Kaniyan Pungundranar

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Kaniyan Poongunranar, also Poongundranar or Pungundranar (Tamilகணியன் பூங்குன்றனார், Kaṉiyan Pūngunṟanār ?), was an influential Tamil philosopher from the Sangam age. His name Kaniyan implies that he was an astronomer as it is a Tamil word referring mathematics. He was born and brought up in Mahibalanpatti, a village panchayat in the Thiruppatur taluk of Sivaganga district in the state of Tamil Nadu, India.[1] He composed two poems in Puṟanāṉūṟu and Natrinai. His famous Tamil quote "Yaadhum Oore Yaavarum Kelir" is at present depicted in the United Nations Organisation.[2]

Purananuru[edit]

யாதும் ஊரே யாவரும் கேளிர்
தீதும் நன்றும் பிறர்தர வாரா
நோதலும் தணிதலும் அவற்றோ ரன்ன
சாதலும் புதுவது அன்றே, வாழ்தல்
இனிதென மகிழ்ந்தன்றும் இலமே முனிவின்
இன்னா தென்றலும் இலமே, மின்னொடு
வானம் தண்துளி தலைஇ யானாது
கல் பொருது மிரங்கு மல்லல் பேரியாற்று
நீர்வழிப் படூஉம் புணைபோல் ஆருயிர்
முறை வழிப் படூஉம் என்பது திறவோர்
காட்சியில் தெளிந்தனம் ஆகலின், மாட்சியின்
பெரியோரை வியத்தலும் இலமே,
சிறியோரை இகழ்தல் அதனினும் இலமே. (புறம்: 192)

To us all towns are our own, everyone our kin,
Life's good comes not from others' gifts, nor ill,
Pains and pain's relief are from within,
Death's no new thing, nor do our bosoms thrill
When joyous life seems like a luscious draught.
When grieved, we patient suffer; for, we deem
This much-praised life of ours a fragile raft
Borne down the waters of some mountain stream
That o'er huge boulders roaring seeks the plain
Tho' storms with lightning's flash from darkened skies.
Descend, the raft goes on as fates ordain.
Thus have we seen in visions of the wise!
We marvel not at the greatness of the great;
Still less despise we men of low estate.

Kaniyan Poongundran, Purananuru - 192
(Adapted from translation by G.U.Pope, 1906)

Cosmopolitanism[edit]

Poongundranar rejected division of mankind into various categories and emphasised the universality of all men.[3] The Tamil bards and intellectuals of the time of Poongundranar and those preceding his age considered that all men, whatever their rank or station in life, were alike.[4]

Natural law[edit]

Poongundranar states that the wooden log is carried by the water in its direction and similarly postulates that everything in life will also follow Natural law.[5] This he calls 'Way of Order'(Tamilமுறை வழி, muṟai vazhi ?).

Principles of the Way of Order[edit]

Throughout his poem, Poongundranar lays down the principles of his version of natural law. The first part of the poem deals with the basic principles of the 'Way of Order'(Tamilமுறை வழி, muṟai vazhi ?) which is his term for natural law.

  • Every human of every town is of the same value because they are கேளிர் (related). Hence, all people should be bound by one, same moral and legal code.
  • நன்று (good) and தீது (evil) do not come from others. Hence, humans are liable for both the pleasure and suffering they feel.
  • Death is a natural part of the cycle of life, it is not new. Hence, this life must be made use of to its full potential.
  • Yet, life should neither be full of pleasure (மகிழ்ச்சி), nor full of storms (புயல்) [of suffering]. Hence, life should be full of plenitude.

Allegory of the raft[edit]

Poongundranar further goes onto explain these principles with an example of a raft.

  • He compares birth to lightning, suggesting it can happen spontaneously anywhere.
  • He gives an example of a raft which is allegorical to human life going downstream a steep hill, having a perilous journey through boulders and faces its climax just as in திறவோர் காட்சியில் (lit. Wisemen's vision means fate) which is death.
  • He concludes that since everyone's life is like the raft's journey, it is irrational to magnify the பெரியோ[ர்] (accomplished people) and even worse to diminish சிறியோ[ர்](less accomplished people), because everyone goes through similar tribulations whatever their social estate might be.

Influence[edit]

Poongundranar was extremely influential in the revivalist Self-respect movement.[6] The first sentence of his poem has been adopted as the motto of the World Thamizh Confederation to represent Tamil people.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Vē. Irā Mātavan̲, Ca. Vē Cuppiramaṇiyan̲ (1986). Heritage of the Tamils: education and vocation. International Institute of Tamil Studies. p. 16. 
  2. ^ "United Nations Day celebrated". The Hindu. Retrieved 2017-06-27. 
  3. ^ Pillai, Jaya (1972). Educational system of the ancient Tamils. Tirunelveli: South India Saiva Siddhanta Works Pub. Society. 
  4. ^ Ma̲raimalaiyạtikạl (1971). Ancient and modern Tamil poets. Tirunelveli: South India Saiva Siddhanta Works Pub. Society. 
  5. ^ Civacaṅkari. Knit India Through Literature: The South. 1998: Eastwest Books. p. 288. 
  6. ^ Bharathi, S. Lakshmirathan. History and growth of rationalist movement in Thamizh Naadu.