Long nineteenth century
The long nineteenth century is a term for the 125-year period beginning with the onset of the French Revolution in 1789 and ending with the outbreak of World War I in 1914. It was coined by Russian writer Ilya Ehrenburg and British Marxist historian Eric Hobsbawm. The term refers to the notion that the period reflects a progression of ideas which are characteristic to an understanding of the 19th century in Europe.
The concept is an adaption of Fernand Braudel's 1949 notion of le long seizième siècle ("the long 16th century" 1450–1640) and "a recognized category of literary history", although a period often broadly and diversely defined by different scholars. Numerous authors, before and after Hobsbawm's 1995 publication, have applied similar forms of book titles or descriptions to indicate a selective time frame for their works, such as: S. Kettering, "French Society: 1589–1715 – the long seventeenth century", E. Anthony Wrigley, "British population during the ‘long’ eighteenth century, 1680–1840", or D. Blackbourn, "The long nineteenth century: A history of Germany, 1780–1918". However, the term has been used in support of historical publications in order to "connect with broader audiences" and is regularly cited in studies and discussions across academic disciplines, such as history, linguistics and the arts.
Hobsbawm lays out his analysis in The Age of Revolution: Europe 1789–1848 (1962), The Age of Capital: 1848–1875 (1975), and The Age of Empire: 1875–1914 (1987). Hobsbawm starts his long 19th century with the French Revolution, which sought to establish universal and egalitarian citizenship in France, and ends it with the outbreak of World War I, upon the conclusion of which in 1918 the long-enduring European power balance of the 19th century proper (1801–1900) was eliminated. In a sequel to the above-mentioned trilogy, The Age of Extremes: The Short Twentieth Century, 1914–1991 (1994), Hobsbawm details the short 20th century beginning with World War I and ending with the fall of the Soviet Union.
In religious contexts, specifically those concerning the history of the Catholic Church, the long 19th century was a period of centralization of papal power over the Catholic Church. This centralization was in opposition to the increasingly centralized nation states and contemporary revolutionary movements and used many of the same organizational and communication techniques as its rivals. The church's long 19th century extended from the French Revolution (1789) until the death of Pope Pius XII (1958). This covers the period between the decline of traditional Catholic power and the emergence of secular ideas within states, and the emergence of new thinking within the church after the election of Pope John XXIII.
- 18th century
- 19th century
- 20th century
- Belgium in the long 19th century
- France in the long 19th century
- Long 18th century
- Short 20th century
- Gasan Gusejnov (29 April 2011). "Long Centuries". the-tls.co.uk. Retrieved 23 December 2017.
- Braudel, F. (1972). The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean world in the age of Philip II. Vol. 1. Translated by S. Reynolds. New York: Harper & Row.
- "Long 19th Century" (PDF). slu.edu. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 August 2016. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
- "French Society: 1589–1715" (PDF). treasedademin. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
- "Department of Geography, Cambridge » Tony Wrigley – British population during the 'long' eighteenth century, 1680-1840". Geog.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
- "H-Net Reviews - David Blackbourn. The Long Nineteenth Century: A History of Germany: 1780–1918. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. xxiv + 578 pp. (paper), ISBN 978-0-19-507672-1". H-net.org. 11 September 1998. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
- Burke, Edmund (25 May 2000). Modernity's Histories: Rethinking the Long Nineteenth Century, 1750–1950 (eScholarship). Escholarship.org. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
- "Long Nineteenth-Century Colloquium: Department of English - Northwestern University". English.northwestern.edu. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
- "Bard Graduate Center – Symposium—American Material and Visual Culture of the "Long" Nineteenth Century". Bgc.bard.edu. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
- Cowgill, Rachel; Poriss, Hilary, eds. (2012). Arts of the Prima Donna in the Long Nineteenth Century - Oxford Scholarship. Oxfordscholarship.com. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195365870.001.0001. ISBN 9780199932054. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
- Folklore and Nationalism in Europe During the Long Nineteenth Century. Brill.com. 25 July 2012. ISBN 9789004211834. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
- Stearns, Peter N.; Michael Adas; Stuart B. Schwartz; Marc Jason Gilbert (2011). World Civilizations: The Global Experience (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Longman. ISBN 978-0-13-136020-4.
- O'Malley, John W. (2008). "The Long Nineteenth Century". What Happened at Vatican II (Kindle ed.). Cambridge: Harvard University Press (published 2010). locations 1060-1873. ISBN 978-0-674-03169-2.