Lodi, California

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City of Lodi
City
Lodi Arch
Motto: "Livable, Lovable, Lodi"[1]
Location in San Joaquin County and the state of California
Location in San Joaquin County and the state of California
City of Lodi is located in the US
City of Lodi
City of Lodi
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 38°7′44″N 121°16′51″W / 38.12889°N 121.28083°W / 38.12889; -121.28083Coordinates: 38°7′44″N 121°16′51″W / 38.12889°N 121.28083°W / 38.12889; -121.28083
Country United States
State California
County San Joaquin
Incorporated December 6, 1906[2]
Government
 • Type Council-Manager
 • Mayor Mark Chandler[3]
 • State Senate Cathleen Galgiani (D)[4]
 • Assembly Jim Cooper (D)[4]
 • U. S. Congress Jerry McNerney (D)[5]
Area[6]
 • Total 13.825 sq mi (35.805 km2)
 • Land 13.611 sq mi (35.252 km2)
 • Water 0.214 sq mi (0.553 km2)  1.54%
Elevation[7] 49 ft (15 m)
Population (April 1, 2010)[8]
 • Total 62,134
 • Estimate (2013)[8] 63,338
 • Density 4,500/sq mi (1,700/km2)
Time zone PST (UTC-8)
 • Summer (DST) PDT (UTC-7)
ZIP codes 95240–95242
Area code 209
FIPS code 06-42202
GNIS feature IDs 277608, 2410854
Website www.lodi.gov

Lodi /ˈld./ LOHD-eye is a city located in San Joaquin County, California, in the northern portion of California's Central Valley. The population was 62,134 at the 2010 census. Its estimated population as of July 1, 2013 was 63,338.[8]

Lodi is best known for being a center of winegrape production (the "Zinfandel Capital of the World"),[9] although its vintages have traditionally been less prestigious than those of Sonoma and Napa counties. However, in recent years, the Lodi Appellation has become increasingly respected for its Zinfandel wine and other eclectic varietals, along with its focus on sustainability under the Lodi Rules program.[10] National recognition came from the Creedence Clearwater Revival song "Lodi" and continues with the "2015 Wine Region of the Year" award given to Lodi by Wine Enthusiast Magazine.[11] Nearby Woodbridge is the home of the well known winery, Woodbridge by Robert Mondavi. Mondavi grew up in Lodi, and Mondavi Winery is considered[by whom?] one of the most influential in the American wine industry.

Lodi gained international attention in 2005 when local residents Hamid and Umer Hayat were arrested and charged in the first terrorism trial in the state of California.

History[edit]

When a group of local families decided to establish a school in 1859, they settled on a site near present-day Cherokee Lane and Turner Road. In 1869, the Central Pacific Railroad was in the process of creating a new route, and pioneer settlers Ezekiel Lawrence, Reuben Wardrobe, A.C. Ayers and John Magley offered a townsite of 160 acres (0.65 km2) to the railroad as an incentive to build a station there. The railroad received a "railroad reserve" of 12 acres (49,000 m2) in the middle of town, and surveyors began laying out streets in the area between Washington to Church and Locust to Walnut. Settlers flocked from nearby Woodbridge, Liberty City, and Galt, including town founders John M. Burt and Dan Crist.[12]

Initially called Mokelumne and Mokelumne Station after the nearby river, confusion with other nearby towns prompted a name change, which was officially endorsed in Sacramento by an assembly bill. Several stories have been offered as to the origins of the town's new name. One refers to a locally stabled trotting horse that had set a four-mile (6 km) record, but as the horse reached the peak of its fame in 1869, it is unlikely that the notoriety would have still been evident in 1873. Alternatively, Lodi is a city in northern Italy where Napoleon defeated the Austrians in 1796 and won his first military victory. More than likely[citation needed], some of the earliest settler families were from Lodi, Illinois, and they chose to use the same name as their hometown.[13]

In 1906, the city was officially incorporated by voters, passing 2 to 1. The fire department was established in 1911, and the city purchased the Bay City Gas and Water Works in 1919. Additional public buildings constructed during this period include the Lodi Opera House in 1905, a Carnegie library in 1909, and a hospital in 1915.[14]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1880 606
1890 1,013 67.2%
1910 2,697
1920 4,850 79.8%
1930 6,788 40.0%
1940 11,079 63.2%
1950 13,798 24.5%
1960 22,229 61.1%
1970 28,691 29.1%
1980 35,221 22.8%
1990 51,874 47.3%
2000 56,999 9.9%
2010 62,134 9.0%
Est. 2015 64,596 [15] 4.0%
U.S. Decennial Census[16]

2010[edit]

The 2010 United States Census[17] reported that Lodi had a population of 62,134. The population density was 4,494.5 people per square mile (1,735.3/km²). The racial makeup of Lodi was 44,715 (71.9%) White, 517 (0.8%) African American, 560 (0.9%) Native American, 4,293 (6.9%) Asian, 105 (0.2%) Pacific Islander, 11,164 (18.0%) from other races, and 2,833 (4.6%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 22,613 persons (36.4%).

The Census reported that 61,457 people (98.9% of the population) lived in households, 187 (0.3%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 490 (0.8%) were institutionalized.

There were 22,097 households, out of which 8,462 (38.3%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 10,952 (49.6%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 2,917 (13.2%) had a female householder with no husband present, 1,389 (6.3%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 1,530 (6.9%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 105 (0.5%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 5,547 households (25.1%) were made up of individuals and 2,567 (11.6%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.78. There were 15,258 families (69.1% of all households); the average family size was 3.35.

The population was spread out with 17,282 people (27.8%) under the age of 18, 5,863 people (9.4%) aged 18 to 24, 15,931 people (25.6%) aged 25 to 44, 14,681 people (23.6%) aged 45 to 64, and 8,377 people (13.5%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34.3 years. For every 100 females there were 95.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.1 males.

There were 23,792 housing units at an average density of 1,721.0 per square mile (664.5/km²), of which 12,091 (54.7%) were owner-occupied, and 10,006 (45.3%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.3%; the rental vacancy rate was 8.2%. 32,153 people (51.7% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 29,304 people (47.2%) lived in rental housing units.

There were approximately 4,336 adults who haven't passed ninth grade 5,175 that have some high school education, 8,910 individuals that have completed a high school education only, 8,367 with some college, 2,777 have an associate degree, individuals with a bachelor's degree number 3,797, those with a graduate degree 1,685. the total percentage with a high school diploma or higher are 79% of the population.

2000[edit]

As of the 2000 census, 68,000 people or 14,339 families resided in the city, in 20,692 households. The population density was 4,657.9 people per square mile (1,798.0/km²). There were 21,378 housing units at an average density of 1,747.0 per square mile (674.4/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 74.42% White, 0.60% African American, 0.87% Native American, 5.05% Asian, 0.12% Pacific Islander, 13.99% from other races, and 4.95% from two or more races. 27.13% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

Of the 20,692 households counted in the 2000 census, 35.8% included children under the age of 18, 51.7% were married couples living together, 12.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.7% were non-families. 25.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.2% had someone living alone who were 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.25.

In the city, the population was spread out with 28.2% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 28.1% from 25 to 44, 19.8% from 45 to 64, and 14.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 95.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.8 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $39,570, and the median income for a family was $47,020. Males had a median income of $37,738 versus $27,073 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,719. 16.7% of the population and 12.3% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 23.3% of those under the age of 18 and 9.6% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.

Geography[edit]

Lodi is flat terrain at an elevation of approximately 50 feet (15 m) above mean sea level datum.[18] Historically the area has had some grazing land uses as well as grain production.[19]

There has long been a movement in the area to preserve a "greenbelt" as a buffer zone between Lodi and Stockton in order to keep the two cities separate.[20]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city covers an area of 13.8 square miles (36 km2), 98.46% of it land, and 1.54% of it water.

Climate[edit]

Lodi has cool, wet winters, often characterized by dense ground fog, and very warm, dry summers. According to the Köppen climate classification system, Lodi has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csa). Due to the city's proximity to the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, summer temperatures usually dip into the fifties at night. Fog and low overcast sometimes drifts in from San Francisco Bay during the summer and it can be breezy at times, especially at night.

Average January temperatures are a maximum of 55 °F (13 °C) and a minimum of 37 °F (3 °C). Average July temperatures are a maximum of 91 °F (33 °C) and a minimum of 57 °F (14 °C). There are an average of 65.3 days with highs of 90 °F (32 °C) or higher and an average of 30.5 days with lows of 32 °F (0 °C) or lower. The record high temperature was 111 °F (44 °C) on June 15, 1961. The record low temperature was 11 °F (−12 °C) on January 11, 1949.

Annual precipitation averages 18 in (46 cm), falling on an average of 59 days. The wettest year was 1983 with 35.4 in (90 cm) and the driest year was 1976 with 7.18 in (18.2 cm). The most rainfall in one month was 15.01 in (38.1 cm) in January 1911. The most rainfall in 24 hours was 3.76 in (9.6 cm) on December 11, 1906. Snow is very rare in Lodi, but 1.5 in (3.8 cm) fell on January 12, 1930. January is the wettest month.[21]

Climate data for Lodi, California
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 72
(22)
82
(28)
87
(31)
96
(36)
104
(40)
111
(44)
110
(43)
109
(43)
108
(42)
101
(38)
87
(31)
76
(24)
111
(44)
Average high °F (°C) 55
(13)
62
(17)
67
(19)
74
(23)
81
(27)
87
(31)
91
(33)
90
(32)
87
(31)
79
(26)
64
(18)
55
(13)
74
(23)
Average low °F (°C) 37
(3)
40
(4)
43
(6)
45
(7)
50
(10)
54
(12)
57
(14)
56
(13)
53
(12)
48
(9)
41
(5)
36
(2)
47
(8)
Record low °F (°C) 11
(−12)
18
(−8)
22
(−6)
28
(−2)
32
(0)
37
(3)
40
(4)
40
(4)
34
(1)
29
(−2)
22
(−6)
13
(−11)
11
(−12)
Average rainfall inches (mm) 3.56
(90.4)
3.29
(83.6)
2.99
(75.9)
1.16
(29.5)
0.61
(15.5)
0.13
(3.3)
0.06
(1.5)
0.08
(2)
0.34
(8.6)
1.05
(26.7)
2.35
(59.7)
2.60
(66)
18.22
(462.8)
Average rainy days 10 9 9 6 3 1 0 0 1 3 7 9 59
Source #1: http://www.weather.com/weather/wxclimatology/monthly/graph/USCA0623
Source #2: (rain days) http://www.wrcc.dri.edu/cgi-bin/cliMAIN.pl?ca5032

Industry[edit]

Early industries in Lodi included a sawmill, flour mill, vineyards, orchards, and cattle ranching.

The Lodi Land and Lumber Company sawmill was built on the south bank of the Mokelumne River in 1877, and relied on logs floated down from the Sierras during the rainy season. The mill was powered by a steam engine, and has a capacity of 40,000 board feet (94 m3) per day.[13]

The "Flame Tokay" grape was introduced from Algeria in 1857, and was a central feature of the vineyards that gradually rose to prominence because of the sandy loam soil and the location directly east of the Suisun Pass. For a brief period during the late 19th century the vines were usurped in favor of watermelons and wheat, but price cuts and labeling problems encouraged farmers to plant more vines.[14]

The early 20th century saw the establishment of several large manufacturers and general service providers with national distribution capabilities, such as Supermold, the Pinkerton Foundry, Lodi Truck Service, the Lodi Iron Works, Pacific Coast Producers, Holz Rubber Company, Valley Industries, and Goehring Meat Company.[22]

Today the Lodi area is home to several large manufacturing, general services, and agricultural companies, including Archer Daniels Midland, Blue Shield of California, Dart Container, General Mills, Holz Rubber Company, Kubota Tractors, Lodi Iron Works, Miller Packing Company, Pacific Coast Producers, Tiger Lines, Valley Industries, and Woodbridge-Robert Mondavi.[23]

Lodi is the birthplace of A&W Root Beer and A&W Restaurants established in 1919, which subsequently became one of the first franchised fast food restaurants.[24]

Top employers[edit]

According to the City's 2011 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[25] the top employers in the city were:

# Employer # of Employees
1 Lodi Unified School District 2,762
2 Lodi Memorial Hospital 1,329
3 Pacific Coast Producers 1,000
4 Blue Shield of California 850
5 Cottage Bakery 540
6 General Mills 480
7 City of Lodi 440
8 Farmers & Merchants Bank of Central California 353
9 Wal-Mart 245
10 Target 209

Entertainment and culture[edit]

A&W Root Beer[edit]

Lodi is the birthplace of A&W Root Beer, the first batch was made in 1919 on a hotdog cart during a parade. It is now sold in cans and bottles throughout the US, as well as in a chain of American restaurants. Lodi's A&W restaurant features an A&W Museum.

Farmers market[edit]

The Farmers Market is held every Thursday evening from May 16 through September 1 (2016) on School Street in Downtown Lodi. It is hosted and run by the Lodi Chamber of Commerce. It offers a large collection of fresh produce as well as baked goods, crafts, food vendors, and live entertainment.[26]

Grapes and wine[edit]

Lodi and its surroundings are well known for the cultivation of grapes and production of wine. There are many vineyards in Lodi with century-old grapevines, some going into cult California wines like Bedrock and Turley. Starting in the early 20th century, and right up to the early 1980s, Lodi promoted itself as the "Tokay Capital of the World" due to the abundance of the Flame Tokay variety[27] in the area.[28][28] Nowadays there are over 100 different grape varieties planted in the Lodi AVA in over 113,000 acres of vineyards. The charming town is surrounded by grapevines and even the police cars have grape bunches painted on the sides of them. Winegrape culture invades the town, with many business, street, and school names relating back to the industry.

With the replacement by other varietals, primarily Zinfandel, Lodi is widely recognized as the old vine Zinfandel capital of the world. Lodi's growth as a premium winegrape producer and awarded wine region is largely due to the formation of the Lodi Winegrape Commission in 1991, five years after the appellation was formed.[29] In 1991, winegrape growers decided to self-impose a tax on their grapes to fund the Commission, which now boasts seven full-time staff members and several volunteer committees focused on education, research, and marketing of the region's winegrapes. In 1992, the Commission launched a grape Integrated Pest Management Program which has become California's original winegrape sustainability program, known as Lodi Rules.[30] In 2014, the rigorous, third-party certified Lodi Rules Sustainability Program was awarded the Governor's Environmental and Economic Leadership Award.[31] In 2015, Lodi was named Wine Region of the Year by Wine Enthusiast magazine.[32] The Wine Bloggers Conference of 2016 brought over 300 wine bloggers to the area, where attendees filled the Internet with compliments about the small-town hospitality of Lodi's approachable, authentic winegrowing community.[33]

Every September the popular Lodi Grape Festival is held and includes rides, food, and wine tasting. Also popular is the Wine & Food Festival (Formerly known as the Spring Wine Show, held in late March/early April, so as not to coincide with Easter every year), which showcases the area's 50-plus award-winning wineries. Beginning in 2016 there will also be a Beer Fest showcasing IPA and other types of beer along with food and music.[34]

Museums[edit]

The Hill House Museum, a restored Queen Anne Victorian built around 1906 for a wealthy Lodian, contains historical exhibits relating to the history of the town, including the house's original furniture.[35]

The San Joaquin County Historical Society and Museum, the largest museum complex in the county, is just south of Lodi, at the Micke Grove Regional Park, and traces the history of the area through many exhibits and interactive displays.

World of Wonders, a downtown science museum modeled after the San Francisco Exploratorium, features interactive science exhibits, classrooms, and a retail store.[36] The museum first opened on January 4, 2009.[37][37]

Taste of Lodi[edit]

Taste of Lodi is another popular food and wine event that brings tourism from local communities. It features over 40 award-winning Lodi wineries along with food selections from some of the area's finer restaurants and caterers. The event also features wine seminars, chefs' demonstrations, live music and a Port, Cigar and Chocolate Pavilion.[38]

Theater[edit]

Changing Faces Theater Company is a non-profit, student-run organization, which is supported by the Lodi Arts Commission. An annual two week production occurs each summer and is cast with mostly local children ranging from age six up to college students and, sometimes, a few adults. The production is normally staged at Jessie's Grove Winery where a number of additional activities are typically held at the same time.[39]

Lodi Musical Theatre Company is also prominent in the Lodi theatre community, staging shows at Hutchins Street Square such as "West Side Story" and "Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat".

Zinfest[edit]

Conceived in 2005 by the Lodi Winegrape Commission, this wine event is held at Lodi Lake and features Lodi's finest Zinfandel wines.[40] Usually held on the third weekend of May, this event includes a Friday night dinner called "Vintner's Grille".

Wine and Chocolate Weekend[edit]

This annual event began in 1997 and is held every February. Wineries of the Lodi Appellation participate with each of the more than 50 wineries hosting

special activities at their individual winery. Tickets include two days of wine tasting, a wine glass, a chocolate treat, and a chance to wine prizes.

Media[edit]

Pop culture[edit]

Music[edit]

A Creedence Clearwater Revival song, "Lodi", was named for Lodi, California, although the songwriter John Fogerty admits he had never actually visited the city and simply thought it was "the coolest sounding name."[41] Still, the song, with its chorus "Oh, Lord, stuck in Lodi again," has been the theme of various events in the city including a past Grape Festival. The narrator "came into town [on] a one-night [musical] stand," but his "plans fell through." He also laments how now that he is in Lodi, it "looks like they took my friends."

Television[edit]

Lodi was also shown in E! network's reality TV show, The Girls Next Door.[citation needed]

The hit television program, Sons of Anarchy, is set in a fictional town a short distance from Lodi. In the show, Lodi is home of the Grim Bastards and Calavaras MC, two other gangs.

Movies[edit]

Lodi was featured in the 2015 movie Concussion, starring Will Smith as Bennet Omalu, a Lodi doctor who linked football concussions to a brain disease.

Sister cities[edit]

Lodi has two sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International:

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Griffin, Pete (May 26, 2011). "What's In a Name? Slogans Can Make or Break a City, Experts Say". Fox News. Retrieved March 19, 2014. 
  2. ^ "California Cities by Incorporation Date" (Word). California Association of Local Agency Formation Commissions. Retrieved August 25, 2014. 
  3. ^ "City of Lodi City Council". City of Lodi. Retrieved November 7, 2014. 
  4. ^ a b "Statewide Database". UC Regents. Retrieved November 18, 2014. 
  5. ^ "California's 9th Congressional District - Representatives & District Map". Civic Impulse, LLC. Retrieved March 12, 2013. 
  6. ^ "2010 Census U.S. Gazetteer Files – Places – California". United States Census Bureau. 
  7. ^ "Lodi". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved December 18, 2014. 
  8. ^ a b c "Lodi (city) QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved March 15, 2015. 
  9. ^ [1] Archived March 13, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  10. ^ "Lodi Winegrape Commission". Lodiwine.com. Retrieved 2015-10-30. 
  11. ^ "Wine Enthusiast Magazine 2015 Awards". Retrieved 2016-08-29. 
  12. ^ Hillman, Raymond W.; Leonard Covello (1985). Cities and Towns of San Joaquin County since 1847. Fresno, CA 93727: Panorama West Books. p. 31. ISBN 0-914330-84-5. 
  13. ^ a b Hillman, Raymond W.; Leonard Covello (1985). Cities and Towns of San Joaquin County since 1847. Fresno, CA 93727: Panorama West Books. p. 32. ISBN 0-914330-84-5. 
  14. ^ a b Hillman, Raymond W.; Leonard Covello (1985). Cities and Towns of San Joaquin County since 1847. Fresno, CA 93727: Panorama West Books. p. 35. ISBN 0-914330-84-5. 
  15. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015". Retrieved July 2, 2016. 
  16. ^ "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Archived from the original on May 11, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2015. 
  17. ^ "2010 Census Interactive Population Search: CA - Lodi city". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 12, 2014. 
  18. ^ United States Department of the Interior, Geological Survey, North Lodi 7.5 Minute Quadrangle Topographic Map (1968, photorevised 1976)
  19. ^ Earth Metrics Inc., Environmental Site Assessment for the Hale Road area, Lodi, California, Report # 10414.002, January 10, 1990
  20. ^ Thigpen, Daniel (2008-11-20). "Lodi ramps up greenbelt talk". Stockton Record. Retrieved 2009-04-10. 
  21. ^ "Average Weather for Lodi, CA - Temperature and Precipitation". Weather.com. Retrieved 2012-08-17. 
  22. ^ Hillman, Raymond W.; Leonard Covello (1985). Cities and Towns of San Joaquin County since 1847. Fresno, CA 93727: Panorama West Books. pp. 35–36. ISBN 0-914330-84-5. 
  23. ^ "Lodi Chamber of Commerce". Lodichamber.com. Retrieved 2015-10-30. 
  24. ^ Andrew F. Smith (2006). Encyclopedia of junk food and fast food. Greenwood. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-313-33527-3. 
  25. ^ "City of Lodi CAFR" (PDF). Lodi.gov. Retrieved 2012-10-23. 
  26. ^ "Lodi Chamber of Commerce". 
  27. ^ "Lodi's forgotten fruit: Flame Tokays - Lodinews.com: News". Lodinews.com. 2010-10-13. Retrieved 2012-10-23. 
  28. ^ a b "Archived copy". Retrieved March 27, 2016. [dead link]
  29. ^ "Lodi Winegrape Commission". Retrieved 2016-08-29. 
  30. ^ "Lodi Rules for Sustainable Winegrowing". Retrieved 2016-08-29. 
  31. ^ "California Government Website". Retrieved 2016-08-29. 
  32. ^ "Wine Enthusiast Magazine". Retrieved 2016-08-29. 
  33. ^ Caparoso, Randy. "Snapshots and bloggers' fond memories of the Wine Bloggers Conference in Lodi". Retrieved 2016-08-29. 
  34. ^ Adams, Haydn S. (2009-05-17). "Lodi Zinfest – Part 1 – The Winemakers dinner". Beyondnapavalley. WordPress. Retrieved 2011-05-03. 
  35. ^ "The Hill House". Lodihistory.org. Retrieved 2012-10-23. 
  36. ^ "WOW Science Museum". WOW Science Museum. Retrieved 2012-10-23. 
  37. ^ a b "Archived copy". Retrieved March 27, 2016. [dead link]
  38. ^ Kim Kavin (2008). The Everything Family Guide to Northern California and Lake Tahoe: A complete guide to San Francisco, Yosemite, Monterey, and Lake Tahoeand all the beautiful spots in between. Adams Media. ISBN 978-1-59869-714-8. 
  39. ^ "Changing Faces Theater Company". Changingfacestheater.org. Retrieved 2012-10-23. 
  40. ^ Kushman, Rick (2010-05-12). "The Good Life: Lodi ZinFest kicks off area's food and wine festivals". The Sacramento Bee. Retrieved 2011-05-03. 
  41. ^ Farrow, R. (2006)."Residents are proud to be ‘Stuck in Lodi’" Lodi News Sentinel. Retrieved June 7, 2007.
  42. ^ [2] Archived October 19, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  43. ^ "Ronnie L. Launius". Find A Grave. Retrieved January 1, 2014. 

External links[edit]