International student

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International students in Liechtenstein

International students, or foreign students, are students who undertake all or part of their tertiary education in a country other than their own.

In 2021, there were over 6.39 million international students, up from 5.12 million in 2016. The most popular destinations were the United States (with 833,204 international students), the United Kingdom (600,589 students), and Australia (378,439 students) which together receive 28,37% of international students.[1]

National definitions[edit]

Definitions of "foreign student" and "international student" vary from country to country.[2]

In the US, international students are "[i]ndividuals studying in the United States on a non-immigrant, temporary visa that allows for academic study at the post-secondary level."[3] Most international students in the US hold an F1 Visa.[4]

In Europe, students from countries who are a part of the European Union can take part in a student exchange program called the Erasmus Programme.[5] The program allows for students from the EU to study in other countries under a government agreement.

Canada defines international students as "non-Canadian students who do not have 'permanent resident' status and have had to obtain the authorization of the Canadian government to enter Canada with the intention of pursuing an education."[6] The study permit identifies the level of study and the length of time the individual may study in Canada. Unless it takes more than six months, international students do not need a study permit if they will finish the course within the period of stay authorized upon entry.[7]

In Australia, an international student "is not an Australian citizen, Australian permanent resident, New Zealand citizen, or a holder of an Australian permanent resident humanitarian visa."[8]

According to the Institute of International Education, an international student in Japan is "[a] student from a foreign economy who is receiving an education at any Japanese university, graduate school, junior college, college of technology, professional training college or university preparatory course and who resides in Japan with a 'college student' visa status."[9]

Destinations of foreign students[edit]

Students of different nationalities at an international school in Shanghai, China, 2017. The school does not have a school uniform.

Student mobility in the first decade of the 21st century has been transformed by three major external events: the 9/11 terrorist attack, the global financial crisis of 2008, and an increasingly isolationist political order characterized by Brexit in the U.K. and the election of Donald Trump in the U.S.[10] Changes to the visa and immigration policies of destination countries impact the availability of employment during and after education.[10][11] Political developments are often a major consideration; for example, a survey conducted before the 2020 presidential election in the U.S. indicated that a quarter of prospective international students were more likely to study in the country if Joseph R. Biden was elected president.[12]

Traditionally the US and UK have been the most prestigious choices. There is increasing competition from several destinations in East Asia such as China, Korea, Japan and Taiwan which are keen to attract foreign students for reputation and demographic reasons.[13]

According to OECD, almost one out of five foreign students is regionally mobile. This segment of regionally mobile students who seek global education at local cost is defined as "glocal" students]. Many "glocal" students consider pursuing transnational or cross-border education which allows them to earn a foreign credential while staying in their home countries.[14] With the increase in tuition cost in leading destinations like the US and the UK along with the higher immigration barriers, many international students are exploring alternative destinations and demanding more "value for money." Recalibrating value for money for international students It is projected that the number of internationally mobile students will reach 6.9 million by 2030, an increase of 51%, or 2.3 million students, from 2015.[15] The affordability of international education is an area of concern not only for international students but also universities and nations interested in attracting them.[16]

As of 2023, the top 10 countries for foreign student enrollment according to Institute of International Education:[17]

Rank Destination country Numbers of foreign students Top sending countries
2023 2022 % change
1  United States 1,057,188 948,519 +11.46% China, India, South Korea
2  United Kingdom 718,085 633,910 +13.28% China, India, Nigeria
3  Canada 660,230 552,580 +19.48% India, China, France
4  France 392,630 364,756 +7.64% Morocco, Algeria, China
5  Australia 361,247 363,859 −0.72% China, India, Nepal
6  Germany 349,438 324,729 +7.61% China, India, Syria
7  Russia 282,922 262,416 +7.81% Kazakhstan, China, Uzbekistan
8  China 210,903 221,653 −4.85% South Korea, Thailand, Pakistan
9  Japan 181,741 201,877 −9.97% China, Vietnam, Nepal
10  Spain 135,478 91,558 +47.97% China, Romania, Albania

As of 2022, the top 10 countries for foreign student enrollment according to UNESCO:[1]

Rank Destination country Numbers of foreign students
2022 2021 % change
1  United States 833,204
2  United Kingdom 674,931 600,589 +12.38%
3  Australia 382,007 378,439 +0.94%
4  Germany 376,359
5  Russia 340,326 321,845 +5.74%
6  Canada 312,630
7  France 263,459 252,856 +4.19%
8  Turkey 224,048
9  China 210,903 221,653 −4.85%
10  Netherlands 135,535



In 2016, China was the third largest receiver of international students globally, with 442,773 international students.[18] By 2018 this number had grown to 492,185 (10.49% growth from 2017).[19]

International Students in China (2003-2017)

The number of international students in China has grown steadily since 2003, with apparently no impact from the rise of terrorism or the 2008 global financial crisis. In contrast to the reported decline of enrollments in the USA[20] and the UK,[21] China's international student market continues to strengthen. China is now the leading destination globally for Anglophone African students.[22]

Number of international students in China (2016) by sending continent.
Yearly increase of international students coming to China by continent (2015-2016).

In 2016, the students coming to China were mostly from Asia (60%), followed by Europe (16%) and Africa (14%). However, Africa had the highest growth rate at 23.7% year-on-year 2015–2016.[23]

Top 15 Countries Sending International Students to China (2016)

The top 15 countries sending students to China in 2018 are listed below. African countries are grouped together and show a considerable block of students.[23][24][19]

Country Number of Foreign Students Rank
2018 2017 % of
Total (2018)
- All African countries
grouped together
81,562 61,594 16.57% -
1  South Korea ** 50,600 70,540 10.28% 1
2  Thailand ** 28,608 23,044 5.81% 2
3  Pakistan ** 28,023 18,626 5.69% 3
4  India ** 23,192 18,717 4.71% 5
5  United States ** 20,996 23,838 4.27% 4
6  Russia ** 19,239 17,971 3.91% 6
7  Indonesia ** 15,050 14,714 3.06% 8
8  Laos ** 14,645 - 2.98% -
9  Japan ** 14,230 13,595 2.89% 7
10  Kazakhstan ** 11,784 13,996 2.39% 9
11  Vietnam ** 11,299 10,639 2.30%
12  Bangladesh ** 10,735 - 2.18% -
13  France ** 10,695 - 2.17% -
14  Mongolia ** 10,158 - 2.06% -
15  Malaysia ** 9,479 - 1.93% -
International Students in China by Province (2016)

In 2016, international students mostly went to study in the major centers of Beijing (77,234, 17.44%) and Shanghai (59,887, 13.53%). In recent years there has been a decentralization and dispersion of students to other provinces.

Various factors combine to make China a desirable destination for international students.

  1. China boasts a significant number of world-class universities.[25]
  2. Universities in China are attractive research centers.[26]
  3. It costs relatively less than studying in developed countries.[27]
  4. There is a huge diversity of universities and programs.[27]
  5. There are more career opportunities due to China's growing economic strength.[27]
  6. Many graduate and postgraduate programs are offered in English.
  7. A huge number of scholarships (49,022 in 2016) are on offer from the Chinese government.[23]

China is openly pursuing a policy of growing its soft power globally, by way of persuasion and attraction. Attracting international students, especially by way of scholarships, is one effective way of growing this influence.[28][29]


In 2019, India was hosting over 47,000 overseas students and aims to quadruple the number 200,000 students by 2023. India has most its international students and targets from South, Southeast, West Asia and Africa and is running various fee waiver and scholarship programs.[30][31]

2019-20 academic year[32]
Rank Country Number of Students % of Total
1  Nepal 13,880 28.1%
2  Afghanistan 4,504 9.1%
3  Bangladesh 2,259 4.6%
4  Bhutan 1,851 3.8%
5  Sudan 1,758 3.6%
6  United States 1,627 3.3%
7  Nigeria 1,525 3.1%
8  Yemen 1,437 2.9%
9  Malaysia 1,353 2.7%
10  United Arab Emirates 1,347 2.7%
Share of top 10 countries 31,533 63.9%
Others 17,815 36.1%
Total 49,348 100%


Iran had 55000 studying in 2018 .[33] In 2021 it doubled to more than 130000 with half of them enrolled in Azad University and Payamnoor.[34] Iran Signed up PMF Iraqi Popular Mobilization Forces to study at University of Tehran.[35] By 2023 there were students from 15 countries such as Lebanon, Iraq, Russia, Syria, Pakistan, African countries. They study humanities sciences, law, medicine, construction, accounting.[36][37]


Japan is perceived as an evolving destination for international students. Japan has around 180,000 overseas students studying at its institutions and the government has set targets to increase this to 300,000 over the next few years.[38] According to the Japan Student Services Organization (JASSO), the number of international students on 1 May 2022 was 231,146 people.[39][40][41]

Malaysia and Singapore[edit]

Malaysia, Singapore and India are emerging destinations for international students. These three countries have combined share of approximately 12% of the global student market with somewhere between 250,000 and 300,000 students having decided to pursue higher education studies in these countries in 2005–2006.[42]

South Korea[edit]

In 2023, the number of international students studying at universities and colleges in South Korea was about 180,000.[43]

Australia and Oceania[edit]

Australia has the highest ratio of international students per head of population in the world, with 775,475 international students enrolled in the nation's universities and vocational institutions in 2020.[44][45] In 2019, international students represented 27% of the student bodies of Australian universities. International education is one of the country's largest exports and has a pronounced influence on the country's demographics as many students remain in Australia after graduation.[46]


France and Germany[edit]

In 2016, France was the fourth largest receiver of international students globally, with 245,349 international students.[47] Germany was the fifth largest receiver, with 244,575 international students.[48][18] Since the 2016/17 academic year, the number of foreign students attending university in Germany has constantly risen, climbing from 358,895 students five years ago to 411,601 students last year.[49]

With the Franco-German University, the two countries have established a framework for cooperation between their universities, enabling students to participate in specific Franco-German courses of study across borders.[50]

The top 10 countries sending students to France in 2016 are listed below.[18]

Rank Country Number of Students % of Total
1  Morocco 28,012 12.4%
2  China 23,378 10.4%
3  Algeria 17,008 7.5%
4  Tunisia 9,403 4.2%
5  Italy 8,535 3.8%
6  Senegal 7,428 3.3%
7  Germany 6,338 2.8%
8  Spain 5,143 2.3%
9  Ivory Coast 4,620 2.0%
10  Cameroon 4,550 2.0%

The top 10 countries sending students to Germany in 2015 are listed below.[18]

Rank Country Number of Students % of Total
1  China 23,616 12.2%
2  Russia 9,953 5.1%
3  India 9,896 5.1%
4  Austria 9,574 4.9%
5  France 6,955 3.6%
6  Cameroon 6,301 3.2%
7  Bulgaria 6,293 3.2%
8  Ukraine 5,850 3.0%
9  Italy 5,657 2.9%
10  Poland 5,508 2.8%

United Kingdom[edit]


As of 2017, 81,000 international students studied in the Netherlands, compromising 12% of the higher education student population. Of these students, 12,500 students or 15.4% were Dutch nationals who had studied elsewhere previously. Three-fourths of international students in the Netherlands come from European Union countries, with the largest segment of that population coming from Germany. Of the non-EU students, the largest portion is composed of Chinese students. Two-thirds of all international students come to the Netherlands for their bachelor's degree.[51]


Russia, since the Soviet times, has been a hub for international students, mainly from the developing world. It is the world's fifth-leading destination for international students, hosting roughly 300 thousand in 2019.[52]

The top 10 countries sending students to Russia in 2019 are listed below.[52]

Rank Country Number of Students
1  Kazakhstan 71,368
2  Turkmenistan 27,889
3  Uzbekistan 27,397
4  Tajikistan 21,397
5  Ukraine 21,609
6  People's Republic of China 18,531
7  India 12,501
8  Belarus 11,614
9  Azerbaijan 10,946
10  Kyrgyzstan 7,291

North America[edit]


Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) reckons that as of December 2019, there were 642,480 international students which is a 13% increase from the previous year.[53] In 2019, 30% of the international students in Canada were from India and 25% were from China.[54] The newest Canadian government International Education Strategy (IES) for the period 2019-2024 includes a commitment to diversify inbound students and distribute them more equally across the country rather than having a strong concentration in a few cities.[55]

United States[edit]

Around 750,000 Chinese and 400,000 Indian students apply to overseas higher education institutions annually.[56][57] New enrollment of undergraduate and graduate foreign students at American universities and colleges for 2016-17 declined by 2.1% or nearly 5,000 students which translates into a potential revenue of US$125 million for the first year of studies alone.[58] Much of the increase in international students in the US during 2013–2014 was fueled by undergraduate students from China. The number of Chinese students increased to 31 % of all foreign students in the US, the highest concentration of any one country since the Institute of International Education began collecting data on international students in 1948.[59]


Prospective foreign students are usually required to sit for language tests before they are admitted. Tests notwithstanding, while some international students already possess an excellent command of the local language upon arrival, some find their language ability, considered excellent domestically, inadequate for the purpose of understanding lectures, and/or of conveying oneself fluently in rapid conversations. A research report commissioned by NAFSA: Association of International Educators investigated the scope of third-party providers offerings intensive English preparation programs with academic credit for international students in the United States.[60] These pathway programs are designed to recruit and support international students needing additional help with English and academic preparation before matriculating to a degree program.

Student visa[edit]

Generally, foreign students as citizens of other countries are required to obtain a student visa, which ascertains their legal status for staying in the second country.[61] In the United States, before students come to the country, the students must select a school to attend to qualify for a student visa. The course of study and the type of school a foreign student plans to attend determine whether an F-1 visa or an M-1 visa is needed. Each student visa applicant must prove they have the financial ability to pay for their tuition, books and living expenses while they study in the states.[62]

Economic impact[edit]

Research from the National Association of Foreign Student Advisers (NAFSA) shows the economic benefits of the increasing international higher-education enrollment in the United States. According to their 2021–2022 academic year analysis, nearly one million international students contributed $33.8 billion to the US economy and 335,000 jobs. This represents almost a 19% increase in dollars compared to the previous year. International students contribute more than job and monetary gains to the economy. “The increase in economic activity is certainly positive news but it should be kept in perspective: it shows we’ve only regained about half the ground lost in the previous academic year,” said Dr. Esther D. Brimmer, NAFSA executive director and CEO. “We must not be complacent that this upward trend will automatically continue. [63] According to NAFSA's research, their diverse views contribute to technological innovation has increased America's ability to compete in the global economy.

On the other hand, international students have faced suspicions of involvement in economic and industrial espionage.[64]

Higher education marketing[edit]

Marketing of higher education is a well-entrenched macro process today, especially in the major English-speaking nations: Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the UK, and the USA. One of the major factors behind the worldwide evolution of educational marketing could be globalization, which has dramatically shrunken the world. Due to intensifying competition for overseas students amongst MESDCs, i.e. major English-speaking destination countries, higher educational institutions recognize the significance of marketing themselves, in the international arena.[65] To build sustainable international student recruitment strategies Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) need to diversify the markets from which they recruit, both to take advantage of future growth potential from emerging markets, and to reduce dependency on – and exposure to risk from – major markets such as China, India and Nigeria, where demand has proven to be volatile.[66] For recruitment strategies, there are some approaches that higher education institutions adopt to ensure stable enrollments of international students, such as developing university preparation programs, like the Global Assessment Certificate (GAC) Program, and launching international branch campuses in foreign countries.

Global Assessment Certificate (GAC) Program[edit]

The Global Assessment Certification (GAC) Program is a university preparation program, developed and provided by ACT Education Solution, Ltd., for the purpose of helping students to prepare for admission and enrollment overseas.[67] The program helps students from non-English speaking backgrounds to prepare for university-level study, so they are able to successfully finish a bachelor's degree at university. Students who complete the GAC program have the opportunity to be admitted to 120 so called Pathway Universities, located in destinations including the United States, the United Kingdom, and Canada.[68] Mainly, the program consists of curriculums, such as Academic English, Mathematics, Computing, Study Skills, Business, Science and Social Science. Moreover, the program also provides the opportunity to get prepared for the ACT exam and English Proficiency tests like TOEFL and IELTS.[69]

Foreign branch campuses[edit]

Opening international branch campuses is a new strategy for recruiting foreign students in other countries in order to build strong global outreach by overcoming the limitations of physical distance. Indeed, opening branch campuses plays a significant role of widening the landscape of the higher education. In the past, along with high demand for higher education, many universities in the United States established their branch campuses in foreign countries.[70] According to a report by the Observatory on Borderless Higher Education (OBHE), there was a 43% increase in the number of foreign branch campuses in the worldwide scale since 2006. American higher education institutions mostly take a dominant position in growth rate and the number of foreign branch campuses, accounting for almost 50 % of current foreign branch campuses.[71] However, some research reports have recently said foreign branch campuses are facing several challenges and setbacks, for example interference of local government,[72] sustainability problems, and long-term prospects like damage on academic reputations and finance.

Challenges for foreign students in English-speaking countries[edit]

Most foreign students encounter difficulties in language use. Such issues make it difficult for the student to make domestic[clarification needed] friends and gain familiarity with the local culture. Sometimes, these language barriers can subject international students to ignorance or disrespect from native speakers.[73] Most international students also lack support groups in the country where they are studying. Although all colleges in North America that are in student exchange programs do have an International Student Office, it sometimes does not have the resources and capability[clarification needed] to consider their students' individual needs when it comes to adapting to the new environment. The more students a particular college has who come from the same country, the better the support is for getting involved in the new culture.[74]

Foreign students face several challenges in their academic studies at North American universities. Studies have shown that these challenges include several different factors: inadequate English proficiency; unfamiliarity with North American culture; lack of appropriate study skills or strategies; academic learning anxiety; low social self-efficacy; financial difficulties; and separation from family and friends.[75] Despite the general perception that American culture is diverse rather than homogenous, the American ideology of cultural homogeneity has been alleged to imply an American mindset that because Eurocentric cultures are superior to others, people with different cultures should conform to the dominant monocultural canon and norms.[76]

US colleges and universities have long welcomed students from China, whose higher education system cannot meet the demand.[clarification needed] 10 million students throughout China take the national college entrance test, competing for 5.7 million university places. Because foreign undergraduates typically fail to qualify for US federal aid, colleges can provide only limited financial help. Now, thanks to China's booming economy in recent years, more Chinese families can afford to pay.

US colleges also face challenges abroad. Worries about fraud on test scores and transcripts make occasional headlines. And even Chinese students who score highly on an English-language proficiency test may not be able to speak or write well enough to stay up to speed in a US classroom, where essay writing and discussions are common.[77] Chinese international students face other challenges besides language proficiency. The Chinese educational structure focuses on exam-oriented education, with educational thinking and activities aimed towards meeting the entrance examination. Students become more focused on exam performance, and teachers are inclined to focus on lecturing to teach students what may be on the test. In addition, "parents are also convinced that the more students listened to the lectures, the better they would score on the finals."[78] With more than 304,040 Chinese students enrolled in the US in 2014/15, China is by far the leading source of international students at American universities and colleges; however, there are three waves of growth in Chinese students in the US.[79]

Each of the three waves differs in terms of needs and expectations and corresponding support services needed. Unfortunately, many higher education institutions have not adapted to the changing needs.[80] It is no surprise that many Chinese students are now questioning if it is worth investing in studying abroad.[81]

International students also face cross-cultural barriers that hinder their ability to succeed in a new environment.[82] For example, there are differences in terms of receiving and giving feedback, which influences academic engagement and even the job and internship search approach of international students.[83]

Transparency is an issue that international students face when coming across activities within class, specifically when it comes to group discussions, it may be a bigger obstacle. Firstly, the issue of how topics being discussed may not need further elaboration when it comes to local students and for an international student, the ability of the student to be able to understand and contribute may diminish in return. This may be due to the feeling of dismissal via the appearance of lack of interest in their opinion. Another would be the failure of expected scaffolding during group discussions when it comes to international students. This is due to the need for a developed understanding of local culture, or "cultural facts" as represented by Kim. This represents the knowledge of humor, vernacular, or simple connotations in speech that may allow international students to further develop an understanding of a given topic.[84]

Plagiarism is the most serious offense in academia.[85] Plagiarism has two subtle forms, one of which includes the omission of elements required for proper citations and references.[86] The second form is unacknowledged use or incorporation of another person's work or achievement. Violation of either form can result in a student's expulsion. International students from some cultures lack the concept of plagiarism.[87] Most of them are unfamiliar with American academic standards and colleges are not good about giving a clear definition of the word's meaning. For example, many international students don't know using even one sentence of someone else's work can be considered plagiarism. Most colleges give students an E on their plagiarized assignments and future offenses often result in failing class or being kicked out of university.

Mental wellness[edit]

International students studying in a foreign country face a life-altering event which can cause distress that can potentially affect their mental wellness. Many students report homesickness and loneliness in their initial transition, experience isolation from peers and struggle with understanding cultural differences while staying abroad. In certain cultures, mental illness is seen as a sign of weakness. Because of this, international students believe they can prevail through their struggles alone without help, which can lead to a decrease in mental wellness.[88]

There are two common symptoms among international students from China in particular: 45 % of the students faced depression and 29 % of the students faced anxiety.[89] Stressors that lead international students to struggle with anxiety are rooted in numerous causes, including academic pressures, financial issues, adapting to a new culture, creating friendships, and feelings of loneliness.[90] International students are also more likely to rely on peers for support through their transition than teachers or adult peers.[91] If the student is unable to make friends in their new environment, they will struggle more with their transition than an international student who has established relationships with their peers.[92] During the COVID-19 pandemic, many international students started remote learning and had to overcome time differences to take classes online, which further led to sleep disruption, social isolation, and thus, higher rates of mental health symptoms.[93]

Language and communication barriers have been noted to add to student anxiety and stress.[94] International students face language discrimination, which may exacerbate mental health symptoms. Evidence has not conclusively shown that language discrimination is a greater risk factor than discrimination against foreigners. However, there has not been any conclusive evidence to show whether language discrimination plays a significantly larger role than simple foreigner discrimination.[92]

Since international students are less likely to use individual counseling provided by the university.[95] and may experience even more intense stigmas against seeking professional help,[96] group-oriented ways of reaching students may be more helpful.[97] Group activities, like collaborative workshops and cultural exchange groups, can introduce a sense of community among the students.[98][99] In addition, efforts can be placed to improve awareness and accessibility to mental wellness resources and counseling services.[93][100] Social workers, faculty, and academic staff can be educated beforehand to provide an adequate support for them.[101]

Study abroad[edit]

Studying abroad is the act of a student pursuing educational opportunities in a country other than one's own.[102] This can include primary, secondary and post-secondary students. A 2012 study showed number of students studying abroad represents about 9.4% of all students enrolled at institutions of higher education in the United States[103][104] and it is a part of experience economy.[105][106]

Studying abroad is a valuable program for international students as it is intended to increase the students' knowledge and understanding of other cultures. International education not only helps students with their language and communicating skills. It also encourages students to develop a different perspective and cross-cultural understanding of their studies which will further their education and benefit them in their career.[107][108] The main factors that determine the outcome quality of international studies are transaction dynamics (between the environmental conditions and the international student), quality of environment, and the student's coping behavior.


Accommodation is a major factor that determines study abroad experience.[109][110]

Coping in study abroad[edit]

Positive affectivity[edit]

Affectivity is an emotional disposition: people who are high on positive affectivity experience positive emotions and moods like joy and excitement, and view the world, including themselves and other people, in a positive light. They tend to be cheerful, enthusiastic, lively, sociable, and energetic. Research has found that students studying abroad with a positive emotional tendency have higher satisfaction and interaction with the environment; they engage in the staying country's citizenship behaviours.[105][111]

Adjustment concepts[edit]

Being relevant to research on coping by international students, the concept of adjustment to a foreign work environment and its operationalisation has been the subject of broad methodological discussion.[112][113]

See also[edit]



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Further reading[edit]

  • Altbach, Philip. "Foreign study: Patterns and challenges." International Higher Education 30 (2015). online
  • Ammigan, Ravichandran and Jones, Elspeth. "Improving the Student Experience: Learning From a Comparative Study of International Student Satisfaction." Journal of Studies in International Education. 2018;22(4):283-301. online
  • Jiani, M. A. "Why and how international students choose Mainland China as a higher education study abroad destination." Higher Education 74.4 (2017): 563–579.
  • Liu, Jingzhou. "Internationalization of Higher Education: Experiences of Intercultural Adaptation of International Students in Canada." Antistasis 6.2 (2017). online
  • Mihut, Georgiana, ed. Understanding Higher Education Internationalization (2017) 436pp; reprints selected articles published 2011 to 2016.
  • Orleans, Leo A., Chinese Students in America: Policies, Issues, and Numbers, National Academies Press, US National Academies, Office of International Affairs (OIA), 1988.
  • Waters, Maurice. "International relations and American institutions of higher learning: a review, "Journal of Conflict Resolution 8.2 (1964): 178–185.
  • Wen, Wen, Die Hu, and Jie Hao. "International students' experiences in China: Does the planned reverse mobility work?." International Journal of Educational Development 61 (2018): 204–212. online
  • Yan, Kun. Chinese international students' stressors and coping strategies in the United States (Springer Singapore, 2017).

External links[edit]