ Lucey, Brendan P.; Nelson-Rees, Walter A.; Hutchins, Grover M. (2009-09-01). "Henrietta Lacks, HeLa Cells, and Cell Culture Contamination". Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine. 133 (9): 1463–1467. doi:10.1043/1543-2165-133.9.1463. ISSN 0003-9985. 
  26. ^ Skloot 2010, p. 96.
  27. ^ Skloot, Rebecca (2010). The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. New York: Broadway Paperbacks. p. 128. 
  28. ^ ^ Puck TT, Marcus PI. A Rapid Method for Viable Cell Titration and Clone Production With Hela Cells In Tissue Culture: The Use of X-Irradiated Cells to Supply Conditioning Factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1955 Jul 15;41(7):432-7. URL: PNASJSTOR
  29. ^ Margonelli, Lisa (2010-02-05). "Eternal Life". New York Times. New York. Retrieved 2014-04-23. 
  30. ^ a b c Ritter, Malcolm (August 7, 2013). "Feds, family reach deal on use of DNA information". Seattle Times. Retrieved 2016-12-31. 
  31. ^ Schwab, Abraham P.; Baily, Mary Ann; Hirschhorn, Kurt; Rhodes, Rosamond; Trusko, Brett (2013-08-15). Rhodes, Rosamond; Gligorov, Nada; Schwab, Abraham Paul, eds. The Human Microbiome: Ethical, Legal and Social Concerns. Oxford University Press. pp. 98–99. In 1973, researchers at Johns Hopkins contacted Lacks family members and asked them to provide blood samples 
  32. ^ Washington, Harriet (October 1994), "Henrietta Lacks: An Unsung Hero", Emerge Magazine 
  33. ^ Skloot 2010, pp. 203–206.
  34. ^ Zimmer, Carl (2013-08-07). "A Family Consents to a Medical Gift, 62 Years Later". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-12-12. The Lacks family and the N.I.H. settled on an agreement: the data from both studies should be stored in the institutes’ database of genotypes and phenotypes. Researchers who want to use the data can apply for access and will have to submit annual reports about their research. A so-called HeLa Genome Data Access working group at the N.I.H. will review the applications. Two members of the Lacks family will be members. The agreement does not provide the Lacks family with proceeds from any commercial products that may be developed from research on the HeLa genome. 
  35. ^ Roland A. Pattillo, MD; Roland Matthews, MA (Spring 2006). "Tenth Annual HeLa Women's Health Conference:An Overview and Historical Perspective" (PDF). Journal of Ethnicity and Disease. International Society on Hypertension in Blacks. Retrieved 2016-10-28. 
  36. ^ "2011 First Year Book Program - The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks". University of Maryland. Retrieved 2016-09-26. 
  37. ^ Wenger, Yvonne (August 4, 2012). "Henrietta Lacks honored in 15th annual Turners Station celebration". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 2016-10-27. 
  38. ^ Rodman, Nicole (2016-08-04). "Honoring the legacy of Henrietta Lacks". The Dundalk Eagle. PressReader.Com. Retrieved 2016-10-27. 
  39. ^ "In Memory Of Henrietta Lacks -- Hon. Robert L. Ehrlich, Jr. (Extension of Remarks - June 4, 1997)", Congressional Record 105th Congress (1997–1998), THOMAS, The Library of Congress, 1997-06-04, retrieved 2016-05-03 
  40. ^ "Family Recognition, Community Awards, And Author Highlight Henrietta Lacks Memorial Lecture 2010". The Johns Hopkins Institute for Clinical and Translational Research. 2010-10-02. Retrieved 2016-06-17. 
  41. ^ "Past Lectures". The Johns Hopkins Institute for Clinical and Translational Research. Retrieved 2016-06-17. 
  42. ^ "Henrietta Lack Receives an Honorary Degree". NPR - All Things Considered. 2011-05-23. Retrieved 2016-12-30. 
  43. ^ Buck, Howard (2011-09-14). "Bioscience school gets official name". The Columbian. Retrieved 2012-08-19. 
  44. ^ "New high school name to honor Henrietta Lacks". KATU. Retrieved 2012-08-19. 
  45. ^ Squires, Emily Oland. "Maryland Women's Hall of Fame Online". The Maryland State Archives. Retrieved 2014-11-06. 
  46. ^ "Henrietta Lacks (1920 - 1951) (Maryland Women's Hall of Fame)". Maryland State Archives. Retrieved 2017-01-07. 
  47. ^ Rogers, Michael (1976-03-21). "The HeLa Strain". Detroit Free Press. 
  48. ^ Rogers, Michael (1976-03-25). "The Double-Edged Helix". Rolling Stone. 
  49. ^ Curtis, Adam (2010-06-25). "The Undead Henrietta Lacks And Her Immortal Dynasty". bbc.co.uk. BBC. Retrieved 2017-01-06. 
  50. ^ Cells That Save Lives are a Mother's Legacy, New York Times, November 17, 2001.
  51. ^ Britto, Brittany (2016-09-21). "Oprah Winfrey spotted in Baltimore as 'Henrietta Lacks' movie films in city". Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 2016-12-31. 
  52. ^ Stanhope, Kate (2016-05-02). "Oprah Winfrey to Star in HBO Films' 'The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks'". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 2016-05-03. 
  53. ^ Jordan, Tina (2016-12-22). "See the first photos of Oprah Winfrey in HBO's Henrietta Lacks movie". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 2016-12-31. 
  54. ^ Blas, Lorena (2016-05-02), "Oprah Winfrey to star in HBO's 'Henrietta Lacks' movie", USA Today 
  55. ^ Thomas, June (2010-05-19). "Ripped From Which Headline? "Immortal"". Slate. Retrieved 2012-08-19. 
  56. ^ Kamen, Jess (June 23, 2014). "Holiday In Baltimore". Baltimore City Paper. 
  57. ^ "Yeasayer reveal new track 'Henrietta' – listen". NME. 2012-05-16. 
  58. ^ Welcome to HeLa Family Stories, HeLa Family Enterprise, LLC, 2013, retrieved 2016-05-03 

Further reading[edit]

  • Russell Brown and James H M Henderson, 1983, "The Mass Production and Distribution of HeLa Cells at Tuskegee Institute", 1953–1955. J Hist Med allied Sci 38(4):415–43
  • Harold M. Schmeck Jr. (1986-05-15). "Hela's Legacy". The New York Times. 
  • Michael Gold (January 1986). A Conspiracy of Cells: One Woman's Immortal Legacy and the Medical Scandal It Caused. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-88706-099-1. 
  • Hannah Landecker 2000 "Immortality, In Vitro. A History of the HeLa Cell Line". In Brodwin, Paul E., ed.: Biotechnology and Culture. Bodies, Anxieties, Ethics. Bloomington/Indianapolis, 53–72, ISBN 0-253-21428-9
  • Hannah Landecker, 1999, "Between Beneficence and Chattel: The Human Biological in Law and Science," Science in Context, 203–225.
  • Hannah Landecker, 2007, Culturing Life: How Cells Became Technologies. "HeLa" is the title of the fourth chapter.
  • Priscilla Wald, "American Studies and the Politics of Life" American Quarterly 64.2 (June 2012): 185–204
  • Priscilla Wald, "Cells, Genes, and Stories: HeLa's Journey from Labs to Literature," Genetics and the Unsettled Past: The Collision of Race, DNA and History, ed. Keith Wailoo, Alondra Nelson, and Catherine Lee, Rutgers University Press (2012): 247–65
  • Priscilla Wald, "Science Fiction and Medical Ethics," The Lancet (June 14, 2009; 371.9629)

External links[edit]