Long nineteenth century
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The long 19th century is a term coined for the period between the years 1789 and 1914 by Russian literary critic and author Ilya Ehrenburg and British Marxist historian and author Eric Hobsbawm. The concept is an adaption of Fernand Braudel's 1949 notion of Le long seizième siècle ("the long 16th century" 1450–1640). and "a recognized category of literary history", although an often-broadly and diversely defined period by different scholars. Numerous authors, before and after Hobsbawm's 1995 publication, have applied similar forms of book titles or descriptions to indicate a selective time frame for their works, such as: S. Kettering, "French Society: 1589–1715 – the long seventeenth century", E. Anthony Wrigley, "British population during the ‘long’ eighteenth century, 1680–1840", or D. Blackbourn, "The long nineteenth century: A history of Germany, 1780–1918" among others. However, the term has been used in support of historical publications in order to "connect with broader audiences" and is regularly cited in studies and discussions across academic disciplines, such as history, linguistics and the arts.
Hobsbawm lays out his analysis in The Age of Revolution: Europe 1789–1848 (1962), The Age of Capital: 1848–1875 (1975), and The Age of Empire: 1875–1914 (1987). Hobsbawn starts his long 19th century with the French Revolution, which sought to establish universal and egalitarian citizenship in France, and ends it with the outbreak of World War I, upon the conclusion of which in 1918 the long-enduring European power balance of the 19th century proper (1801–1900) was eliminated. In a sequel to the above-mentioned trilogy, The Age of Extremes: The Short Twentieth Century, 1914–1991 (1994), Hobsbawm details the short 20th century beginning with World War I and ending with the fall of the Soviet Union.
In religious contexts, specifically those concerning the history of the Catholic Church, the long 19th century was a period of centralization of papal power over the Catholic Church. This centralization was in opposition to the increasingly centralized nation states and contemporary revolutionary movements and used many of the same organizational and communication techniques as its rivals. The church's long 19th century extended from the French Revolution (1789) until the death of Pope Pius XII (1958).
- 18th century
- 20th century
- Belgium in the long nineteenth century
- France in the long nineteenth century
- Long eighteenth century
- Short twentieth century
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- Braudel, F. (1972). The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean world in the age of Philip II (Vol. 1; S. Reynolds, Trans.). New York: Harper & Row
- "Long 19th Century" (PDF). slu.edu. Retrieved January 11, 2017.
- "French Society: 1589–1715" (PDF). treasedademin. Retrieved January 11, 2017.
- "Department of Geography, Cambridge » Tony Wrigley – British population during the 'long' eighteenth century, 1680-1840". Geog.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved January 11, 2017.
- "H-Net Reviews - David Blackbourn. The Long Nineteenth Century: A History of Germany: 1780–1918. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. xxiv + 578 pp. (paper), ISBN 978-0-19-507672-1". H-net.org. Retrieved January 11, 2017.
- "Modernity's Histories: Rethinking the Long Nineteenth Century, 1750–1950 (eScholarship)". Escholarship.org. Retrieved January 11, 2017.
- "Long Nineteenth-Century Colloquium: Department of English - Northwestern University". English.northwestern.edu. Retrieved January 11, 2017.
- "Bard Graduate Center – Symposium—American Material and Visual Culture of the "Long" Nineteenth Century". Bgc.bard.edu. Retrieved January 11, 2017.
- "Arts of the Prima Donna in the Long Nineteenth Century - Oxford Scholarship". Oxfordscholarship.com. Retrieved January 11, 2017.
- "Folklore and Nationalism in Europe During the Long Nineteenth Century". Brill.com. Retrieved January 11, 2017.
- Stearns, Peter N.; Michael Adas; Stuart B. Schwartz; Marc Jason Gilbert (2011), World Civilizations: The Global Experience (6th ed.), Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Longman, ISBN 978-0-13-136020-4
- O'Malley, John W. (2008), "The Long Nineteenth Century", What Happened at Vatican II (Kindle ed.), Cambridge: Harvard University Press (published 2010), locations 1060-1873, ISBN 978-0-674-03169-2
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