List of doping cases in sport by substance

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This is a list of doping in sport cases, or known cases of performance-enhancing substance use by professional athletes.

Anabolic steroids[edit]

Boldenone undecylenate[edit]

  • Baseball: Boldenone is among the substances banned by Major League Baseball, as well as most other major athletic organizations. Los Angeles Angels minor league outfielder Reynaldo Ruiz in September 2010[1] and Philadelphia Phillies minor league pitcher San Lazaro Solano in January 2011[2] each received a 50-game suspension for the 2011 season as a result of testing positive for a metabolite of boldenone. Jenrry Mejia, formerly of the New York Mets, was suspended in July 2015 when he tested positive for boldenone and stanozolol, and in February 2016 he again tested positive for boldenone; this marked Mejia's third positive test for a performance-enhancing drug, for which he received the first PED-related lifetime ban in MLB history.[3] Abraham Almonte was suspended for 80 games before the 2016 season after testing positive for boldenone.[4]
  • Mixed martial arts: Stephan Bonnar and Josh Barnett, mixed martial arts (MMA) fighters from the UFC and PRIDE Fighting Championships, have also tested positive for the banned substance.[5] After the World Extreme Cagefighting show on January 20, 2006 Muay Thai turned MMA fighter Kit Cope also tested positive for boldenone.[6] Following the Strikeforce card on June 22, 2007 former PRIDE and UFC fighter Phil Baroni tested positive for boldenone, as well as stanozolol.[7] At a K-1 WGP event in Las Vegas on August 17, 2007 two fighters, Rickard Nordstrand and Zabit Samedov, both tested positive for boldenone.[8] Alexandre Franca Nogueira tested positive for boldenone in July 2008.[9] Antonio Silva tested positive for boldenone after his July 26, 2008 fight against Justin Eilers in the EliteXC promotion. Silva was suspended by the California State Athletic Commission for a year and fined $2500.[10]
  • Australian Football League: Justin Charles, a former minor league baseball player with the Florida Marlins, of Richmond FC tested positive for the substance in 1997 and was suspended for 16 matches.[11]
  • Major League Soccer: Jon Conway (goal keeper) and Jeff Parke (defender) of the New York Red Bulls both tested positive for the substance in 2008 and were suspended 10 games and fined 10% of their annual income. They are also the first to violate MLS drug policy.[12]
  • Horse racing: Leading horse trainer Gai Waterhouse was fined $10,000 after being found guilty on May 15, 2008 of presenting a horse to the races with a prohibited substance in its system. Her horse Perfectly Poised was found to have traces of the banned substance boldenone in its system after finishing second at Canterbury in April 2007.[13]

Metandienone[edit]

  • Several successful athletes and professional bodybuilders have admitted long-term metandienone use before the drug was banned, including Arnold Schwarzenegger.[14][15]

Metenolone esters[edit]

  • Barry Bonds allegedly tested positive with metenolone enanthate in 2000 and 2001.[16]
  • In February 2009, Sports Illustrated reported that Alex Rodriguez tested positive for two AAS, testosterone and metenolone enanthate, while playing for the Texas Rangers in 2003. He claims to have purchased them over the counter, in the Dominican Republic. However, "boli," as he referred to it, is an illegal substance in the Dominican Republic.[17][16] In an interview with ESPN two days after the SI revelations, Rodriguez admitted to using banned substances from 2001 to 2003, citing "an enormous amount of pressure to perform," but said he had not since then used banned performance-enhancing substances.[18][19] He said he did not know the name(s) of the particular substance(s) he was using, and would not specify whether he took them in injectable form.[18]
  • Belarusian shot putter Nadzeya Ostapchuk was stripped of her gold medal after testing positive for metenolone at the London 2012 Olympic Games.[20]
  • In February 2013, Hedo Türkoğlu of the Orlando Magic was suspended for 20 games without pay by the league after testing positive for metenolone.[21]
  • In December 2013, Natalia Volgina was stripped of her 2013 Old Mutual Two Oceans Marathon title and received a two-year competition ban, subsequent to a final guilty verdict for using metenolone.[22]
  • The infamous "duchess" cocktail allegedly administered to Russian athletes at the Sochi Winter Olympics consisted of oxandrolone, a metenolone ester, and a trenbolone ester.[23]

Nandrolone esters[edit]

Oxandrolone[edit]

Stanozolol[edit]

Trenbolone esters[edit]

  • The infamous "duchess" cocktail allegedly administered to Russian athletes at the Sochi Winter Olympics consisted of oxandrolone, a metenolone ester, and a trenbolone ester.[23]
  • 90 year old cyclist Carl Grove tested positive in-competition for the metabolite epitrenbolone at the Masters Track National Championships on July 11, 2018 after setting an age-based world record. Since he had tested negative for prohibited substances during an in-competition test the previous day, the positive result was judged by the United States Anti-Doping Agency more likely than not to have been caused by meat eaten in the evening between the two tests. Grove was disqualified from competitive results obtained on the date his positive sample was collected.[68]

Selective androgen receptor modulators[edit]

Enobosarm[edit]

  • In June 2013, professional cyclist Nikita Novikov was provisionally suspended after a possible breach of anti-doping rules, due to a positive A-sample result for enobosarm.[69]
  • UFC Fighter Tim Means was pulled from a fight in February 2017 after testing positive for enobosarm in a pre-fight drug screening administered by USADA.[70]
  • In June 2015 Azerbaijan's Chaltu Beji tested positive for doping at the 2015 European Games in Baku. The 18-year-old Ethiopian-born Beji tested positive for the banned substance enobosarm in a urine sample with a B sample confirming the result. She won the 3,000-meter steeplechase event despite falling at the last water jump, she was disqualified because of the positive tests.[71]
  • In May 2016, Romanian-Canadian professional boxer Lucian Bute, former super middleweight world titleholder, tested positive for enobosarm after his draw against Swedish professional boxer and titleholder Badou Jack on April 30 at the D.C. Armory in Washington, D.C.[72]
  • On December 16, 2016, Russian heavyweight boxer Alexandre Povetkin tested positive for enobosarm less than a day before an interim WBC title fight against former WBC champ Bermane Stiverne. The fight, which was scheduled for December 17 in Yekaterinburg, Russia, was cancelled.[73]
  • In March 2016, Australian triathlete Lisa Marangon received a 4-year ban ending in March 2020 for use of banned substance enobosarm. American triathlete Ashley Paulson was given a 6-month suspension for use of banned substance enobosarm because officials accepted her contention that the banned drug positive came from a contaminated supplement.[74]
  • In February 2017, American triathlete Beth Gerdes was given a 2-year suspension for presence of enobosarm, and American triathlete Lauren Barnett was given a 6-month suspension for the presence of enobosarm. Both triathletes claimed contamination from salt tablet supplements. Lauren Barnett was able to provide tablets and sealed bottle tablets which both tested positive for contamination, thus only the 6-month suspension. The 2-year suspension still stands for Beth Gerdes who provided tablets for testing, but tests showed only low levels of enobosarm not high enough to confirm the finding. .[75]
  • In February 2017, UFC light heavyweight Tom Lawlor was suspended for two years following a positive test for enobosarm.[76]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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