President of Singapore
|President of the|
Republic of Singapore
|Head of State|
|Style||Madam President (informal)|
Her Excellency (diplomatic)
|Term length||6 years; renewable|
|Constituting instrument||Constitution of Singapore, Article 17|
|Inaugural holder||Yusof Ishak|
|Formation||9 August 1965|
|Deputy||Chairman of the Council of Presidential Advisors|
|President of Singapore|
|Malay||Presiden Republik Singapura|
|Tamil||சிங்கப்பூர் குடியரசுத் தலைவர் Ciṅkappūr kuṭiyaracut talaivar|
The president of the Republic of Singapore is the head of state of the Republic of Singapore and the commander-in-chief of the Singapore Armed Forces. The president is nominally vested with executive authority, but in practice that authority is exercised by the Cabinet led by the Prime Minister. Halimah Yacob is the incumbent president of Singapore since 2017 after being elected unopposed at the presidential election in the same year.
The national constitution sets strict eligibility conditions for the presidency. Before 1993, the president was chosen by the Parliament of Singapore. As a result of constitutional amendments passed in 1991, the presidency became a popularly elected office with certain custodial powers, particularly over government expenditure and key appointments to public offices.
After his death he was replaced by Benjamin Sheares, who served until his death in 1981.
He was succeeded by Chengara Veetil Devan Nair. Owing to personal problems, Nair stepped down in 1985.
He was replaced by Wee Kim Wee, an ambassador for South Korea. who served as president until 1993 and was the first president to exercise custodial powers pursuant to the constitutional amendments of 1991.
In January 1991, the Constitution was amended to provide for the popular election of the president, a major constitutional and political change in Singapore's history. Under the revision, the president is empowered to veto the use of the country's past reserves and key civil service appointments. The president can also examine the administration's enforcement of the Internal Security Act and Maintenance of Religious Harmony Act, and authorise corruption investigations (see below).
However, the Singapore Government has, on the advice of the Attorney-General's Chambers, deemed Ong's predecessor Wee Kim Wee the first elected president, on the basis that he had held and exercised the powers of the elected president. This was a result of transitional provisions in the Constitution of Singapore in 2017, which were affirmed by the High Court following a legal challenge by presidential hopeful Tan Cheng Bock. He appealed against this decision, but the Court of Appeal also dismissed it.
The sixth president was S. R. Nathan, an ambassador for United States. He was not elected by the people in a vote, but became president by virtue of being the sole candidate deemed qualified by the Presidential Elections Committee. His first term of office was from 1 September 1999 to 31 August 2005. He was re-elected on 17 August 2005; both his election came on walkovers without any opposing contestants which made him the longest serving president of Singapore.
After he stepped down, Tony Tan, another former Deputy Prime Minister won the 27 August 2011 presidential election by a narrow 0.34% margin. He was sworn in as the seventh president of Singapore on 1 September 2011.
In 2016, further amendments were passed providing for "reserved elections" for a particular ethnic community, if that community has not provided a president in the past five presidential terms.
The eighth and current president, Halimah Yacob, a former Speaker of Parliament took office on 14 September 2017, becoming the first president elected as she was the sole eligible candidate under the new reform terms which took effect earlier that year. She is the first Malay head of state in 47 years since the death of the first President of Singapore, Yusof Ishak. She is also the first female President of Singapore.
Constitutional position and role
The president is the head of state of Singapore. The executive authority of the nation is vested in the president and exercisable by them or by the Cabinet or any minister authorised by the Cabinet. However, the Constitution vests "general direction and control of the Government" in the Cabinet. In most cases, the president is bound to exercise their powers in accordance with the advice of the Cabinet or a minister acting under the Cabinet's general authority. The President only exercises limited powers in their personal discretion to block attempts by the government of the day to draw down past reserves it did not accumulate, to approve changes to key appointments, and to exercise oversight over the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau and decisions of the Executive under the Internal Security Act and the Maintenance of Religious Harmony Act.
As a component of the legislature together with Parliament, the president is also jointly vested with legislative authority. The president's primary role in the exercise of legislative power to make laws is assenting to bills passed by Parliament. As the president exercises this constitutional function in accordance with Cabinet's advice and not in their personal discretion except in certain circumstances, in general he or she may not refuse to assent to bills that Parliament has validly passed. The words of enactment in Singapore statutes are: "Be it enacted by the president with the advice and consent of the Parliament of Singapore, as follows:". The president usually opens each Parliamentary session with an address drafted by the Cabinet setting out the Government's agenda for the session, and may address Parliament and send messages to it.
The president has been called "Singapore's No. 1 diplomat". Ambassadors and high commissioners accredited to Singapore present their credentials to the president, and the president is called upon by visiting foreign leaders. In addition, the president contributes to the nation's external relations by undertaking overseas trips on Cabinet's advice. Presidents have also used the office to champion charitable causes. Wee Kim Wee promoted sports and volunteerism; and Ong Teng Cheong culture and the arts, particularly music. In 2000, S.R. Nathan established the President's Challenge with the Ministry of Community Development, Youth and Sports and its statutory board, the National Council of Social Service. As of 2011, the endeavour had raised more than S$100 million for charities supporting disabled and needy people.
The powers of the president of Singapore are divided into those which the president may exercise in their own discretion, and those their must exercise in accordance with the advice of the Cabinet of Singapore or of a minister acting under the general authority of the Cabinet. In addition, the president is required to consult the Council of Presidential Advisers (CPA) when performing some of his functions. In other cases, he or she may consult the CPA if he or she wishes to but is not bound to do so.
The Constitution confers on the president certain executive functions to block attempts by the government of the day to draw down past reserves that it did not accumulate. Thus, a guarantee may only be given or a loan raised by the Government if the president concurs, and his or her approval is also needed for budgets of specified statutory boards and Government companies that draw on their past reserves. The president also possesses personal discretion to withhold assent to any bill in Parliament providing directly or indirectly for the direct or indirect variation, changing or increase in powers of the Central Provident Fund Board to invest moneys belonging to it; and the borrowing of money, the giving of any guarantee or the raising of any loan by the Government if in the president's opinion the bill is likely to draw on reserves not accumulated by the Government during its current term of office. In addition, the president may withhold assent to any Supply Bill, Supplementary Supply Bill or Final Supply Bill for any financial year if in his or her opinion the estimates of revenue and expenditure, supplementary estimates or statement of excess are likely to lead to a drawing on past reserves.
The president is also empowered to approve changes to key civil service positions, such as the chief justice, the attorney-general, the chairman and members of the Public Service Commission, the chief of Defence Force and the commissioner of police. He or she also appoints as Prime Minister a member of Parliament (MP) who, in his or her personal judgment, is likely to command the confidence of a majority of MPs. The president has certain powers of oversight over the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau and decisions of the Executive under the Internal Security Act and the Maintenance of Religious Harmony Act.
The term of office of the first elected president, Ong Teng Cheong (1993–1999), was marked by differences between him and the Government concerning the extent of his discretionary fiscal powers. Discussions culminated in the Government issuing a non-binding white paper entitled The Principles for Determining and Safeguarding the Accumulated Reserves of the Government and the Fifth Schedule Statutory Boards and Government Companies (1999). In 2009, the Government requested approval from President S.R. Nathan to draw $4.9 billion from past financial reserves to meet current budget expenditure, the first time it had done so. The sum was used to fund the Government's Resilience Package consisting of two schemes aimed at preserving jobs and businesses during the financial downturn.
A person who wishes to run for the office of president has to fulfil stringent qualifications set out in the Constitution, which are as follows:
- The president must be a citizen of Singapore.
- The president must not be less than 45 years of age.
- The president's name must appear in a current register of electors.
- The president must be resident in Singapore at the date of their nomination for election, and must have been so resident for periods amounting in the aggregate to not less than ten years prior to that date.
- The president must not be subject to any of the following disqualifications:
- (a) being and having been found or declared to be of unsound mind;
- (b) being an undischarged bankrupt;
- (c) holding an office of profit;
- (d) having been nominated for election to Parliament or the office of President or having acted as election agent to a person so nominated, failing to lodge any return of election expenses required by law within the time and in the manner so required;
- (e) having been convicted of an offence by a court of law in Singapore or Malaysia and sentenced to imprisonment for a term of not less than one year or to a fine of not less than S$2,000 and having not received a free pardon, provided that where the conviction is by a court of law in Malaysia, the person shall not be disqualified unless the offence is also one which, had it been committed in Singapore, would have been punishable by a court of law in Singapore;
- (f) having voluntarily acquired the citizenship of, or exercised rights of citizenship in, a foreign country, or having made a declaration of allegiance to a foreign country;
- (g) being disqualified under any law relating to offences in connection with elections to Parliament or the office of President by reason of having been convicted of such an offence or having in proceedings relating to such an election been proved guilty of an act constituting such an offence.
- The president must be a person of integrity, good character and reputation.
- The president must not be a member of any political party on the date of their nomination for election.
- The president must have for a period of not less than three years held office —
- as Minister, Chief Justice, Speaker, Attorney-General, Chairman of the Public Service Commission, Auditor-General, Accountant-General or Permanent Secretary;
- as chief executive officer (CEO) of a key statutory board or government company: the Central Provident Fund Board, the Housing and Development Board, the Jurong Town Corporation, the Monetary Authority of Singapore, Temasek Holdings, or GIC Private Limited (formerly known as the Government of Singapore Investment Corporation);
- as the most senior executive of a company with an average of $500 million in shareholders' equity for the most recent three years in that office, and which is profitable after taxes; or
- in any other similar or comparable position of seniority and responsibility in any other organisation or department of equivalent size or complexity in the public or private sector which has given him such experience and ability in administering and managing financial affairs as to enable him to carry out effectively the functions and duties of the office of President.
In November 2016, further amendments provide for "reserved elections" for a particular racial group (Chinese, Malay and Indian/other minority) — if that community has not been represented for five presidential terms. Other amendments were made to expand the list of key government companies eligible for the candidacy, and, for candidates using their private sector experience, the use of $500 million of shareholder equity instead of $100 million in paid-up capital. The changes went into effect in April 2017. Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong later explained that while he expected the "reserved election" policy to be unpopular among the population, he believed it was "the right thing to do".
The president holds office for a term of six years from the date on which they assume office. The office falls vacant upon the expiry of the incumbent's term or if the president is for some reason unable to complete their term; for example, due to death, resignation, or removal from office for misconduct or mental or physical infirmity. If the office of president becomes vacant before the incumbent's term expires, a poll for an election must be held within six months. In other cases, an election can take place any time from three months before the expiry of the incumbent's term of office.
The procedure for elections is laid out in the Presidential Elections Act. The process begins when the prime minister issues a writ of election to the returning officer specifying the date and place of nomination day. Potential candidates must obtain certificates of eligibility from the Presidential Elections Committee (PEC), the function of which is to ensure that such persons have the necessary qualifications to be nominated as a candidate for the election. In particular, the PEC must be satisfied that the potential candidates are persons of integrity, good character and reputation; and if they have not previously held certain key government offices or acted as chairman of the board of directors or CEO of a company incorporated or registered under the Companies Act with shareholders' equity of at least $500 million, that they held a position of comparable seniority and responsibility in the public or private sector that has given them experience and ability in administering and managing financial affairs. The PEC consists of the chairman of the Public Service Commission, who is also the chairman of the PEC, the chairman of the Accounting and Corporate Regulatory Authority, and a member of the Presidential Council for Minority Rights. For the 2017 presidential election, the members of the PEC are Eddie Teo (chairman), Lim Soo Hoon, Chan Heng Chee, Po'ad Shaik Abu Bakar Mattar, Tay Yong Kwang, and Peter Seah.
In addition, candidates must obtain political donation certificates from the registrar of political donations stating that they have complied with the Political Donations Act, and file their nomination papers with the returning officer on nomination day. A deposit must also be paid. If there is only one candidate nominated, he or she is declared to have been elected president. Otherwise, the returning officer issues a notice of contested election specifying when polling day will be.
During the election period, a candidate may not spend more than $600,000 or 30 cents for each person on the electoral register, whichever is greater. Permits must be obtained to hold election meetings and display posters and banners, and a number of acts are unlawful, including bribery, dissuading electors from voting, making false statements about candidates, treating and undue influence. Legal changes introduced in 2010 made the eve of polling day a "cooling-off day" – campaigning must not take place on that day and on polling day itself.
Polling day is a public holiday, and voting is compulsory. Voters must go to the polling stations assigned to them. After the poll closes, the presiding officer of each polling station seals the ballot boxes without opening them. Candidates or their polling agents may also affix their own seals to the ballot boxes. The ballot boxes are then taken to counting centres to be opened and the ballots counted. A candidate or his or her counting agent may ask the returning officer for a recount of votes if the difference between the number of votes for the candidate with the most votes and any other candidate's number of votes is 2% or less. After all counts, and recounts if any, have been completed, the returning officer ascertains whether the total number of electors registered to vote overseas is less than the difference between the number of votes for the two candidates with the highest number of votes. If so, the returning officer declares the candidate with the highest number of votes to be elected as President. If not, the overseas votes may be decisive. The returning officer then states the number of votes cast for each candidate and the date and location where the overseas votes will be counted.
Last contested election
The 2011 presidential election was the first election with a ballot since the 1993 election, and was also Singapore's first presidential election contested by more than two candidates. The election was won by Tony Tan Keng Yam with 745,693 (35.19%) of valid votes.
|Tan Cheng Bock||738,311||34.85|
|Tan Jee Say||530,441||25.04|
|Tan Kin Lian||104,095||4.91|
|Source: Singapore Elections|
Assumption of office and disabilities
The person elected to the office of president assumes office on the day his predecessor ceases to hold office or, if the office is vacant, on the day following his election. Upon his assumption of office, the president is required to take and subscribe in the presence of the chief justice or of another justice of the Supreme Court the Oath of Office, which states:
I, [name], having been elected President of the Republic of Singapore, do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully discharge my duties as such to the best of my ability without fear or favour, affection or ill-will, and without regard to any previous affiliation with any political party, and that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the Republic, and that I will preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore.
Once elected, the president shall:
- not hold any other office created or recognised by the Constitution;
- not actively engage in any commercial enterprise;
- not be a member of any political party; and
- if he or she is a member of Parliament, vacate his or her seat in Parliament.
In the case when the president is unable to perform their duties, their powers are temporarily transferred to the chairman of the Council of Presidential Advisers (CPA). If the chairman of the Council of Presidential Advisers is not available, the speaker of the Parliament performs the duties of the president. If both are unavailable the presidential functions are performed by an individual appointed by the Parliament
Salary and entitlements
The Parliament of Singapore is required to provide a civil list for the maintenance of the president, and it does so by way of the Civil List and Gratuity Act. With effect from 17 February 2012, the sum under Class I of the list, which includes the president's personal pay ($1,568,900, known by the British term the "privy purse"), an entertainment allowance ($73,000) and an allowance for an acting president ($4,500), is $1,646,400. The privy purse was reduced from $4,267,500 after the president accepted the Ministerial Salaries Review Committee's recommendations on the matter.
The salaries for the president's personal staff (Class II) amount to $4,532,400. Speaking in Parliament on 10 March 2011, Minister for Finance Tharman Shanmugaratnam explained that this sum was to cater for the salaries of an additional staff officer to support the work of the Council of Presidential Advisers, and a butler manager; and to meet higher variable staff salary payments due to the nation's strong economic growth. The allowance for the Istana's household expenses (Class III) is $2,762,308, an increase from $694,000. This allowance is used to cover the maintenance of the Istana, vehicles, utilities and other supplies, as well as for ceremonies and celebrations. The increase was to cater for higher expenses for maintaining computer systems, buildings and land, and to account for inflation.
Class IV expenses for "special services" are $550,000. In previous years, this sum was used to cover various expenses such as the cost of replacing state cars and installing a new document repository. Overall, the current civil list of $9,491,100 represents a decrease of about 18% from the sum for the past fiscal year of $11,605,000.
List of presidents of the Republic of Singapore
|No.||Portrait||President||Prior Office||Term of office||Elected|
|Took office||Left office||Time in office|
யூசோஃப் பின் இஷாக்
يوسف بن إسحاق
|Yang di-Pertuan Negara||9 August 1965||23 November 1970
|5 years, 106 days||Elected by Parliament|
|During this interval, the Speaker of Parliament, Yeoh Ghim Seng, was installed by Parliament as Acting President.||40 days||—|
|2||Benjamin Henry Sheares
பெஞ்சமின் ஹென்றி ஷியர்ஸ்
|Medical Practitioner||2 January 1971||12 May 1981
|10 years, 131 days||Elected by Parliament|
|During this interval, Speaker of Parliament, Yeoh Ghim Seng was installed by Parliament as Acting President.||165 days||—|
|3||C.V. Devan Nair
சி.வி தேவன் நாயர்
|Member of the Singapore Parliament for Anson||23 October 1981||28 March 1985
|3 years, 157 days||Elected by Parliament|
|During this interval, Chief Justice Wee Chong Jin was installed by Parliament as Acting President.||2 days||—|
|During this interval, Speaker of Parliament, Yeoh Ghim Seng was installed by Parliament as Acting President.||158 days||—|
|4||Wee Kim Wee
வீ கிம் வீ
|Ambassador to the Republic of Korea||2 September 1985||1 September 1993
|8 years||Elected by Parliament|
|5||Ong Teng Cheong
ஓங் டெங் சியோங்
|Deputy Prime Minister||1 September 1993||31 August 1999||6 years||1993|
|6||S. R. Nathan
|Ambassador to the United States||1 September 1999
|31 August 2005||12 years||1999|
|1 September 2005
|31 August 2011||2005|
|7||Tony Tan Keng Yam
டோனி டான் கெங் யாம்
|Deputy Prime Minister||1 September 2011||31 August 2017||6 years||2011|
|During this interval, the Chair of the Council of Presidential Advisers, J. Y. Pillay, served as Acting President.||15 days||—|
ஹலிமா பின்தி யாகொப்
|Speaker of Parliament||14 September 2017||Incumbent
(Term expires 13 September 2023)
|4 years, 13 days||2017|
- Died in office of natural causes.
- After the Constitution was amended in 1991, the term of President Wee was fixed to end on 1 September 1993.
- S.R. Nathan was returned unopposed on Nomination Day in 1999 and 2005.
- Now the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore (1985 Rev. Ed., 1999 Reprint).
- Internal Security Act (Cap. 143, 1985 Rev. Ed.).
- Maintenance of Religious Harmony Act (Cap. 167A, 2001 Rev. Ed.) ("MRHA").
- Kotwani, Monica (6 July 2017). "Tan Cheng Bock's legal challenge on the reserved presidential election explained". Channel NewsAsia. ChannelNewsAsia. Archived from the original on 31 July 2017. Retrieved 31 July 2017.
- Constitution, Art. 163(1).
- Loh, Quentin (29 June 2017). "TAN CHENG BOCK v ATTORNEY GENERAL  SGHC 160 DECISION DATE: 07 Jul 2017 HC/OS 495/2017" (PDF). High Court of the Republic of Singapore. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 February 2019. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
- "Law allows Parliament to count Wee Kim Wee's term in triggering reserved presidential election: High Court". 7 July 2017. Archived from the original on 8 July 2017. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
- "Tan Cheng Bock's constitutional challenge dismissed by High Court". Channel NewsAsia. 7 July 2017. Archived from the original on 9 July 2017. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
- "Perpetual presidential hopeful Tan Cheng Bock bows out gracefully". Mothership.sg. 23 August 2017. Archived from the original on 27 August 2017. Retrieved 27 August 2017.
- Lee, Justina (12 September 2017). "Singaporeans miffed by 'reserved' presidential election - Nikkei Asian Review". Nikkei Asian Review. Archived from the original on 5 December 2017. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
- "Halimah Yacob set to be Singapore's first female president: A timeline of her career". The Straits Times. 11 September 2017. Archived from the original on 27 January 2018. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
- Constitution, Art. 17(1).
- Constitution, Art. 23(1).
- Constitution, Art. 24(2).
- Constitution, Art. 21(1).
- Constitution, Art. 21(2).
- Constitution, Art. 38.
- Constitution, Art. 58(1).
- Constitution, Art. 21(2)(c).
- Constitution, Art. 60.
- Standing Orders of Parliament (as amended on 19 October 2004) (PDF), Parliament of Singapore, 19 October 2004, archived from the original (PDF) on 9 May 2010, retrieved 2 November 2009, Standing Order 15(1).
- Constitution, Art. 62.
- Tommy Koh (15 June 2011), "Demystifying the presidential office" (PDF), The Straits Times, p. A21, archived from the original (PDF) on 8 June 2012.
- Constitution, Arts. 21(1) and (2).
- Constitution, Arts. 22(3) and (4). The Legislature can pass a law requiring the President to act after consultation with, or on the recommendation of, any person or body of persons other than the Cabinet in the exercise of his or her functions other than those exercisable in his personal discretion or in respect of the Constitution has made other provision: Art. 21(5).
- Constitution, Art. 144(1).
- Constitution, Arts. 21(2)(e), 21(2)(f), 22B and 22D.
- Constitution, Art. 22E.
- Constitution, Art. 144(2).
- Constitution, Arts. 148A and 148D.
- Constitution, Art. 22(1).
- Constitution, Art. 25(1).
- Constitution, Art. 22G. The Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau's powers of investigation derive from the Prevention of Corruption Act (Cap. 241, 1993 Rev. Ed.).
- Constitution, Arts. 21(2)(g) and 151(4); Internal Security Act (Cap. 143, 1985 Rev. Ed.), s. 13A.
- Constitution, Arts. 21(2)(h), 22I; MRHA, s. 12.
- Hu, Richard Tsu Tau (Minister for Finance), Ministerial Statement, "Issues Raised by President Ong Teng Cheong at his Press Conference on 16th July 1999", Singapore Parliamentary Debates, Official Report (17 August 1999), vol. 70, cols. 2018–2029; Roger Mitton (10 March 2000), "'I had a job to do' whether the Government liked it or not, says ex-President Ong – extended interview with Roger Mitton", Asiaweek, vol. 26 no. 9, pp. 28–29, archived from the original on 10 February 2001.
- The Principles for Determining and Safeguarding the Accumulated Reserves of the Government and the Fifth Schedule Statutory Boards and Government Companies [Cmd. 5 of 1999], Singapore: Printed for the Government of Singapore by the Government Printers, 1999, OCLC 226180358.
- Zakir Hussain (23 January 2009), "A Budget first: Govt to draw $4.9b from past reserves", The Straits Times, p. 4 – via NewspaperSG; "Concerns about economy go back to mid-2008: President makes public for first time his decision to allow use of reserves", The Straits Times, 18 February 2009; Chua Mui Hoong (20 February 2009), "Turning of the second key went smoothly", The Straits Times.
- Constitution, Art. 19(2)(a).
- Constitution, Art. 19(2)(b).
- Constitution, Art. 19(2)(c) read with Art. 44(2)(c).
- Constitution, Art. 19(2)(c) read with Art. 44(2)(d).
- Constitution, Art. 19(2)(d) read with Art. 45.
- The disqualification of a person under clauses (d) and (e) may be removed by the President and shall, if not so removed, cease at the end of five years beginning from the date on which the return mentioned in clause (d) was required to be lodged or, as the case may be, the date on which the person convicted as mentioned in clause (e) was released from custody or the date on which the fine mentioned in clause (1) (e) was imposed on such person: Constitution, Art. 45(2).
- A person shall not be disqualified under this clause by reason only of anything done by him before he became a citizen of Singapore: Constitution, Art. 45(2). In clause (f), "foreign country" does not include any part of the Commonwealth or the Republic of Ireland: Art. 45(3).
- Constitution, Art. 19(2)(e).
- Constitution, Art. 19(2)(f).
- Constitution, Art. 19(3)(a).
- Constitution, Art. 19(3)(b) read with the Fifth Schedule.
- Constitution, Art. 19(4), read with Art. 19(7).
- Constitution, Art. 19(3)(c) and Art 19(4)(b).
- Chua Mui Hoong (21 August 1999), "See you in six years' time", The Straits Times, p. 6; "Why only President Nathan qualifies", The Straits Times, p. 4, 14 August 2005.
- Han, Kirsten (12 September 2017). "How Singapore elected a president without a vote". CNN. Archived from the original on 15 December 2017. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
- "Constitution of the Republic of Singapore (Amendment) Act 2016". Act No. 28/2016 of 21 December 2016. Archived from the original on 5 August 2017. Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- Constitution, Art. 19B.
- "Elected Presidency: Amendments to Constitution passed in Parliament". Channel NewsAsia. 9 November 2016. Archived from the original on 16 November 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2016.
- Yuen-C, Tham (30 September 2017). "PM Lee spells out why he pushed for reserved election". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 15 December 2017. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
- Constitution, Art. 20(1).
- Constitution, Arts. 22L(1)(a) to (c). The office of President also becomes vacant if it is determined that the election of the President was void and no other person was duly elected as President, or if on the expiration of the incumbent's term the person declared elected as President fails to take office: Arts. 22L(1)(d) and (e).
- Assuming a writ for a presidential election has not yet been issued before the vacation of office or, if it has been issued, has been countermanded: Constitution, Art. 17(3)(a).
- Constitution, Art. 17(3); Presidential Elections Act (Cap. 240A, 2007 Rev. Ed.) ("PEA"), s. 6(1).
- Presidential Elections Act (Cap. 240A, 2007 Rev. Ed.).
- PEA, ss. 6(2) and (3).
- Constitution, Art. 18(1).
- Constitution, Art. 18(3).
- Constitution, Arts. 18(2)(a) to (c).
- "Presidential Elections Committee" (PDF). Elections Department Singapore. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 June 2017. Retrieved 31 July 2017.
- Political Donations Act (Cap. 236, 2001 Rev. Ed.).
- PEA, ss. 9(4)(ba) and 11(1).
- PEA, s. 10(1) read with the Cap. Parliamentary Elections Act, 2007 Rev. Ed., s. 28(1).
- PEA, s. 15.
- PEA, s. 16(5).
- PEA, s. 50(1).
- PEA, s. 62A(2), inserted by the Presidential Elections (Amendment) Act 2010 (No. 11 of 2010) ("PEAA").
- Presidential Elections (Posters and Banners) Regulations (Cap. 240A, Rg 3, 2000 Rev. Ed.), archived from the original on 2 September 2010, regs. 2 and 3(1).
- PEA, s. 41.
- PEA, s. 63.
- PEA, ss. 42(1)(d) and (e).
- PEA, s. 39.
- PEA, s. 40.
- PEA, ss. 59, 60A, 62 and 62A.
- PEA, s. 17.
- PEA, s. 26(1).
- PEA, s. 22(1).
- PEA, s. 31(2).
- PEA, s. 31(3).
- PEA, ss. 32B(1) and (4). Rejected and tendered votes are excluded. A tendered vote is a vote that is permitted to be cast by a person claiming to be a voter named in the electoral register who turns up at a polling station after someone also claiming to be that voter has already voted: s. 29.
- PEA, s. 32(8).
- Constitution, Arts. 20(1) to (3) and the 1st Sch.
- Constitution, Arts. 19(3)(a) to (d).
- Constitution, Art. 22J(1).
- Civil List and Gratuity Act (Cap. 44, 2002 Rev. Ed.).
- Josephine Teo (Minister of State for Finance), "Civil List (Motion)", Singapore Parliamentary Debates, Official Report (17 February 2012), vol. 88, cols. 1202–1203.
- Tharman Shanmugaratnam (Minister for Finance), "Civil List (Motion)", Singapore Parliamentary Debates, Official Report (10 March 2011), vol. 87, col. 4699.
- Zakir Hussain (11 March 2011), "President's pay approved", The Straits Times, p. A12; "Parliament approves increase in President's salary, expenditure", Today, p. 4, 11 March 2011, archived from the original on 18 May 2011.
- "Funds approved for Office of the President", The Straits Times, p. C6, 23 January 2009.
- Civil List and Pension Act: Resolution Passed at Parliament Meeting 2012 (S 137/2012), archived from the original on 31 August 2017.
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