4th millennium BC

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The 4th millennium BC saw major changes in human culture. It marked the beginning of the Bronze Age and the invention of writing, which played a major role in starting recorded history.

Monte d'Accoddi is an archaeological site in northern Sardinia, Italy, located in the territory of Sassari near Porto Torres. 4th millennium BC.

The city states of Sumer and the kingdom of Egypt were established and grew to prominence. Agriculture spread widely across Eurasia. World population in the course of the millennium doubled, approximately from 7 to 14 million people.



The Neolithic
Fertile Crescent
Heavy Neolithic
Shepherd Neolithic
Trihedral Neolithic
Pre-Pottery (A, B)
Qaraoun culture
Tahunian culture
Yarmukian Culture
Halaf culture
Halaf-Ubaid Transitional period
Ubaid culture
Tell Aswad
Boian culture
Butmir culture
Cernavodă culture
Coțofeni culture
Cucuteni-Trypillian culture
Dudeşti culture
Gorneşti culture
Gumelniţa–Karanovo culture
Hamangia culture
Linear Pottery culture
Malta Temples
Petreşti culture
Sesklo culture
Tisza culture
Tiszapolgár culture
Usatovo culture
Varna culture
Vinča culture
Vučedol culture
Neolithic Transylvania
Neolithic Southeastern Europe
Peiligang culture
Pengtoushan culture
Beixin culture
Cishan culture
Dadiwan culture
Houli culture
Xinglongwa culture
Xinle culture
Zhaobaogou culture
Hemudu culture
Daxi culture
Majiabang culture
Yangshao culture
Hongshan culture
Dawenkou culture
Songze culture
Liangzhu culture
Majiayao culture
Qujialing culture
Longshan culture
Baodun culture
Shijiahe culture
Yueshi culture
South Asia

farming, animal husbandry
pottery, metallurgy, wheel
circular ditches, henges, megaliths
Neolithic religion


Environmental changes[edit]

Holocene Epoch
Preboreal (10.3–9 ka)
Boreal (9–7.5 ka)
Atlantic (7.55 ka)
Subboreal (52.5 ka)
Subatlantic (2.5 ka–present)
Main article: Atlantic (period)

Based on studies by glaciologist Lonnie Thompson, professor at Ohio State University and researcher with the Byrd Polar Research Center, a number of indicators shows there was a global change in climate 5,200 years ago, probably due to a drop in solar energy output as hypothesized by Ohio State University.[2]

  • Plants buried in the Quelccaya Ice Cap in the Peruvian Andes demonstrate the climate had shifted suddenly and severely to capture the plants and preserve them until now.[3]
  • A man trapped in an Alpine glacier ("Ötzi the Iceman") is frozen until his discovery in 1991.[4]
  • Tree rings from Ireland and England show this was their driest period.[4]
  • Ice core records showing the ratio of two oxygen isotopes retrieved from the ice fields atop Africa's Mount Kilimanjaro, a proxy for atmospheric temperature at the time snow fell.[4]
  • Major changes in plant pollen uncovered from lakebed cores in South America.[4]
  • Record lowest levels of methane retrieved from ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica.[4]
  • End of the Neolithic Subpluvial, start of desertification of Sahara (35th century BC). North Africa shifts from a habitable region to a barren desert.[4]

Significant people[edit]

Inventions, discoveries, introductions[edit]

Sumerian Cuneiform Script


Calendars and chronology[edit]



  1. ^ http://www.patheos.com/blogs/drishtikone/2010/09/astronomical-proof-mahabharata-war-shri-krishna/
  2. ^ Major Climate Change Occurred 5,200 Years Ago: Evidence Suggests That History Could Repeat Itself at the Wayback Machine (archived January 15, 2008)
  3. ^ Thompson, L. G.; Mosley-Thompson, E.; Brecher, H.; Davis, M.; León, B.; Les, D.; Lin, P. -N.; Mashiotta, T.; Mountain, K. (2006). "Inaugural Article: Abrupt tropical climate change: Past and present". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103 (28): 10536. Bibcode:2006PNAS..10310536T. doi:10.1073/pnas.0603900103. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f "Major Climate Change Occurred 5,200 Years Ago: Evidence Suggests That History Could Repeat Itself". Science Daily. Retrieved 19 December 2010. 
  5. ^ Federico Lara Peinado, Universidad Complutense de Madrid: "La Civilización Suemria.". Historia 16, 1999.
  6. ^ Gasser, Aleksander (March 2003). "World's Oldest Wheel Found in Slovenia". Government Communication Office of the Republic of Slovenia. 
  7. ^ Roberts, J: "History of the World.". Penguin, 1994.
  8. ^ See horoscope number 1 in Dr. B.V. Raman (1991). Notable Horoscopes. Delhi, India: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-0901-7. 
  9. ^ Arun K. Bansal's research published in Outlook India, September 13, 2004. "Krishna (b. July 21, 3228 BC)". 
  10. ^ Annals of the World, as well as the above sources