List of sovereign states in the 7th century BC

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The development of states—large-scale, populous, politically centralized, and socially stratified polities/societies governed by powerful rulers—marks one of the major milestones in the evolution of human societies. Archaeologists often distinguish between primary (or pristine) states and secondary states. Primary states evolved independently through largely internal developmental processes rather than through the influence of any other pre-existing state. The earliest known primary states appeared in Mesopatamia ca. 3700 B.C., in Egypt ca. 3300 B.C., in the Indus Valley ca. 2500 B.C., India ca 1700 B. C.,and in China ca. 1600 B.C. As they interacted with their less developed neighbors through trade, warfare, migration, and more generalized ideological influences, the primary states directly or indirectly fostered the emergence of secondary states in surrounding areas, for example, the Hittites in Anatolia, the Minoan and Mycenaean states of the Aegean, or the Nubian kingdoms in the Sudan. According to Professor Gil Stein of the University of Chicago Oriental Institute, "The excavations and archaeological surveys of the last few decades have vastly increased both the quantity and quality of what we know about ancient states and urbanism. Archaeologists have broadened the scope of their research beyond the traditional focus on rulers and urban elites. Current research now aims at understanding the role of urban commoners, craft specialists, and village-based farmers in the overall organization of ancient states and societies. Given the immense geographical scope encompassed by the term 'the Ancient World'".[1] This is a list of sovereign states that existed between 700 BC and 601 BC. The notion of a sovereign state arises in the 16th century with the development of modern diplomacy. For earlier times, the term "sovereign state" is an anachronism. What corresponded to sovereign states in the medieval and ancient period were monarchs ruling by the grace of God, de facto feudal or imperial autocrats, or de facto independent nations or tribal confederations. This is a list of sovereign states that existed between 700 BC and 601 BC.

Africa[edit]

State Existed
Aethiopia c. 13th - 5th centuries BC
Carthaganian Empire 650-146 BC
Kingdom of D'mt 980 - 400 BC
Cyrenaica 631-525 BC
Garamantian Empire 1000 BC - 700 AD
Kingdom of Kush 1070 BC - 350 AD
Libu 1550-146BC
Macrobia c. 8th - 4th centuries BC
Nok 1000 BC - 300AD

Americas[edit]

name existed
Maya 2000 BC - 900 AD
Olmec 1400-400 BC
Paracas 800 - 100 BC
Pueblo 12th century BC - 14th century AD
Zapotec 700 BC - 1521 AD

Europe[edit]

North and West[edit]

name existed
Brigantia 700 BC - 1st century AD
Caledonia 650 BC - 1st century AD
Kingdom of Connacht c. 10th century BC - 1474 AD
Helvetii 650 BC - 68 AD
Silure 650 BC -
Suebi 60 BC - 409 AD

South and East[edit]

State Existed
Arcadia 980-743 BC
Acarnania 7th - 1st century BC
Kingdom of Argolis 1200-226 BC
Republic of Athens 1068-355 BC
Cantabria 650 BC - 1st century AD
Carthaginian Empire 650-146 BC
Celtiberia 650-19 BC
Corinthia 700-338 BC
Dacia 700 BC - 106 AD
Kingdom of Etruria 768 - 264 BC
Getae 7th century BC -4th century AD
Iapydes 9th century - 34 BC
Illyria 2000-168 BC
Liburnia 11th century - 34 BC
Locria 1250-386 BC
Lucania 1000-356 BC[2]
Magna Graecia 740 - 89 BC
Oenotria 1000-325 BC
Padanian Etruria 9th century - 5th century BC
Phocis 690 - 222 BC
Kingdom of Rome 753-509 BC
Kingdom of Sabinum c. 760 - 494 BC
Samnium c. 600 - 82 BC
Sicani c. 13th century - 300 BC
Sicels c. 11th century - 425 BC
Kingdom of Sparta 950-146 BC
Kingdom of Thessaly 950 - 344 BC
Tartessos 1000-450 BC [3]
Thrace 1200-450 BC
Umbria 9th century - 3rd century BC

Eurasian Steppe and Central Asia[edit]

name existed
Aria 700 BC - 300 BC
Caspiane 650 BC - 387 AD
Bactria 1140 - 550 BC
Kingdom of Balhara 12th - 7th centuries BC
Bulgar 7th century BC - 7th century AD
Chorasmia 1290-180 BC
Cimmeria 1300 - 625 BC
Kingdom of Colchis 1300 BC - 2nd century AD
Dahae 700 - 530 BC
Huns 600 BC - 370 AD
Issedon 650-58 BC
Magyar 1100 BC - 895 AD
Qiang 2000 BC - 150 BC
Scythia 690BC-250 BC
Sogdiana 750 - 550 BC
Thyssagetae 650 BC - 110 AD
Xianyun 824-209 BC

East Asia[edit]

Name Existed
Ba (state) 13th century - 311 BC
Cai (state) 980-447 BC
Cao (state) 1053-487 BC
Chen (state) 1046 - 479 BC
Chu (state) 1030 - 223 BC
Donghu 1400 - 150 BC
Kingdom of Gojoseon 2333 - 108 BC
Jin (state) 1042-376 BC
Pi (state) 1046-418 BC
Qiang 2000 BC - 150 BC
Qi (Henan) 1600-445 BC
Qi (state) 1046-221 BC
Qin (state) 858-221 BC
Quanrong 954-301 BC
Sui (state) 771-221 BC
Sumpa 1600 BC - 7th century AD
Shu (state) 1046-316 BC
Teng (state) 1046-414 BC
Kingdom of Van Lang 2879-258 BC
Xu (state) 2000-512 BC
Yan (state) 1046-222 BC
Zhou Kingdom 1046-256 BC
Zou (state) 1012-350 BC

South Asia[edit]

Name Existed
Anarta Kingdom 1100-550 BC
Anga Kingdom 1380-550 BC
Avanti Kingdom 900-322 BC
Danda Kingdom 1100 - 450 BC
Haryanka Kingdom 684 - 413 BC
Kalinga Kingdom 1376-285 BC
Kamboja Kingdom 1450 - 195 BC
Kasmira Kingdom 1250 - 322 BC
Kimpurusha Kingdom 1000 - 325 BC
Kirata Kingdom 1350 - c. 300 BC
Kosala 1000 - 266 BC
Lanka 1100 - 543 BC
Magadha Kingdom 799 - 323 BC
Malla Kingdom 780 - 323 BC
Matsya Kingdom 1180 - 318 BC
Panchala Kingdom 1100 - 4th century BC
Pandya Kingdom 1350 - 460 BC
Parvata Kingdom c. 9th century - 325 BC
Pundra Kingdom 1300 BC - 550 AD
Shakya 800 - 320 BC
Sinhala Kingdom 700 - 505 BC
Surasena 1000 - 323 BC
Trigarta Kingdom 1150-322 BC
Vanga Kingdom 1300 BC - 580 AD
Vatsa 1100-323 BC
Vriji 1250 - 322 BC
Yaksha Kingdom 1200 - 350 BC

West Asia[edit]

name existed
Aramean Kingdom 2300 – 700 BC
Kingdom of Awsan 7th century BC - 100 AD
Kingdom of Caria 11th - 6th century BC
Chaldean Kingdom 1100 - 539 BC
Kingdom of Cilicia 795 - 546 BC
Principality of Corduene 800 BC - 653 AD
Doris 1200-580 BC
Kingdom of Edom 1200 - 125 BC
Elamite Empire 1210-535 BC
Ellipian Kingdom 850-609 BC
Kingdom of Hadhramaut 700 BC - 320 AD
Kingdom of Judah 930- 586 BC
Kingdom of Lycia 1183-546 BC
Lydian Empire 680-546 BC
Magan 2200-550 BC
Mannaean Kingdom 1110-616 BC
Median Empire 678-549 BC
Kingdom of Mysia 1320 - 301 BC [4]
Neo-Babylonian Empire 626 - 539 BC
Paphlagonia 1480 - 183 BC[5]
Parsua 860-600 BC
Phoenicia 1800-539 BC
Kingdom of Saba 1100-275 BC
Principality of Sam'al 1200-680 BC
Saparda Kingdom 7200-670 BC
Kingdom of Tuwanuwa 1000 - 700 BC
Kingdom of Urartu 860 - 590 BC
Principality of Zabdicene 780 BC - 5th century AD
Zikirti Kingdom 750 - 521 BC

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stein, Gil J (2001). Understanding Ancient State Societies in the Old World. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press. pp. 353–379. 
  2. ^ Pritchard, James Cowles. "Kingdoms of Italy: Research into the Physical History of Mankind". 1999-2014. The History Files. Retrieved 18 March 2014. 
  3. ^ "Ancient Kingdoms of Iberia, Spain & Portugal". 2014. Regnal Chronologies. Retrieved 21 April 2014. 
  4. ^ "Kingdoms of Anatolia". 2014. The History Files. Retrieved 31 May 2014. 
  5. ^ "Middle East Kingdoms Ancient Anatolia". 2014. The History Files. Retrieved 20 April 2014.