Leaf spring

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17th-century coach spring in Lisbon Carriage Museum
A traditional semi-elliptical Hotchkiss leaf spring arrangement. On the left, the spring is connected to the frame through a shackle.

A leaf spring is a simple form of spring commonly used for the suspension in wheeled vehicles. Originally called a laminated or carriage spring, and sometimes referred to as a semi-elliptical spring, elliptical spring, or cart spring, it is one of the oldest forms of springing, appearing on carriages in France in the mid-17th century in the form of the two-part elbow spring (as the illustrated example from Lisbon), and from there migrating to England and Germany.[1][2]

Leaf springs front independent suspension, front-wheel-drive Alvis 1928
Independent front suspension by transverse leaf spring Humber 1935
Independent front suspension by semi-elliptical springs Mercedes Benz 230 W153 1938
Leaf spring on a German locomotive built by Orenstein-Koppel and Lübecker Maschinenbau
Three-quarter-elliptic leaf spring on a carriage.

A leaf spring takes the form of a slender arc-shaped length of spring steel of rectangular cross-section. In the most common configuration, the center of the arc provides location for the axle, while loops formed at either end provide for attaching to the vehicle chassis. For very heavy vehicles, a leaf spring can be made from several leaves stacked on top of each other in several layers, often with progressively shorter leaves. Leaf springs can serve locating and to some extent damping as well as springing functions. While the interleaf friction provides a damping action, it is not well controlled and results in stiction in the motion of the suspension. For this reason, some manufacturers have used mono-leaf springs.

The longest leaf of the leaf spring is known as the "Master Leaf". The ends of the master leaf are rolled which are known as the "eye". The leaf just below the master leaf is called the "Second master leaf" and the ones after it are termed as "Graduated leaves".[3]

A leaf spring can either be attached directly to the frame at both ends or attached directly at one end, usually the front, with the other end attached through a shackle, a short swinging arm. The shackle takes up the tendency of the leaf spring to elongate when compressed and thus makes for softer springiness. The shackle provides some degree of flexibility to the leaf spring so that it does not fail when subjected to heavy loads.

Some springs terminated in a concave end, called a spoon end (seldom used now), to carry a swiveling member. In many late 1990s and early 2000s trucks, the leaf spring is connected to a Hinkle Beam ball joint.

The leaf spring has seen a modern development in cars. The 2016 Volvo XC90 has a transverse leaf spring in high tech composite materials, a solution that is similar to the latest Chevrolet Corvette. This means a straight leaf spring, that is tightly secured to the chassis, and the ends of the spring bolted to the wheel suspension, to allow the spring to work independently on each wheel. This means the suspension is smaller, flatter and lighter than a traditional setup.

History[edit]

There are a variety of leaf springs, usually employing the word "elliptical". "Elliptical" or "full elliptical" leaf springs, patented in 1804 by the British inventor Obadiah Elliott, referred to two circular arcs linked at their tips. This was joined to the frame at the top center of the upper arc, the bottom center was joined to the "live" suspension components, such as a solid front axle. Additional suspension components, such as trailing arms, would usually be needed for this design, but not for "semi-elliptical" leaf springs as used in the Hotchkiss drive. That employed the lower arc, hence its name. "Quarter-elliptic" springs often had the thickest part of the stack of leaves stuck into the rear end of the side pieces of a short ladder frame, with the free end attached to the differential, as in the Austin Seven of the 1920s. As an example of non-elliptic leaf springs, the Ford Model T had multiple leaf springs over its differential that were curved in the shape of a yoke. As a substitute for dampers (shock absorbers), some manufacturers laid non-metallic sheets in between the metal leaves, such as wood.

Elliot's invention revolutionized carriage design and construction, removing the need for a heavy perch and making transportation over rough roadways faster, easier, and less expensive.[4]

Elliptic Carriage with elliptic springs
Semi-elliptic Vehicle suspension with semi-elliptic springs
Three quarter-elliptic Car suspension with three-quarter elliptic springs
Quarter-elliptic Vehicle suspension with quarter-elliptic springs
Transverse Front suspension with transverse leaf spring

Leaf springs were very common on automobiles, right up to the 1970s in Europe and Japan and late 1970s in America when the move to front-wheel drive, and more sophisticated suspension designs saw automobile manufacturers use coil springs instead. Today leaf springs are still used in heavy commercial vehicles such as vans and trucks, SUVs, and railway carriages. For heavy vehicles, they have the advantage of spreading the load more widely over the vehicle's chassis, whereas coil springs transfer it to a single point. Unlike coil springs, leaf springs also locate the rear axle, eliminating the need for trailing arms and a Panhard rod, thereby saving cost and weight in a simple live axle rear suspension. A further advantage of a leaf spring over a helical spring is that the end of the leaf spring may be guided along a definite path.

A more modern implementation is the parabolic leaf spring. This design is characterized by fewer leaves whose thickness varies from centre to ends following a parabolic curve. In this design, inter-leaf friction is unwanted, and therefore there is only contact between the springs at the ends and at the centre where the axle is connected. Spacers prevent contact at other points. Aside from a weight saving, the main advantage of parabolic springs is their greater flexibility, which translates into vehicle ride quality that approaches that of coil springs. There is a trade-off in the form of reduced load carrying capability, however. The characteristic of parabolic springs is better riding comfort and not as "stiff" as conventional "multi-leaf springs". It is widely used on buses for better comfort. A further development by the British GKN company and by Chevrolet with the Corvette among others, is the move to composite plastic leaf springs. Nevertheless, due to missing inter-leaf friction and internal dampening effects, this type of spring requires more powerful dampers or shock absorbers.

Typically when used in automobile suspension the leaf both supports an axle and locates/ partially locates the axle. This can lead to handling issues (such as 'axle tramp'), as the flexible nature of the spring makes precise control of the unsprung mass of the axle difficult. Some suspension designs use a Watts link (or a Panhard rod) and radius arms to locate the axle and do not have this drawback. Such designs can use softer springs, resulting in better ride. The various Austin-Healey 3000's and Fiat 128's rear suspension are examples.

Characteristics[edit]

The leaf spring acts as a linkage for holding the axle in position and thus separate linkages are not necessary. It makes the construction of the suspension simple and strong.

Because the positioning of the axle is carried out by the leaf springs, it is disadvantageous to use soft springs i.e. springs with low spring constant.

Therefore, this type of suspension does not provide good riding comfort. The inter-leaf friction between the leaf springs affects the riding comfort.

Acceleration and braking torque cause wind-up and vibration. Also wind-up causes rear-end squat and nose-diving.

The inter-leaf friction damps the spring's motion and reduces rebound, which until shock absorbers were widely adopted was a great advantage over helical springs.[5]

Manufacturing process[edit]

Multi-leaf springs are made as follows

  1. Pre heat treatment process:
    1. Shearing
    2. Taper Rolling
    3. Trimming
    4. End cutting & pressing
    5. Second Warping
    6. Scarfing and Eye rolling
    7. Nibbing
    8. C’SKG punching
    9. Center hole drilling.
  2. Heat treatment processes:
    1. Heating for hardening
    2. Cambering
    3. Quenching
    4. Tempering
  3. Post- heat treatment processes:
    1. Rectification
    2. Side bend removing
    3. Bushing
    4. Reaming
    5. Clamp riveting
  4. Assembly and surface finishes:
    1. Shot peening
    2. Painting
    3. Assembling
    4. Scragging
    5. Marking and packing

Heat treatment[edit]

  1. Heating for Hardening: Any metal, or alloy which can be hard drawn, or rolled to fairly high strength and retains sufficient ductility to form, may be used for springs, or any alloy which can be heat treated to high strength and good ductility before, or after forming may be used. For special spring properties such as good fatigue life, nonmagnetic characteristics, resistance to corrosion, elevated temperatures and drift require special considerations. leaves are heated to critical temperature in an Oil-fired hardening furnace. Usually temperature maintained is between 850℃ and 950℃.
  2. Cambering: The top leaf is known as the master leaf. The eye is provided for attaching the spring with another machine member. The amount of bend that is given to the spring from the central line, passing through the eyes, is known as camber. The camber is provided so that even at the maximum load the deflected spring should not touch the machine member to which it is attached. The camber shown in the figure is known as positive camber. The central clamp is required to hold the leaves of the spring. Machine used for this operation is Hydraulic press. Leaves are bent to required radius using a press. All the leaves are tested for required radius using cambering gauges.
  3. Quenching : Hot bent leaves kept in tray and quenched in oil bath to get martensite structure. Martensite is the hardest form of steel crystalline structure. Martensite is formed in carbon steels by rapid cooling that is quenching of austenite form of iron. Machine used is conveyorized quench oil bath. Fire point of quenching oil is around 200℃ and it is seen to that  temperature of oil does not exceed 80℃. After quenching the structure of leaf spring becomes very hard and this property is not required. But this process is required to set the leaves to correct radius after cambering. To remove hardness tempering is done.
  4. Tempering: Tempering is a process of heat treating, which is used to increase the toughness. Quenched leaves are reheated to drop hardness to required level. Electric heated temperature furnace is used for this process. Hardness of the leaves is found out using Brinell hardness testing. This process is also done to relieve stresses. Temperature inside the machine is maintained between 540 and 680℃. Tempering process involves heating of leaves below their re-crystallization temperature and then cooling them using water or air.

Other uses[edit]

By blacksmiths[edit]

Because leaf springs are made of relatively high quality steel, they are a favorite material for blacksmiths. In countries such as India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Philippines, Myanmar and Pakistan, where traditional blacksmiths still produce a large amount of the country's tools, leaf springs from scrapped cars are frequently used to make knives, kukris, and other tools.[6] They are also commonly used by amateur and hobbyist blacksmiths.

In trampolines[edit]

Leaf springs have also replaced traditional coil springs in some trampolines (known as soft-edge trampolines), which improves safety for users and reduces risk of concussion.[7] The leaf springs are spaced around the frame as 'legs' that branch from the base frame to suspend the jumping mat, providing flexibility and resilience.[8]

Clutches[edit]

The "diaphragm" common in automotive clutches is a type of leaf spring.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Terrier, Max (1986). "L'invention des ressorts de voiture". Revue d'Histoire des Sciences. 39 (1): 17–30. doi:10.3406/rhs.1986.4016.
  2. ^ Leaf Springs: Their Characteristics and Methods of Specification. Wilkesbarre, PA: Sheldon Axle Company. 1912. p. 1. leaf spring.
  3. ^ "Leaf spring - construction, working, advantages & types with PDF". The Mechanical Post | Best mechanical blog. Retrieved 2021-07-07.
  4. ^ "Carriages and Coaches". p. 205.
  5. ^ "Springs - A simple study of car suspension", The Automotor Journal, August 10, 1912, pp936-937
  6. ^ "Kamis, Khukuri makers of Nepal". Himalayan-imports.com. Retrieved 2011-11-06.
  7. ^ "Joe Andon's leap of faith". The Australian. Retrieved 2013-07-04.
  8. ^ "Trampolines WO 2012167300 A1". Retrieved 2013-07-04.