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Total population
c. 336,700[1]–500,000[a]
(Luxembourgish ancestry)
Regions with significant populations
 Luxembourg  c. 275,850 (2001)[b][2]
(ethnic Luxembourgers)
 France 45,000[1]
 United States 40,658[3][4]
 Belgium 30,000[1]
 Brazil 25,000–80,000[5]
 Germany 15,596[6]
 Canada 3,790[7]
Luxembourgish, French, Standard German
Christianity (predominantly Roman Catholic, some Protestants)[8]
Related ethnic groups
Germans, French, Walloons, Belgians, Alsatians

Luxembourgers are a Germanic ethnic group native to Luxembourg sharing the culture of Luxembourg and being of Luxembourgish descent. Luxembourgers were, much like Austrians, historically, considered to be a regional subgroup of ethnic Germans and viewed themselves as such until the collapse of the German Confederation. Following the collapse of the confederation, Duchy of Luxembourg entered a personal union with the Netherlands through Treaty of London in 1839; the union ended in 1890.[9][10][11][9]

Legally, all citizens of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg are considered to be Luxembourgers per Luxembourgish law, although a distinct ethnic identification is espoused and promoted. The corresponding adjective is "Luxembourgish".[12][13]


Most ethnic Luxembourgers live in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, a small country in Europe between Germany, France, and Belgium, and are of Celtic/Gallo-Roman and Germanic (Frankish) origin. Most speak Luxembourgish, as their native language, in addition to French and German. (Although Luxembourgish might be considered to be similar to German, it is distinct enough to be considered a separate language and not merely a dialect of German.[citation needed]) Despite the rather small number of Luxembourgers, there is a relatively large diaspora, in Europe and elsewhere. Particularly, there are populations in the surrounding countries of Belgium, France, and Germany. For the most part, this is due to historic reasons, especially the three Partitions of Luxembourg, which led to former territories of Luxembourg being incorporated into each of the three surrounding countries.

There are also significant populations in the Americas, with the largest contingent being in the United States. However, many people of Luxembourgish descent live in Canada and Brazil, to which large waves of Luxembourgers emigrated in the nineteenth century, as did Germans at the same time.[5] Others migrated to Hungary along with Germans during the first phase of German eastward settlement in the 12th century. Transylvanian Saxons are the descendents of these settlers.

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Upper estimate is merely a sum of all referenced figures given below.
  2. ^ In 2000, there were 162,000 immigrants in Luxembourg, accounting for 37% of the total population. Majority of these were Portuguese Luxembourgers.
  1. ^ a b c "Luxembourgish". Ethnologue. 2005. Retrieved 25 June 2007. Native speakers of Luxembourgish worldwide 
  2. ^ Amanda Levinson. "The Regularisation of Unauthorised Migrants: Literature Survey and Country Case Studies – Regularisation programmes in Luxembourg" (PDF). Centre on Migration, Policy and Society, University of Oxford. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 September 2006. Retrieved 2 September 2006. 
  3. ^ "Total US population by ancestry". United States Census Bureau. 2000. Archived from the original on 5 August 2009. Retrieved 25 June 2007. 
  4. ^ "Luxembourgers in America". Library of Congress. 12 January 2006. Retrieved 25 June 2007. 
  5. ^ a b Wey, Claude (2002). "L'émigration luxembourgeoise vers l'Argentine" (PDF) (in French). CDMH. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2007. 
  6. ^ "Anzahl der Ausländer in Deutschland nach Herkunftsland (Stand: 31. Dezember 2014)". 
  7. ^ Statistics Canada. "2011 National Household Survey: Data tables". Retrieved 15 February 2014. 
  8. ^ "Discrimination in the EU in 2012 – Special Eurobarometer 393 (The question asked was "Do you consider yourself to be...?")" (PDF). European Commission. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 December 2012. Retrieved 2 February 2016. 
  9. ^ a b Cole (2011), p. 246
  10. ^ Minahan 2000, p. 769
  11. ^ Minahan 2000, p. 433
  12. ^ Oxford English Dictionary: Luxemburgisch, Luxembourgish; Oxford English Dictionary: Luxembourgeois
  13. ^ European Union Interinstitutional Style Guide: List of countries, territories and currencies