List of Thai monarchs

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King of Thailand
Vajiralongkorn (Rama X)
since 13 October 2016
StyleHis Majesty
Heir presumptiveDipangkorn Rasmijoti
First monarchSi Inthrathit of Sukhothai
ResidenceGrand Palace (official)
Dusit Palace (private)
WebsiteRoyal Office

The succession of Thai monarchs began with Si Inthrathit at the establishment of the first Thai kingdom in 1238. With brief interruptions, 55 monarchs have ruled over four successive kingdoms, the current monarch being Vajiralongkorn (Rama X) of the Chakri dynasty.

Titles and naming conventions[edit]

In the Sukhothai Kingdom, the monarch used the title Pho Khun (Thai: พ่อขุน; 'Father'), and monarchs who reigned over the period of decline after Ram Khamhaeng the Great used the title Phaya (Thai: พญา; 'Lord').

In the Ayutthaya Kingdom and afterward, thanandon, the system of Thai royal titles, determines the style of the monarch's full regnal name (which includes the title), consisting of two interconnected parts:

  • The first part is the title Phra Bat Somdet Phra Chao Yu Hua (Thai: พระบาทสมเด็จพระเจ้าอยู่หัว, 'His Majesty the King'). The title is split by the regnal name, written between Phra and Chao. If the monarch was not formally crowned, Phra Bat is omitted. If the monarch ruled as a tributary or was usurped, Somdet may be omitted.
    • Sometimes, Chao Yu Hua is fully omitted. Other times, only Yu Hua is omitted, in which case Chao follows the remaining components of the title and precedes the regnal name.
  • The second part is the regnal name, of which only a portion may be used to commonly refer to the monarch. It may differ from their birth name, their name as uparaja (viceroy), or their posthumous name and/or historical style. This list refers to monarchs by the names most often used by traditional historians.[1]

Western nations referred to the monarch as the "King of Siam" (Latin: Rex Siamensium), regardless of Thai titles, since the initiation of relations in the 16th century. Mongkut (Rama IV) was the first monarch to adopt the title when the name Siam was first used in an international treaty.[2] When the kingdom's name was changed to Thailand, the monarch's Western title changed accordingly.[3]

Sukhothai Kingdom (1238–1438)[edit]

Tai peoples migrated into mainland Southeast Asia in the 8th–10th centuries.[4] In the years after, Northern Thai groups established mueang that evolved into larger states, such as Ngoenyang.[5][6] However, it was not until the decline of the Khmer Empire in the 13th century that a Central Thai kingdom politically and culturally related to modern Thailand was first founded.

Phra Ruang dynasty (1238–1438)[edit]

The Phra Ruang dynasty was the only royal lineage that ruled over the Sukhothai Kingdom, the first Central Thai state. Established by Si Inthrathit in 1238, who declared independence from the Khmer Empire, the dynasty laid the foundations for Thai society.[7] Under Ram Khamhaeng the Great, the initial Thai script was invented and Therāvada Buddhism was established as the state religion.[8]: 197 [9]: 25 

The dynasty is named after the Traiphum Phra Ruang, a Buddhist cosmology book written by Maha Thammaracha I. During his reign, the kingdom was invaded by Ayutthaya, a neighboring Thai state, becoming a tributary during the reign of Maha Thammaracha II.[8]: 222 

In the Sukhothai Kingdom, the monarch ruled from the city of Sukhothai, while the heir presumptive would occasionally be named uparaja, or viceroy, and ruled in Si Satchanalai. In 1438, Ayutthaya annexed Sukhothai at the death of Maha Thammaracha IV when Borommarachathirat II of Ayutthaya named his son Prince Ramesuan uparaja. In Ayutthaya, the tradition would evolve into the Front Palace system.[10]

No. Portrait Name Reign Succession Life details
1 Si Inthrathit
(Pho Khun Bang Klang Hao)
Pho Khun Si Inthrathit
1238 – 1270
(32 years)
Monarchy established 1188 – 1270
(aged 82)
Ruled locally in the Khmer Empire as Bang Klang Hao. His rebellion led to the establishment of Sukhothai, the first Central Thai kingdom[7]
2 Ban Mueang
Pho Khun Ban Mueang
1270 – 1279
(9 years)
Son of Si Inthrathit c. 1237 – 1279
(aged approx. 42)
Namesake for birth name of Maha Thammaracha IV[11]
3 Ram Khamhaeng the Great
(Khun Rammarat)
Pho Khun Ram Khamhaeng Maharat
1279 – 1298
(19 years)
Younger brother of Ban Mueang; named uparaja c. 1237/1247 – 1298
(aged approx. 51/61)
Oversaw the height of Sukhothai prosperity, the development of the Thai script, and the propagation of Therāvada Buddhism within Sukhothai[8]
4 Loe Thai
Phaya Loe Thai
1298 – 1323
(25 years)
Son of Ram Khamhaeng the Great c. 1262 – 1323
(aged approx. 61)
Brother of Burmese queen consort May Hnin Thwe-Da.[12] His reign saw the decline of Sukhothai, as regions conquered by Ram Khamhaeng broke away
5 Ngua Nam Thum
Phaya Ngua Nam Thum
1323 – 1347
(24 years)
Son of Ban Mueang and cousin of Loe Thai c. 1266 – 1347
(aged approx. 81)
Brother of Burmese queen consort May Hnin Htapi.[13] Origin of his name is disputed[14]
6 Maha Thammaracha I
มหาธรรมราชาที่ ๑
Phra Maha Thammaracha
1347 – 1368
(21 years)
Son of Loe Thai and first cousin once removed of Ngua Nam Thum; named uparaja as Li Thai in 1340/41[11] c. 1300 – 1368
(aged approx. 68)
Known for his devotion to Buddhist philosophy and writing.[9] During his reign Ayutthaya began invasions into Sukhothai[8]
1378: Sukhothai becomes a tributary state of the Ayutthaya Kingdom.
7 Maha Thammaracha II
มหาธรรมราชาที่ ๒
Phra Maha Thammaracha
1368 – c. 1400
(approx. 32 years)
Son of Maha Thammaracha I c. 1358 – 1400
(aged approx. 42)
Born Lue Thai. Under his rule the dynasty continued under tributary status[8]
8 Maha Thammaracha III
มหาธรรมราชาที่ ๓
Phra Maha Thammaracha
c. 1400 – 1419
(approx. 19 years)
Son of Maha Thammaracha II c. 1380 – 1419
(aged approx. 39)
Born Sai Lue Thai
9 Maha Thammaracha IV
มหาธรรมราชาที่ ๔
Phra Maha Thammaracha
1419 – 1438
(19 years)
Son of Maha Thammaracha III c. 1401 – 1438
(aged approx. 37)
Born Borommapan. Won the throne against his brother after the intervention of Intharacha of Ayutthaya.[15] Upon his death, Borommarachathirat II of Ayutthaya installed his son as uparaja, ending Phra Ruang succession[10]
1438: Unification with Ayutthaya ends Sukhothai autonomy.

Ayutthaya Kingdom (1351–1767)[edit]

1st Uthong dynasty (1351–1370)[edit]

No. Portrait Name Birth Reign from Reign until Death Notes
1 Somdet Phra Chao Uthong
(Somdet Phra Ramathibodi I)
3 April 1314 4 March 1351[16] 1369 (18 years)

(63 years old)

 • First King of Ayutthaya
2 Somdet Phra Ramesuan 1339 1369 1370 (less than one year)

(56 years old)

 • Son of Uthong

1st Suphannaphum dynasty (1370–1388)[edit]

No. Portrait Name Birth Reign from Reign until Death Notes
3 Somdet Phra Borommarachathirat I
(Khun Luang Pha Ngua)
1310 1370 1388 (18 years)

(78 years old)

 • Husband of Uthong's older sister
 • Usurper
 • Former Lord of Suphanburi
4 Somdet Phra Chao Thong Lan
(Chao Thong Chan)
1374 1388 (7 days)

(14 years old)

 • Son of Borommarachathirat I

2nd Uthong dynasty (1388–1409)[edit]

No. Portrait Name Birth Reign from Reign until Death Notes
(2) Somdet Phra Ramesuan 1339 1388 1395 (7 years)

(56 years old)

 • Former King reclaiming the throne
 • Son of Uthong
5 Somdet Phra Ramrachathirat 1356 1395 1409 (14 years)
?  • Son of Ramesuan

2nd Suphannaphum dynasty (1409–1569)[edit]

No. Portrait Name Birth Reign from Reign until Death Notes
6 Somdet Phra Intharacha I
(Phra Chao Nakhon In)
1359 1409 1424 (15 years)

(65 years old)

 • Son of Borommarachathirat I
 • Former Lord of Suphanburi, offered crown
7 Somdet Phra Borommarachathirat II
(Somdet Phra Chao Sam Phraya)
1386 1424 1448 (24 years)

(62 years old)

 • Son of Inthracha I
Administrative reform Chatusadom, 1463
8 Somdet Phra Borommatrailokkanat
(Ramesuan II)
1431 1448 1488 (40 years)

(57 years old)

 • Son of Borommarachathirat II
9 Somdet Phra Borommarachathirat III
(Intharacha II)
1462 1488 1491 (3 years)

(29 years old)

 • Son of Borommatrailokkanat
10 Somdet Phra Ramathibodi II
(Chettathirat I)
1473 1491 10 October 1529 (38 years)

(56 years old)

 • Younger brother of Borommarachathirat III
 • Son of Borommatrailokkanat
11 Somdet Phra Borommarachathirat IV
(Borommarachathirat No Phutthangkun)
(Phra Buddhakura)
1488 10 October 1529 1533 (4 years)

(45 years old)

 • Son of Ramathibodi II
12 Phra Ratsadathirat 1529 1533 (5 months)

(4 years old)

 • Son of Borommarachathirat IV
 • Child King, reign under regency
13 Somdet Phra Chairacha
(Phra Chai)
1499 1533 1546 (13 years)

(47 years old)

 • Uncle of Ratsadathirat
 • Son of Ramathibodi II
 • Usurper
14 Phra Yotfa
(Phra Kaeofa)
1535 1546 1548 (2 years) 10 June 1548

(13 years old)

 • Son of Chairacha
- Khun Worawongsathirat
(Khun Chinnarat)
(Bun Si)
1503 before 10 June 1548 11 November 1548 - 5 January 1549

(45 years old)

 • Usurper monarch, not accepted by some historians
15 Somdet Phra Maha Chakkraphat
(Phra Chao Chang Phueak)
(Phra Thianracha)
1509 1549 18 February 1564 (15 years)
15 April 1569

(60 years old)

 • Son of Ramathibodi II
 • Younger brother of Borommarachathirat IV and Chairacha
 • Seized the throne from usurper
 • Became a Buddhist monk at Pegu (1564–1568)
Vassal of Burma (1564–1568)
16 Somdet Phra Mahinthrathirat 1539 18 February 1564 before 12 May 1568 (~4 years) c. late 1569  • Son of Maha Chakkraphat and Queen Suriyothai
(15) Somdet Phra Maha Chakkraphat
(Phra Chao Chang Phueak)
(Phra Thianracha)
1509 before 12 May 1568 15 April 1569 (~1 year)  • Father of Mahinthrathirat
 • Regained the throne of Ayutthaya at the urging of his son
 • Died during the Second Siege of Ayutthaya
(16) Somdet Phra Mahinthrathirat 1539 15 April 1569 2 August 1569 (3 months)
c. late 1569  • Son of Maha Chakkraphat
 • Temporarily regained the throne following Maha Chakkraphat's death
First Fall of Ayutthaya

Sukhothai dynasty (1569–1629)[edit]

No. Portrait Name Birth Reign from Reign until Death Notes
Vassal of Burma (1569–1584)
17 Somdet Phra Maha Thammarachathirat
(Sanphet I)
1517 1569 c. 30 June 1590 (21 years)

(73 years old)

 • Former Lord of Phitsanulok
 • Son-in-law of Maha Chakkraphat and Queen Suriyothai
 • Installed as vassal of Bayinnaung of Burma, declared independence in 1584
Independence from the First Toungoo Empire, 1584
18 Somdet Phra Naresuan the Great
(Sanphet II)
(Phra Naret)
1555/56 1 July 1590 25 April 1605 (15 years)

(49 years old)

 • Son of Maha Thammarachathirat I
19 Somdet Phra Ekathotsarot
(Sanphet III)
1557 25 April 1605 1610 (5 years)

(53 years old)

 • Brother of Naresuan
 • Son of Maha Thammarachathirat I
20 Somdet Phra Si Saowaphak
(Sanphet IV)
1585 1610 1611 (1 year, 2 months)

(26 years old)

 • Son of Ekathotsarot
21 Somdet Phra Songtham
(Borommaracha I)
(Intharacha III)
1590 1611 12 December 1628 (17 years)

(38 years old)

 • Son of "Ekathotsarot", invited to take the throne after leaving the Sangha
22 Somdet Phra Chetthathirat
(Borommaracha II)
(Phra Otsa)
c. 1613 12 December 1628 1628–1629 (1 year)

(16 years old)

 • Son of Songtham
23 Phra Athittayawong 1620 1629 (36 days)

(17 years old)

 • Younger brother of Chetthathirat II
 • Son of Songtham

Prasat Thong dynasty (1629–1688)[edit]

No. Portrait Name Birth Reign from Reign until Death Notes
24 Somdet Phra Chao Prasat Thong
(Sanphet V)
1599 1629[17][18] August 1655 (26 years)

(56 years old)

 • Usurper, formerly the Kalahom
 • Rumored to be a son of Ekathotsarot
25 Somdet Chao Fa Chai
(Sanphet VI)
1630 August 1655 1656 (1 year)

(26 years old)

 • Son of Prasat Thong
26 Somdet Phra Si Suthammaracha
(Sanphet VII)
1600 August 1656 26 October 1656 (~2 months)

(56 years old)

 • Usurper, Uncle of Chao Fa Chai
 • Younger brother of Prasat Thong
27 Somdet Phra Narai the Great
(Ramathibodi III)
16 February 1632 26 October 1656 11 July 1688 (32 years)

(56 years old)

 • Usurper, nephew of Si Suthammaracha
 • Son of Prasat Thong
 • Half-brother of Chao Fa Chai
 • Former Front Palace
The Siamese revolution of 1688; populist[19] upheaval

Ban Phlu Luang dynasty (1688–1767)[edit]

No. Portrait Name Birth Reign from Reign until Death Notes
28 Somdet Phra Phetracha
(Ramesuan III)
1632 11 July 1688 5 February 1703 (14 years)

(71 years old)

 • Former commander of the Royal Elephant Corps
29 Somdet Phra Suriyenthrathibodi
(Sanphet VIII)
(Phra Chao Sua)
1661 5 February 1703 9 February 1709 (7 years)

(48 years old)

 • Adoptive son of Phetracha
 • Son of Narai and Chiang Mai's Princess that was given to be Phetracha's wife later.
30 Somdet Phra Chao Yu Hua Thai Sa
(Sanphet IX)
1679 9 February 1709 13 January 1733 (23 years)

(54 years old)

 • Son of Suriyenthrathibodi
31 Somdet Phra Chao Yu Hua Borommakot
(Maha Thammarachathirat II)
c. 1681[20] 13 January 1733 26 April 1758 (26 years)

(77 years old)

 • Brother of Thai Sa, Former Front Palace
 • Son of Suriyenthrathibodi
32 Somdet Phra Chao Uthumphon[a]
(Maha Thammarachathirat III)
(Khun Luang Ha Wat)
1733 1 May 1758 1758 (3 months) 1796

(~63 years old)

 • Son of Borommakot
 • Former Front Palace
33 Somdet Phra Chao Ekkathat[a]
(Phra Thinang Suriyat Amarin)
(Borommaracha III)
1718 1758 1759/1760 17 April 1767

(49 years old)

 • Usurper, brother of Uthumphon
 • Son of Borommakot
34 Somdet Phra Chao Uthumphon[a]
(Maha Thammarachathirat III)
(Khun Luang Ha Wat)
1733 1759/1760 1762 (2-3 years) 1796

(~63 years old)

 • Retook power during the Burmese attack on Ayutthaya in 1759-60. Forced to step down after the conflict.[21]

 • Exiled to and died in Burma following the Fall of Ayutthaya in 1767

35 Somdet Phra Chao Ekkathat[a]
(Phra Thinang Suriyat Amarin)
(Borommaracha III)
1718 1762 7 April 1767 (5 years)
17 April 1767

(49 years old)

Second Fall of Ayutthaya

Thonburi Kingdom (1767–1782)[edit]

Thonburi dynasty (1767–1782)[edit]

No. Portrait Name Birth Reign from Coronation Reign until Death Notes
1 Taksin the Great
(Phra Chao Krung Thonburi)
(Emperor of Siam)[22]
(Sanphet X)
17 April 1734 28 December 1767 April 1, 1782
(14 years)
7 April 1782
(47 years old)
 • Only King of Thonburi
 • Son of Yong Saetae a Teochew Chinese family named "Tea" (鄭) or "Zheng" in Mandarin Chinese and Thephamat
The coup seized power as the Rattanakosin Kingdom[26]

Rattanakosin Kingdom (1782–present)[edit]

Chakri dynasty (1782–present)[edit]

No. Portrait Name Birth
Reign ends Death Notes
1 Phutthayotfa Chulalok
(Rama I)
Phrabat Somdet Phra Paramoruracha
Maha Chakri Boromanat
Phra Phutthayotfa Chulalok Maharaj
20 March 1737
4th child (2nd son) of Thongdee (Mon nobleman) and Yok
6 April 1782
(10 June)
7 September 1809
(72 years old)
 • Father-in-law of Taksin
 • His father was a great-grandson of Kosa Pan, his mother the daughter of a Hokkien Chinese millionaire family.
2 Phutthaloetla Naphalai
(Rama II)
Phrabat Somdet Phra Boromratchapongchet
Phra Phutthaloetla Naphalai
24 February 1767
4th child (2nd son) of Rama I and Queen Amarindra
7 September 1809 21 July 1824
(57 years old)
3 Nangklao
(Rama III)
Phrabat Somdet Phra Paramathiworaset
Maha Chesadabodindra
Phra Nangklao Chao Yu Hua
(Phra Maha Jesataraj Chao)
31 March 1788
3rd child (2nd son) of Rama II and 1st child of Consort Sri Sulalai
21 July 1824 2 April 1851
(63 years old)
His mother was a great-great-great-great-granddaughter of Sultan Sulaiman Shah of Singora.
(Rama IV)
Phrabat Somdet Phra Paramenthra
Ramathibodhi Srisindra
Maha Mongkut
Phra Chomklao Chao Yu Hua
(Phra Syamadevamahamakut Vidyamaharaj)
18 October 1804
44th child (22nd son) of Rama II and 2nd son of Queen Sri Suriyendra
2 April 1851
(1st: 6 April 1851,
2nd: 15 May 1851)
1 October 1868
(63 years old)
Half-brother of Rama III
The feudal system was changed to absolute monarchy in 1892,
(Rama V)
Phrabat Somdet Phra Paraminthra
Maha Chulalongkorn
Phra Chulachomklao Chao Yu Hua
(Phra Piya Maharaj)
20 September 1853
9th child (5th son) of Rama IV and 1st child of Queen Debsirindra
1 October 1868
(1st: 11 November 1868,
2nd time: 16 November 1873
23 October 1910
(57 years old)
Under Regency of Grand Duke Sri Suriyavongs (1868–1873)
(Rama VI)
Phrabat Somdet Phra Paramenthra
Maha Vajiravudh
Phra Mongkut Klao Chao Yu Hua
(Phra Maha Dhiraraj Chao)
1 January 1881
28th child (11th son) of Rama V and 2nd child of Queen Saovabha Phongsri
23 October 1910
(11 November 1911
26 November 1925
(44 years old)
(Rama VII)
Phrabat Somdet Phra Paraminthra
Maha Prajadhipok
Phra Pok Klao Chao Yu Hua
8 November 1893
27th child (31st son) of Rama V and 9th child of Queen Saovabha Phongsri
26 November 1925
(25 February 1926)
2 March 1935
30 May 1941
(47 years old)
Younger brother of Rama VI
The Siamese revolution of 1932 ended absolute monarchy
Ananda Mahidol
(Rama VIII)
Phrabat Somdet Phra Paramenthra
Maha Ananda Mahidol
Phra Atthama Ramathibodin
20 September 1925
2nd child (1st son) of Mahidol Adulyadej and Consort Sangwan
2 March 1935
11 August 1946 (posthumous)
9 June 1946
(20 years old)
 • Nephew of Rama VII
 • Under Regency from 1935–1946
Bhumibol Adulyadej
(Rama IX)
Phrabat Somdet Phra
Maha Bhumibol Adulyadej Maharaj
(Somdet Phra Phatthara Maharat,
Somdet Phra Maha Bhumibol Adulyadej Maharat)
5 December 1927
3rd child (2nd son) of Mahidol Adulyadej and Consort Sangwan
9 June 1946
(5 May 1950)
13 October 2016
(70 years 126 days)
(88 years old)
 • Younger brother of Rama VIII
 • Under Regency from 1946–1949
(Rama X)
Phrabat Somdet Phra Paramenthra
Ramathibodhi Srisindra
Maha Vajiralongkorn
Phra Vajira Klao Chao Yu Hua
28 July 1952
2nd child (only son) of Rama IX and Queen Sirikit
13 October 2016
(4 May 2019[29]
6 years, 355 days)
(71 years old)

Timeline of monarchs[edit]

VajiralongkornBhumibol AdulyadejAnanda MahidolPrajadhipokVajiravudhChulalongkornMongkutRama IIIRama II of SiamRama ITaksinEkkathatUthumphonBoromakotThai SaSuriyenthrathibodiPhetrachaNaraiSi SuthammarachaChao Fa ChaiPrasat ThongAthittayawongChetthathiratSongthamSi SaowaphakEkathotsarotNaresuanMahathammarachathiratMahinthrathiratMaha ChakkraphatWorawongsathiratYodfaChairachaRatsadathiratBorommarachathirat IVRamathibodi IIBorommaracha IIIBorommatrailokkanatBorommarachathirat IIIntharacha (king of Ayutthaya)RamrachathiratRamesuan (king of Ayutthaya)Thong LanBorommarachathirat IRamesuan (king of Ayutthaya)UthongMahathammaracha IVMahathammaracha IIIMahathammaracha IIMahathammaracha INgua Nam ThumLoe ThaiRam KhamhaengBan MueangSi Inthrathit

Family tree of the Thai monarchs[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d The portrait is believed to have depicted either Uthumphon or Ekkathat.
  2. ^ Accounts vastly differ to when Taksin stepped down from the throne and entered the monkhood, which has been argued to have occurred as early as three months prior to his execution.[25]
  3. ^ Traditionally accepted date of his execution
  1. ^ Jones, Robert B. (June 1971). "Thai titles and ranks; including a translation of Traditions of royal lineage in Siam by King Chulalongkorn". Southeast Asia Program Data Papers Series. hdl:1813/57549 – via Cornell University.
  2. ^ ""สยาม" ถูกใช้เรียกชื่อประเทศเป็นทางการสมัยรัชกาลที่ 4" (in Thai). ศิลปวัฒนธรรม. 6 July 2017. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  3. ^ "Siam definition and meaning". Collins English Dictionary. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  4. ^ Pittayaporn, Pittayawat (2014). Layers of Chinese loanwords in Proto-Southwestern Tai as Evidence for the Dating of the Spread of Southwestern Tai Archived 27 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine. MANUSYA: Journal of Humanities, Special Issue No 20: 47–64.
  5. ^ Probably The Chiang Mai Chronicle, ISBN 974-7100-62-2
  6. ^ Wyatt, D. K. Thailand, A Short History, p. 35–38, Bangkok 2003
  7. ^ a b Cœdès, G. (1921). "The Origins of the Sukhodaya Dynasty" (PDF). Journal of the Siam Society. Siam Heritage Trust. 14 (1). Retrieved March 17, 2013. (1) The translation of this paper, which has been read at a joint session of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Société Asiatique, and American Oriental Society, and published in the Journal asiatique (April–June 1920), is the work of Mr. J. Crosby, to whom the author begs to tend his heartfelt thanks.
  8. ^ a b c d e Cœdès, George (1968). Walter F. Vella (ed.). The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. trans. Susan Brown Cowing. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-0368-1.
  9. ^ a b Chakrabongse, C., 1960, Lords of Life, London: Alvin Redman Limited
  10. ^ a b David K. Wyatt (2004). Thailand: A Short History (2nd ed.). Silkworm Books. p. 59.
  11. ^ a b Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Foundation, 2011: 43.
  12. ^ Pan Hla, Nai (1968). Razadarit Ayedawbon (in Burmese) (8th printing, 2005 ed.). Yangon: Armanthit Sarpay.
  13. ^ Pan Hla 2005: 38
  14. ^ Sukhothai Studies Encyclopedia Commission, 1996: 41.
  15. ^ Patit Paban Mishra (2010). The History of Thailand. Greenwood. p. 39.
  16. ^ Baker, Chris; Phongpaichit, Pasuk (2017). A History of Ayutthaya: Siam in the Early Modern World. Cambridge University Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-316-64113-2.
  17. ^ Baker, Chris; Phongpaichit, Pasuk (2017). A History of Ayutthaya: Siam in the Early Modern World (Kindle ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-316-64113-2.
  18. ^ Wyatt, David K. (2003). Thailand : A Short History (2nd ed.). Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books. ISBN 974957544X.
  19. ^ Baker, Chris; Phongpaichit, Pasuk (2017). A History of Ayutthaya: Siam in the Early Modern World (Kindle ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-316-64113-2.
  20. ^ Baker, Chris; Phongpaichit, Pasuk. A History of Thailand Third Edition (p. 301). Cambridge University Press. Kindle Edition.
  21. ^ Wood, W. A. R. (1924). A History of Siam. T. Fisher Unwin.
  22. ^ กำเนิดจักรพรรดิ - พระเจ้าตากสินมหาราช ภูมิสุสานแห่งความมั่งคั่งอุดมสมบูรณ์ | HU LIN : A Landscape Cemetery of Abundance: ฮูลิน
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