Manganese(II) sulfate monohydrate
Manganese(II) sulfate tetrahydrate
3D model (JSmol)
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Molar mass||151.001 g/mol (anhydrous) |
169.02 g/mol (monohydrate)
223.07 g/mol (tetrahydrate)
277.11 g/mol (heptahydrate)
|Appearance||white crystals (anhydrous) |
pale pink solid (hydrates)
|Density||3.25 g/cm 3 (anhydrous) |
2.95 g/cm3 (monohydrate)
2.107 g/cm3 (tetrahydrate)
|Melting point|| 710 °C (1,310 °F; 983 K) (anhydrous) |
27 °C (tetrahydrate)
|Boiling point||850 °C (1,560 °F; 1,120 K) (anhydrous)|
|52 g/100 mL (5 °C) |
70 g/100 mL (70 °C)
|Solubility||Very slightly soluble in methanol |
insoluble in ether and ethanol.
|orthogonal (anhydrous) |
|Safety data sheet||ICSC 0290|
Dangerous for the environment (N)
|R-phrases (outdated)||R48/20/22, R51/53|
|S-phrases (outdated)||(S2), S22, S61|
|NFPA 704 (fire diamond)|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
Manganese(II) sulfate usually refers to the inorganic compound with the formula MnSO4·H2O. This pale pink deliquescent solid is a commercially significant manganese(II) salt. Approximately 260 thousand tonnes of manganese(II) sulfate were produced worldwide in 2005. It is the precursor to manganese metal and many other chemical compounds. Mn-deficient soil is remediated with this salt.
Like many metal sulfates, manganese sulfate forms a variety of hydrates: monohydrate, tetrahydrate, pentahydrate, and heptahydrate. The monohydrate is most common. All of these salts dissolve to give faintly pink solutions of the aquo complex [Mn(H2O)6]2+. The pale pink colour of Mn(II) salts is highly characteristic.
Applications and production
Typically, manganese ores are purified by their conversion to manganese(II) sulfate. Treatment of aqueous solutions of the sulfate with sodium carbonate leads to precipitation of manganese carbonate, which can be calcined to give the oxides MnOx. In the laboratory, manganese sulfate can be made by treating manganese dioxide with sulfur dioxide:
- MnO2 + SO2 → MnSO4
Electrolysis of manganese sulfate yields manganese dioxide, which is called EMD for electrolytic manganese dioxide. Alternatively oxidation of manganese sulfate with potassium permanganate yields the so-called chemical manganese dioxide (CMD). These materials, especially EMD, are used in dry-cell batteries.
Manganese(II) sulfate minerals are very rare in nature and always occur as hydrates. The monohydrate is called szmikite; tetrahydrate = ilesite; hexahydrate (the most rare) = chvaleticeite; pentahydrate = jôkokuite; heptahydrate = mallardite.