Long nineteenth century
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The long nineteenth century, as defined by Eric Hobsbawm, a British Marxist historian and author, was the period between the years 1789 and 1914. Hobsbawm lays out his analysis in The Age of Revolution: Europe 1789–1848 (1962); The Age of Capital: 1848–1875 (1975); and, The Age of Empire: 1875–1914 (1987). The concept is influenced by Fernand Braudel's idea of the "long 16th century" (c. 1450–1640).
According to Hobsbawn, the long 19th century begins with the French Revolution that established a republic in Europe and ends with the start of World War I, upon the conclusion of which in 1918 the long-enduring European power balance of the 19th century proper (1801–1900) was eliminated. In a sequel to the above-mentioned trilogy, The Age of Extremes: The Short Twentieth Century, 1914–1991 (1994), Hobsbawm details the short 20th century beginning with World War I and ending with the fall of the Soviet Union.
In religious contexts, specifically those concerning the history of the Catholic Church, the long nineteenth century was a period of centralization of papal power over the church. This centralization was in opposition to the increasingly centralized nation states and contemporary revolutionary movements and used many of the same organizational and communication techniques as its rivals. The church's long nineteenth century extended from the French Revolution (1789) until the death of Pope Pius XII (1958).
- Stearns, Peter N.; Michael Adas, Stuart B. Schwartz, Marc Jason Gilbert (2011), World Civilizations: The Global Experience (Textbook) (6th ed.), Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA: Longman, ISBN 978-0-13-136020-4
- O'Malley, John W., S. J. (2010) , "The Long Nineteenth Century", What Happened at Vatican II (Kindle ed.), Cambridge: Harvard University Press, locations 1060-1873, ISBN 978-0-674-03169-2
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