Jebel Akhdar (Oman)

Coordinates: 23°06′N 57°24′E / 23.1°N 57.4°E / 23.1; 57.4
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jebel Akhdar
Terraces in Jebel Akhdar, 2011
Highest point
Elevation2,980 m (9,780 ft)[1]
Coordinates23°06′N 57°24′E / 23.1°N 57.4°E / 23.1; 57.4
Native nameAl-Jabal Al-Akhḍar (ٱلْجَبَل ٱلْأَخْضَر (Arabic))
Jebel Akhdar is located in Oman
Jebel Akhdar
Jebel Akhdar
Location in Oman
Jebel Akhdar is located in Middle East
Jebel Akhdar
Jebel Akhdar
Jebel Akhdar (Middle East)
Jebel Akhdar is located in West and Central Asia
Jebel Akhdar
Jebel Akhdar
Jebel Akhdar (West and Central Asia)
Location Oman
Parent rangeAl-Hajar Mountains

The Jebel Akhdar (Arabic: ٱلْجَبَل ٱلْأَخْضَر, romanizedAl-Jabal Al-Akhḍar, lit.'The Green Mountain') is one of the Hajar Mountains in Ad Dakhiliyah Governorate of Oman. It rises to a height of 2,980 m (9,780 ft)[1] and encompasses the Saiq Plateau at 2,000 m (6,600 ft) above sea level. Jebel Akhdar is famous for its labyrinth of wadis and terraced orchards, where pomegranates, apricots and roses grow in abundance due to its mild Mediterranean climate. Nearby is Jabal Shams, the highest peak in Oman and the Hajar range.

Geology and geography[edit]

This mostly limestone[2] mountain is one of the highest points in Oman and eastern Arabia. Jebel Akhdar lies at the central section of the Hajar range, located around 150 km (93 mi) from Muscat and accessible only by four-wheel drive.[3] The range is mostly desert, but at higher altitudes receives around 300 mm (12 in) of precipitation annually — moist enough to allow the growth of shrubs and trees and support agriculture.[4] It is this that gives the mountains their "green" name.[5][6]

An old stronghold on the inland side of the mountain is Birkat al-Mawz, or Pool of the Plantains, with a layout similar to the nearby Jabrin palace.[7]

"Poised across the yawning mouth of a great pass into the mountains, Birkat al-Mawz was one of the fortresses of the Bani Riyam tribe which controlled the mountain heartland. Collapsing into ruin until recently, the mud-brick fortress and its painted ceilings are now well on the way to restoration."

— Aramco World.

The area is about a 45-minute drive from Nizwa and is known for its traditional rose water extraction[8][9] and agricultural products including pomegranates, walnuts, apricots, black grapes, and peaches. It is also the site of honey bee breeding for much of Oman.[10] Agricultural production is improved by the use of Falaj irrigation channels and their associated terraces system devised by the local farmers, who have lived on this mountain for hundreds of years. Al Sogara is a historic village carved into the mountainside.[11] The Jebel is mostly inhabited by the ancient Arab tribe Bani Riyam (al Riyamy).[12] Most descendants of the tribe are now in the four nearby villages, including Nizwa, Izki and Ibra.[13]


Jebel Ahkdar is in Al Hajar montane woodlands ecoregion. The plant communities on the mountain vary with elevation. Shrublands and dry grasslands are found from 450 to 1,300 meters elevation. The grasses and shrubs are adapted to arid conditions, and include many drought-deciduous and succulent plants. Typical shrubs include Convolvulus acanthocladus, Euphorbia larica, Grewia tenax subsp. makranica, Jaubertia aucheri, Maerua crassifolia, Moringa peregrina, and Pseudogaillonia hymenostephana.[14]

Semi-evergreen woodlands of sclerophyllous trees are found between 1,350 and 2,350 meters elevation. Common trees and shrubs include Sideroxylon mascatense, Dodonaea viscosa, Olive (Olea europaea), Ebenus stellatus, Grewia villosa, Juniperus seravschanica, Myrtus communis, and Sageretia spiciflora.[14]

Above 2300 meters elevation, open woodlands of juniper (Juniperus seravschanica) predominate, with the shrubs Cotoneaster nummularius, Daphne mucronata, Ephedra pachyclada, Euryops arabicus, Lonicera aucheri, Periploca aphylla, and Sageretia spiciflora.[14]


The mountain is a traditional farming area, with mountain springs providing sufficient for irrigation needs. However, climate change has reduced annual rainfall and increased nighttime temperatures.[15]


Between 1954 and 1959, the area became a site of the Jebel Akhdar War, a conflict between Omani forces loyal to the sultan of Oman (aided by British soldiers, including the Special Air Service) and Saudi Arabian-backed rebel forces of the inland Imamate of Oman.[16]

In August 2011, Sultan Qaboos designated Jebel Akhdar a nature reserve in a bid to conserve its unique yet fragile biodiversity. A decree issued by Sultan Qaboos established the 'Jebel Akhdar Sanctuary for Natural Sceneries'. The Minister of Environment and Climate Affairs has authority to draft guidelines regulating access and developmental activity within the reserve.[17]

Since 2011, the mountain has featured as the principal climb in the Tour of Oman road bicycle race.[18] In the area, several important rock art sites, with figures dating back to 6,000 years ago, have been discovered and studied.[19]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "Mountains in Oman". Ministry of Tourism, Sultanate of Oman. Archived from the original on 2011-07-15. Retrieved 2018-12-19.
  2. ^ "'Persian Gulf. Handbooks prepared under the direction of the Historical Section of the Foreign Office - no 81' [‎7] (13/94)". Qatar Digital Library. 2014-08-21. Retrieved 2016-07-09.
  3. ^ "Al Jabal Al Akhdar (Green Mountain)". Ministry of Tourism, Sultanate of Oman. Archived from the original on 2022-03-19. Retrieved 2020-02-02.
  4. ^ "Al Jabal Al Akhdar". Archived from the original on 2016-03-19. Retrieved 2016-07-09.
  5. ^ Andrea Schulte-Peevers; Iain Shearer (2010). Oman. Lonely Planet. p. 222. ISBN 978-1-7417-9145-7.
  6. ^ "Great outings for the summer months: Jebel Shams in Oman". OutdoorUAE. 2012-06-12. Archived from the original on 2016-08-16. Retrieved 2016-07-09.
  7. ^ "Saudi Aramco World: Fortified Oman". Retrieved 2016-07-09.
  8. ^ "Rosewater distillation, profession of generations in Jebel Akhdar". Muscat Daily News. Archived from the original on 2016-09-17. Retrieved 2016-07-09.
  9. ^ "Oman's rose water: A history of tradition". 2010-12-08. Retrieved 2016-07-09.
  10. ^ "Fruits of the Jabal". Archived from the original on 2015-10-24. Retrieved 2016-07-09.
  11. ^ "GIAHS - Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems: Al Jabal Al Akhdar Aflaj and Terraced Fields System, OMAN". Archived from the original on 2016-08-20. Retrieved 2016-07-09.
  12. ^ "'Gazetteer of Arabia Vol. II' [‎1576] (655/688)". Qatar Digital Library. 2014-10-22. Retrieved 2016-07-09.
  13. ^ Searle, Pauline (2016-04-14). Dawn Over Oman. Routledge. pp. with Figure No. 23. ISBN 978-1-3172-4209-3.
  14. ^ a b c Kürschner H. (1998) Biogeography and Introduction to Vegetation. In: Ghazanfar S.A., Fisher M. (eds) Vegetation of the Arabian Peninsula. Geobotany, vol 25. Springer, Dordrecht. doi:10.1007/978-94-017-3637-4_4
  15. ^ Ruth Kamnitzer (18 March 2024). "Oman's mountain oases offer ancient farming lessons for a warming future". Mongabay. Retrieved 16 April 2024.
  16. ^ Pike, John. "The Jebel Akhdar War Oman 1954-1959". Retrieved 2016-07-09.
  17. ^ Staff Report (2011-08-18). "Oman's 'Green Mountain' declared nature reserve". Gulf News. Retrieved 2016-07-09.
  18. ^ Puddicombe, Stephen. "Tour of Oman 2015 preview". Cycling Weekly. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  19. ^ Fossati, Angelo Eugenio. "Rock Art in Jebel Akhdar, Sultanate of Oman, first overview and state of research, TRACCE Online Rock Art Bulletin". Retrieved 29 August 2015.

External links[edit]