Lieutenant Governor of the Isle of Man
|Lieutenant Governor of The Isle of Man|
Coat of Arms of The Isle of Man
|Residence||Government House, Isle of Man|
|Term length||At His/Her Majesty's pleasure|
|First holder||Henry Hope|
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
the Isle of Man
The Lieutenant Governor of the Isle of Man (Manx: Fo-chiannoort Vannin or Lhiass-chiannoort Vannin) is the British sovereign's official personal representative in the Isle of Man. He has the power to grant royal assent and is styled "His Excellency".
In recent times the governor has been either a retired diplomat or a senior military officer. No Manx-born person has ever been appointed lieutenant governor, although Manx-born First Deemsters (ex officio deputy governors) have taken on the role temporarily during an interregnum between governors, and during periods when the lieutenant governor is off-island.
In the past, the lieutenant governor wielded judicial, fiscal and executive power on the island, and around 1900 had more power than any other governor in the British Empire. However, he lost his role as Head of the Judiciary in 1921, as Head of Government in 1961, as President of the Legislative Council in 1980 and finally as President of Tynwald in 1990. Today the role of lieutenant governor is essentially ceremonial, although certain powers under Isle of Man legislation do still fall to the governor or governor-in-council (a decision on the advice, and with the approval of, the Council of Ministers).
Proposed change to title
In October 2005 Tynwald sought to change the title of the lieutenant governor to Crown Commissioner. This proposal was sent to the British Department of Constitutional Affairs for submission to the Lord of Mann Elizabeth II for approval. However, in April 2006, after much public disapproval, Tynwald rejected their own proposal and withdrew their request for Royal Assent. Thus the lieutenant governor has remained as previously titled.
Before 2010 the lieutenant governor was appointed by the Crown on the advice of a panel led by the Government of the United Kingdom. In July 2010 the Government of the Isle of Man announced that the next lieutenant governor would be appointed on advice of an entirely local panel, comprising the Chief Minister, President of Tynwald and the First Deemster. The new procedure was used for the first time a few months later to choose Sir Paul Haddacks' successor.
On 16 November 2010 the Isle of Man Government announced the appointment by the Crown of former UK diplomat Adam Wood as the next lieutenant governor of the Isle of Man. His term was scheduled to start on 4 April 2011; he was officially sworn into office on 7 April 2011 at Castle Rushen in Castletown.
A question was often posed as to what was the proper title of the chief executive of the island, and whether there were any words in the Commissions of the lieutenant governors which suspended their functions during the presence in the island of the Lord of Mann or a governor of the Isle of Man.
Such a question was considered in 1877 by the eminent Manx advocate Sir James Gell, who referred to a search he undertook at the Rolls Office, the results of which are included in a list of 83 appointments of governors between 1595 and 1863. Not all appointments during that period are listed in this article as it was difficult to trace appointments prior to 1639, about which time the practice began of keeping a distinct book for the enrolment of commissions. In addition, after that date certain commissions were also omitted to be enrolled. For instance no record of the appointment of John Murray, 4th Duke of Atholl as governor in 1793 could be traced.
Historically the designations governor, lieutenant (that is the King's/Queen's or Lord of Mann's lieutenant) and captain were synonymous. Only one reference to deputy lieutenant is made, that of Governor Horton's appointment in 1725.
In some commissions expressions designating the office, such as governor; captain general and commander-in-chief; chief governor and commander-in-chief; chief governor; and governor-in-chief and captain general; may well imply the conferring of powers, civil and military, though the designation given may possibly affect the rank of the person appointed, as between himself and others holding similar or analogous appointments.
If the sovereign intended not to bestow the full powers of a governor on a specific person, then the limitations had to be expressed on the face of the commission. However no record of such an amendment exists, and although any legal power exercised could not be questioned as to its legality by any subject, a governor as between himself and the Crown, would be controlled as to the exercise of his powers by his instructions and would therefore be accountable for any injudicious use of them.
Sir James Gell twice held the office of Governor of the Isle of Man: first during the illness of Lord Henniker, Sir James being appointed deputy and presiding at Tynwald; and second during the interregnum between the death of Lord Henniker and the appointment of Lord Raglan.
Whilst Sir James was appointed deputy governor on the first occasion, he was appointed acting governor in the second instance, an important distinction. The Dukes of Atholl were the last supreme governors of the Isle of Man, until the Isle of Man Purchase Act 1765, also known as the Act of Revestment. All governors since then had been lieutenant governors, but Sir James' appointment as acting governor was on a par with the position of the Duke of Atholl, and he had the right to appoint a lieutenant governor had he so wished. So his office as acting governor carried with it greater authority than that of lieutenant governor; this fact Sir James himself pointed out to the Home Office.
The term lieutenant governor was not used before the Act of Revestment in 1765; the term deputy governor was used instead. The appointments of Peter Legh (1596), Ratcliffe Gerrard (1639), Roger Nowell (1660), William Sacheverell (1692), Thomas Huddlestone (1700) and Alexander Horne (1713) as deputy governors can therefore be seen as temporary appointments during a vacancy.
Lieutenant governors and deputy governors could exercise the powers of a governor of the Isle of Man in one respect: they could appoint deputies. In the cases of Charles Stanley (1702) and Bishop Isaac Barrow (1774) this prerogative was specifically granted; however over time it became common custom amongst successive lieutenant governors. This would allow governors to appoint deputies for specific periods or purposes, such as during the governor's absence on specified occasions, or during his illness when not absent (the list below illustrates this and shows the great number of appointments made by governors of deputies during their absence). For instance the various appointments of Deemsters McYlrea and Taubman can be seen as examples of appointments for executing judicial functions.
Before the Act of Revestment, deputies were expressly appointed to act during absence, except in one case: that of Bishop Isaac Barrow in 1664. In this case, the deputy governor, Roger Nowell, acted whilst Governor Barrow was on the island, sometimes along with him and sometimes solely. This was an exceptional case; it was probably not intended that the Bishop have more to do with temporal affairs than was absolutely necessary.
Since Revestment, the appointments of Lieutenant Governors Henry Hope (1773), Richard Dawson (1775 and 1777), Alexander Shaw (1790), Lord Henry Murray (1804) and Cornelius Smelt (1805) were also expressly held during the absence of the governors. The appointments of Lieutenant Governors John Ready (1832), Charles Hope (1845) and Francis Pigott Stainsby Conant (1860), say nothing as to the presence of a governor-in-chief, and these three persons were therefore appointed to be "merely" lieutenant governors. It may be the case with the appointment of Colonel Ready that it was not intended for him to take the office of governor-in-chief, and therefore no allusion was made in the commissions of the lieutenant governors to their office. However, it appears that without any words expressly suspending the functions of a lieutenant governor, they would as a matter of course be suspended.
|№||Date appointed||Appointee name||Appointed office||By whom appointed||Remarks|
|1||1 Aug 1595||Sir Thomas Garret (or Gerrard)||Captain||Queen Elizabeth I||Appointment pending the dispute as to the succession to the island in the House of Stanley.|
|2||3 Jul 1596||Peter Legh||Captain and governor||Lord Keeper and other offices of state for Queen Elizabeth||To act during the absence from the island of Thomas Garret.|
|3||30 Mar 1639||Ratcliffe Gerrard||Deputy governor||Lord of Mann (Lord Strange; later, 7th Earl of Derby)||To act during the absence from the island by Sir Charles Gerrard, governor.|
|4||20 Jul 1639||Sir Ffoulks Hunckers||Captain and governor||Lord of Mann; 7th Earl of Derby||In place of Sir Charles Gerrard.|
|5||20 Jun 1640||John Greenhaigh||In place of Sir Ffoulks Hunckers.|
|6||12 Nov 1652||Capt. John Sharples||Deputy governor||Commissioners of Lord Fairfax, to whom the Isle of Man had been granted during the term of the Commonwealth of England||To be deputy governor as to the Civil Magistracie thereof. [This appointment confers limited powers and excluded military authority].|
|7||16 Jul 1660||Roger Nowell||Governor, captain-general and commander-in-chief||Lord of Mann (Charles, Earl of Derby)||Appointment following the restoration of the monarchy.|
|8||16 Jul 1660||Richard Stevenson||Deputy governor||Charles, Earl of Derby||To sit during the absence of Governor Roger Nowell.|
|9||11 Dec 1662||Maj. Henry Nowell||Governor Roger Nowell||To act during the absence of the governor.|
|10||18 Sep 1663||Maj. Henry Nowell||7th Earl of Derby||To act during pleasure, in place of Maj. Thomas Stanley.|
|11||31 May 1664||The Rt Rev. Isaac Barrow, Bishop of Sodor and Man||Governor||Lord of Mann (Charles Stanley, 8th Earl of Derby)||To hold and exercise the said Office by himself, or by Henry Nowell, his deputy or some other sufficient person who he should think fit [This was looked upon as an exceptional appointment, for the Deputy Nowell acted sometimes alone, and sometimes along with the governor - Mills Statute p.137].|
|12||28 Jul 1673||Henry Nowell||William, Earl of Derby (by his Guardian, Duke of Ormonde)|||
|13||10 Apr 1677||Henry Stanley||Lord of Mann (William Stanley, 9th Earl of Derby)|
|14||13 Apr 1678||Robert Heywood|
|15||16 Mar 1690–1||Roger Kenyon|
|16||6 Apr 1692||William Sacheverell||Deputy governor||William, Earl of Derby||To take on him the whole government, during pleasure [probably governorship vacant].|
|17||10 Oct 1692||
||Deputy Governor Sacheverell||The appointment is stated on the face of it to be made by order of the Right Honourable the Lord of this Isle [This is quite remarkable. Deputies appointed by a deputy, but apparently made by special authority].|
|18||9 May 1693||William Sacheverell||Governor||Lord of Mann (William Stanley, 9th Earl of Derby)|||
|19||15 Jun 1695||Colonel Nicholas Sankey|||
|20||28 Jul 1696||
||Deputy governor||Governor Sankey||To act jointly.|
|21||30 Oct 1700||Capt. Thomas Huddlestone||Lord of Mann (William Stanley, 9th Earl of Derby)||To take upon him the whole government during pleasure. [This was probably a temporary appointment during a vacancy of governorship].|
|22||10 Mar 1700–01||Capt. James Cranstoun|||
|23||21 Nov 1702||The Hon. Charles Zedenno Stanley||Chief governor and commander-in-chief||Lord of Mann (James Stanley, 10th Earl of Derby)||To exercise office by himself, or his sufficient deputy or deputies, during pleasure.|
|24||3 Dec 1702||Robert Mawdesley||Deputy governor||Governor Stanley||During pleasure.|
|25||30 Oct 1702–03[clarification needed]||Deemster John Parr||During absence of Deputy Governor Mawdesley.|
|26||12 Jul 1703||
||To act during the absence of Deputy Governor Mawdesley, on the departure of Deputy Governor Parr, who had been called by the Lord of England on weighty business.|
|27||25 Nov 1703||Robert Mawdesley||Lord of Mann (James Stanley, 10th Earl of Derby)||Confirmation of Mawdesley's previous appointment as deputy governor by Governor Stanley. [This confirmation seems to have amounted to an appointment as governor, which he styled himself afterwards].|
|28||17 Jul 1712||Deemster John Parr||Governor Mawdesley||To act during the governor's absence in England.|
|29||20 May 1713||Deemster John Parr||To act during governor's absence from the Isle of Man.|
|30||18 Jul 1713||
||Chief governor & deputy governor||Lord of Mann (James Stanley, 10th Earl of Derby)||The deputy to act in the absence of the governor.|
|31||17 Oct 1713||
||Deputy governor||Governor Stanley||To act jointly during the absence of Governor and Deputy Governor Horne.|
|32||13 Oct 1714||Deputy Governor Horne||To act during the absence of Deputy Governor Horne in England. (This is an appointment of deputies by a deputy.)|
|33||25 Jun 1718||To act during Deputy Governor Horne's absence from the Isle of Man. [See above.]|
|34||9 Jul 1718||Capt. Alexander Horne||Governor & commander-in-chief||Lord of Mann (James Stanley, 10th Earl of Derby)|||
|35||27 Jun 1719||
||Deputy governor||Governor Horne||To serve during Governor Horne's absence.|
|36||1 Jul 1719|
|37||25 Jun 1721|
|38||23 Apr 1723||John Sanforth (Water Bailiff)|
|39||29 Apr 1723||Deemster Daniel McYlrea||To act jointly with Deputy Governor Sanforth during Governor Horne's absence.|
|40||22 May 1723||
||If one be sick or absent, the other two to act jointly. (This was probably a temporary appointment during vacancy in governorship.)|
|41||3 Oct 1723||John Lloyd||Governor or lieutenant||Lord of Mann (James Stanley, 10th Earl of Derby)|||
|42||27 Feb 1724–5||
||Deputy governor||This was probably a temporary appointment during a vacancy in governorship.|
|43||14 Sep 1725||Thomas Horton||Deputy lieutenant governor|||
|44||12 May 1726||
||Deputy governor||Governor Horton||To act during governor's absence from the Isle of Man. If one be sick the other two to act jointly.|
|45||9 Jul 1727|
|46||13 Jul 1727|
|47||12 Jul 1728|
|48||5 Mar 1728–9||To act during governor's absence from the Isle of Man.|
|49||25 Jun 1731|
|50||30 Jun 1732|
|51||30 Jun 1733||
||To act during governor's absence from the Isle of Man. If one be sick the other two to act jointly.|
|52||29 Apr 1734||To act during governor's absence from Isle of Man. If one be sick or absent, other two to act jointly.|
|53||30 Jul 1734|||
|54||26 Dec 1734||
||To act during absence of governor.|
|55||8 Oct 1735||
||To act during governor's absence.|
|56||9 Mar 1736||James Murray, 2nd Duke of Atholl||Governor and commander-in-chief||On the death of 10th Earl of Derby.|
||Deputy governor||Governor Murray||To act during governor's absence from island.|
|58||7 Apr 1744||
||To act during governor's absence from island. Each empowered to act during incapacity by sickness or other impediment of the other.|
|59||1 Jun 1744||Patrick Lindesay||Governor and commander-in-chief||Lord of Mann James, 2nd Duke of Atholl|||
|60||27 May 1746||
||Deputy governor||Governor Lindesay||The commission states that the governor, by his present indisposition, is disabled from attending the Courts on the next Circuit (that is, of the Sheading or Common Law Courts). The deputies to act during the governor's illness. (This is a case where deputies were appointed whilst the governor was on the island.)|
|61||14 Jul 1749||
||The commission states that the governor by his present indisposition in unable to execute his post and office. The deputies to act during his illness. (Similar to the case preceding, deputies were appointed whilst governor was on the island).|
|62||2 May 1751||Basil Cochrane||Governor and commander-in-chief||Lord of Mann James, 2nd Duke of Atholl|||
|63||17 May 1760||
||Deputy governor||Basil Cochrane, governor||To act during governor's absence from the Isle of Man. Each empowered to act in case of sickness or other impediment of the other.|
|64||26 Mar 1761|
|65||2 Jun 1761||The governor being ex officio be jointly chancellors with respect to the causes to be heard.|
|66||8 Jul 1761||To act during the governor's absence from the island. Each empowered to act in case of sickness or incapacity of others.|
|67||22 Jul 1761||John Wood||Governor and commander-in-chief||Lord of Mann James, 2nd Duke of Atholl|||
|68||1 Oct 1763||Daniel McYlrea (Receiver General)||Deputy governor||Governor Wood||The commission states that the governor by his present indisposition is rendered incapable of presiding at the Sheading Courts which are to be held at Peel.|
|69||18 May 1764||Daniel McYlrea (Receiver General)|||
|70||16 Dec 1764||John Wood||Governor and commander-in-chief||Lady of Mann (Charlotte Murray, Duchess of Atholl with the concurrence of her husband)||This is a re-appointment following the accession to the throne of King George III].|
|71||21 Jun 1765||John Wood||Governor-in-chief and captain general||King George III||This is a re-appointment following the Revestment.|
|72||6 Aug 1773||Henry Hope||Lieutenant governor||To act in the absence of Governor Wood and to perform the duties of governor *First appointment of lieutenant governor.|
|73||13 Jul 1775||Richard Dawson|||
|74||31 May 1777||Maj. Gen. Edward Smith||Governor-in-chief & captain general||Appointed following the death of Governor Wood.|
|75||31 May 1777||Richard Dawson||Lieutenant governor|||
|76||26 Nov 1790||Alexander Shaw|||
|76a||14 Feb 1793||John Murray, 4th Duke of Atholl||Governor-in-chief & captain general|||
|77||4 Aug 1804||Lord Henry Murray||Lieutenant governor||John Murray, 4th Duke of Atholl||The commission states: "Whereas the Honourable Alexander Shaw, last Lieutenant Governor of this Isle, hath resigned the said office of Lieutenant Governor, and no other person hath yet been appointed by His Majesty to fill the same: And whereas I find it necessary to remove forthwith from the said Isle to attend public business in Great Britain." The lieutenant governor is appointed to act during the absence of the governor-in-chief or until His Majesty's pleasure be known. [This is the only appointment of a lieutenant governor made by a governor of the Isle of Man since the Revestment].|
|78||8 Jun 1805||Cornelius Smelt||King George III||Appointment in like terms as Lieutenant Governor Dawsons's appointment in 1777 (No. 75).|
|79||1 Dec 1832||Maj. Gen. John Ready||King William IV||The appointment is simply to be lieutenant governor during pleasure.|
|80||21 Nov 1837||Maj. Gen. John Ready||Queen Victoria||New appointment following the accession of Queen Victoria.|
|81||8 Aug 1845||Charles Hope|||
|82||13 Sep 1860||Mark Hildesley Quayle, Clerk of the Rolls||To act as deputy governor to exercise all functions and powers of such office until a lieutenant governor shall have been appointed.|
|83||20 Oct 1860||Francis Pigott Stainsby Conant||Similar appointment as Lieutenant Governors Ready and Hope (Nos. 79 & 81).|
|84||28 Jan 1863||Mark Hildesley Quayle, Clerk of the Rolls||To act as deputy governor to exercise all functions and powers of such office until a lieutenant governor shall have been appointed.|
|85||29 Jan 1863||Sir Henry Loch, 1st Baron Loch||To act as lieutenant governor during pleasure.|
|86||24 Apr 1882||Sir Spencer Walpole|
|87||1893||Sir Joseph West Ridgeway|
|88||1895||John Henniker-Major, 5th Baron Henniker|
|89||Jul 1902||Sir James Gell, Clerk of the Rolls||Deputy governor||King Edward VII||To act as such during the indisposition of Lieutenant Governor Henniker. Appointed deputy governor in the first place.|
|90||Oct 1902||Acting governor||Following the death of Lieutenant Governor Henniker. (Office therefore as acting governor carried with it greater authority than that of lieutenant governor.)|
|91||1902||George Fitzroy Henry Somerset, 3rd Baron Raglan||Lieutenant governor|
|92||1919||Sir William Fry||King George V|
|93||1928||Sir Claude Hill|
|94||1932||Sir Montagu Sherard Dawes Butler|
|95||1937||William Spencer Leveson-Gower, 4th Earl Granville||King George VI|
|96||1945||Air V. Mshl Sir Geoffrey Rhodes Bromet|
|97||1952||Sir Ambrose Dundas Flux Dundas||Queen Elizabeth II|
|98||1959||Sir Ronald Herbert Garvey|
|99||1966||Sir Peter Hyla Gawne Stallard|
|100||1974||Sir John Warburton Paul|
|101||1980||Rr Adm. Sir Nigel Cecil|
|102||1985||Maj. Gen. Sir Laurence New|
|103||1990||Air Mshl Sir Laurence Jones|
|104||1995||Sir Timothy Daunt|
|105||2000||Air Mshl Ian David Macfadyen|
|106||Sep 2005||Deemster Michael Kerruish||Deputy governor||Acting during the interregnum.|
|107||Oct 2005||Deemster Michael Kerruish|
|108||2005||V. Adm. Sir Paul Kenneth Haddacks||Lieutenant governor|
|110||2016||Sir Richard Gozney|
- Ramsey Courier. Tuesday, 14.03.1905 Page: 3
- Court Information Isle of Man Government
- Isle of Man Constitution Act 1961
- Governor Title could be changed Archived 2012-09-23 at the Wayback Machine. Isle of Man Today, 25 October 2005
- "Recruitment of Lieutenant Governor becomes responsibility of Isle of Man". Isle of Man Government website Infocentre. Archived from the original on 9 October 2012. Retrieved 27 March 2011.
- "Appointment of Lieutenant Governor". Isle of Man Government website Infocentre. Archived from the original on 9 October 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2011.
- New Lieutenant Governor sworn-in Archived 2011-08-20 at the Wayback Machine.
- Isle of Man Times. Saturday, September 12, 1885; Page: 19
- World Statesmen